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  • 1. Big Questions,Small Particles andthe Optimism of Curiosity EPS EDISON VOLTA PRIZE Como, April 13, 2013 Sergio Bertolucci CERN
  • 2. The Mission of CERN Push forward the frontiers of knowledge E.g. the secrets of the Big Bang …what was the matter like within the first moments of the Universe‟s existence? Develop new technologies for accelerators and detectors Information technology - the Web and the GRID Medicine - diagnosis and therapy
  • 3. Paradigm shifts …..“I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious.” A. Einstein
  • 4. The Mission of CERN Push forward the frontiers of knowledge E.g. the secrets of the Big Bang …what was the matter like within the first moments of the Universe‟s existence? Develop new technologies for accelerators and detectors Information technology - the Web and the GRID Medicine - diagnosis and therapy Train scientists and engineers of tomorrow Unite people from different countries and cultures
  • 5. Next challenge: to understandthe first moments of our Universe 13.7 Billion Years Today 1028 cm
  • 6. Big Bang Proton Atom Radius of Earth Earth to Sun Radius of Galaxies Universe LHCSuper-Microscope Study physics laws of first moments after Big Bang Hubble WMAP ALMA increasing Symbiosis between Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology VLT
  • 7. The Standard Model Weak 7
  • 8. How does the Higgs mechanism work ? An over-simplified picture …At the time of the Big Bang particles were all massless ( were moving atspeed of light) and Higgs field was there as an “non-interacting ether”(minimum of Higgs potential = 0). 10-11 s after Big Bang: phase transitionAbout 10-11 s after the Big Bang  temperature became low enough for phasetransition ( minimum of Higgs potential became negative)  ether becomes“molasses”  particles interacting with ”molasses” acquire a mass and areslowed down 8
  • 9. Enter a New Era in Fundamental Science LHCb CMS ATLAS Since March 2010 exploration of a new energy frontier in p-p and Pb-Pb collisions ALICE LHC ring: 27 km circumference
  • 10. Unprecedented energy: 4 TeV per beam particle collision energy = 8 TeV (1 TeV= 10-7 Joule)2014  collision energy to 14 TeVNote: huge amount of energy concentrated in the collision point (14 TeV corresponds to 20 1-Volt batteries for each star of our galaxy and to 1014 times the temperature in this room) However: small energy on macroscopic scale (1 Joule is just enough to swat a mosquito)The most challenging componentsof the LHC are 1232 high-techsuperconducting magnets, providinga field of 8.3 T (needed to bend7 TeV beams inside a 27 km ring).7600 km of NbTi superconducting cableWork at 1.9K (-270 degrees) Energy stored in the beams: 350 MJoule (can melt 500 kg of Cu) Electrical Melbourne, 10/7/2012 LHC (from French EDF): ~200 MW F. Gianotti, power to run the 10
  • 11. Lucio Rossi LHC status - INFN Roma1 11
  • 12. Detectors for particle physicsCover the whole angular range around thecollision point to detect as many particlesproduced in the collision as possible. e p Transverse F. Gianotti, Melbourne, 10/7/2012 slice through CMS 12
  • 13. The LHC experiments: about 100 million “sensors” each [think your 6MP digital camera... ...taking 40 million pictures a second] ATLAS CMSfive-storey building
  • 14. ATLAS: Installation of Barrel Toroid14 ATLAS cavern (-100 m) in June 2003F. Gianotti, Melbourne, 10/7/2012 14
  • 15. October 2005: Barrel toroid magnet system in place
  • 16. The CMS experiment
  • 17. Balloon The LHC data (30 km)• 40 million events (pictures) per second DVD stack with 1 year LHC data!• Select (on the fly) the ~500 interesting events (~ 20 km) per second to write on tape• “Reconstruct” data and convert for analysis:• “physics data” [ the grid...] Concorde (15 km) (x4 experiments x15 years) Per event Per year Raw data 1.6 MB 30 PB Reconstructed data 1.0 MB 20 PB Mt. Blanc (4.8 km) Physics data 0.1 MB 2 PB
  • 18. Astronomy & Astrophysics Civil Protection Enabling Grids for E-sciencE Computational Chemistry Comp. Fluid Dynamics Computer Science/Tools Condensed Matter Physics Earth Sciences Finance Fusion High Energy Physics Humanities Life Sciences Material Sciences Social Sciences~285 sites48 countries>350,000 CPU cores>300 PetaBytes disk, >200PB tape>13,000 users>12 Million jobs/monthEGEE-III INFSO-RI-222667
  • 19. Comparison: 2010, 2011 & 2012  2010: 0.04 fb-1  7 TeV CoM  Machine commissioning  2011: 6.1 fb-1  7 TeV CoM  … Production & exploration  2012: 21 fb-1 so far  Higher energy, 8 TeV  Smaller *  Increased bunch current 75% of DesignLuminosity @ Halfdesign Energy andHalf the number of bunches!!
  • 20. The BIG challenge in 2012: PILE-UP Experiment‟s design value (expected to be reached at L=1034 !) Z μμ event from 2012 data with 25 reconstructed vertices Z μμATLAS Higgs searches, F. Gianotti, HEPAP meeting, 27/8/2012 20
  • 21. 4 July 2012: “CERN experiments observe particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson”
  • 22. It has the properties of a Higgs boson
  • 23. Is this new particle the Higgs boson ?It looks like it, but it‟s too early to tell whether it is the StandardModel Higgs or another type of Higgs boson … We will need tomeasure its properties in detail in the months to come.Even if it is the Higgs boson, this is just the beginning,as this particle raises many other questions ! 24
  • 24. A considerable number of key questions…origin of mass/matter ororigin of electroweak symmetry breakingunification of forcesfundamental symmetry of forces andmatterunification of quantum physics andgeneral relativitynumber of space/time dimensionswhat is dark matter?what is dark energy?
  • 25. But What is Wrong with this Picture?
  • 26. Cosmic problems...... Standard ModelTHE ENERGY DENSITY BUDGET BARYONS B CDM COLD DARK MATTER NEUTRINOS DE DARK ENERGY TOT BCDM DE
  • 27. Solutions? Technicolor New (strong) interactions produce EWSB Extensions of the SM gauge group : Salam Glashow Weinberg Little Higgs / GUTs / … Politzer Wilczek Gross Veltman „t Hooft Reines For all proposed solutions: new particles should appear Friedman Perl at TeV scale or below van der Rubbia Higgs Schwartz Lederman Ting Meer Fitch CroninHofstadter Steinberger Schwinger Selected NP Kendall since 1957 Richter Gell-Mann Alvarez Taylor Except P. Higgs Feynman Yang Lee Supersymmetry Extra DimensionsNew particles at ≈ TeV scale, light Higgs New dimensions introduced Unification of forces mGravity ≈ melw Hierarchy problem Higgs mass stabilized solved No new interactions New particles at ≈ TeV scale
  • 28. Further ahead: present LHC upgrade plans ATLAS New Pixel B-layer + consolidation New Muon small wheels FTK, LVL1 Trigger New trackerATLAS Higgs searches, F. Gianotti, HEPAP meeting, 27/8/2012 31
  • 29. Only abstract speculations???Cutting edge Research Infrastructures play a key role in a knowledge driven society
  • 30. Medical Application as an Example of Particle Physics Spin-off Combining Physics, ICT, Biology and Medicine to fight cancer Hadron Therapy Tumour Leadership in Ion Target Beam Therapy now in Europe and Protons Japan light ionsAccelerating particle beams X-ray protons ~30‟000 accelerators worldwide >70‟000 patients treated worldwide (30 facilities) ~17‟000 used for medicine >21‟000 patients treated in Europe (9 facilities) Imaging PET Scanner Clinical trial in Portugal for new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) Detecting particles
  • 31. CNAO in Pavia
  • 32. ClearPEM-Sonic a collaborative project between physicians and physicists ClearPEM METABOLIC information Ultrasound Probe MORPHOLOGIC and STRUCTURAL information Objective: Detect 1 to 2mm tumors and define their cancerous statusJune 2011 P. Lecoq CERN 36
  • 33. Derenzo phantom Excellent resolution (< 1.5mm) compared to 5mm for the best commercial PET scanners OSEM 3D 2.0 mm 2.5 mm 1.5 mm 3.0 mm 1.2 mmJune 2011 P. Lecoq CERN 37
  • 34. ClearPET-XPAD X-ray tube  RTW Mo target, 50 µm spot size, 50 W Nb/Mo additional filter Threshold 3-35 keV  XPAD3/Si Hybrid pixel camera X-ray photon counting mode 500 µm silicon sensor thickness 78 x 75 mm² detector 130 x 130 µm² pixel size  PET FOV ClearPET/XPAD 55mm axial 111mm transverse Simultaneous  35 mm transverse FOV hybrid PET/CT 59mm axial Courtesy of C. Morel 38mm transverse imaging system CPPM/CERIMEDJune 2011 P. Lecoq CERN 38
  • 35. Why grids for e-Health? Enabling Grids for E-sciencE • Sharing computing resources and algorithms – Research (populations studies, models design, validation, statistics) – Complex analysis (compute intensive image processing, time constraints...) •Data •Procedures •Seq1 > dcscdssdcsdcdsc bscdsbcbjbfvbfvbvfbvbvbhvb hsvbhdvbhfdbvfd •Seq2 > •Algorithms bvdfvfdvhbdfvb bhvdsvbhvbhdvrefghefgdscg dfgcsdycgdkcsqkc •… •Seqn > bvdfvfdvhbdfvb bhvdsvbhvbhdvrefghefgdscg dfgcsdycgdkcsqkchdsqhfduh dhdhqedezhhezldhezhfehfle zfzejfv •Computing powerEGEE-III INFSO-RI-222667 •39
  • 36. ThIS: Therapeutic Irradiation Enabling Grids for E-sciencE Simulator •Cancer treatment by irradiation of patient with beams of photons, protons or carbons •CT image (482x360x141) •3D dose distribution, 700h CPU • Offer an open platform to researchers for Monte Carlo simulations optimisation • Offer a fast and reliable simulation tool for researchers in medical physics and medical imaging for treatment control • Produce a reference dataset for non-conventional therapies (hadrontherapy).EGEE-III INFSO-RI-222667 Grid usage for eHealth, EGEE life sciences activity, January 2010 40
  • 37. Health-e-Child Network  4 paediatric hospitals • 7 technical sites  IGG - Gaslini, Genoa, Italy • 4 clinical sites  GOSH, London, UK  NECKER, Paris, France (+1 clinical site in the US:  OPBG, Rome, Italy Johns Hopkins)  Strong interdisciplinary team across  Countries and languages  Technical and clinical fields  Research on three paediatric areas  Arthritis  Cardiac Disorders  Brain Tumours41 Health-e-Child
  • 38. Decision Support Virtual Physiological Child42 Health-e-Child
  • 39. Cern as the central hub of a network CERN is our laboratory:how can we maximize its benefits for the member states? Create/maintain at the national level research infrastructures and integrate them in a network, enabling:  Brain circulation  Knowledge and Technology Transfer  Industrial applications  Training  Cross fertilization
  • 40. How Do We Manage This?Contrary to popular belief, our community is rather elementary:  It has simple rules, honed by centuries of practice  It shares a common vision and a common set of values  It is based on collaboration AND competition Science is intrinsically not democratic (can‟t decide who is right by vote!) and therefore it has to be performed with the most democratic tools:  Freedom of expression  Peer reviewing  Independency from political orientation, religion, social status, etc…
  • 41. A peculiar ant colony, probably worth of a closer look
  • 42. The scientists/engineersDespite the usual cinematographic representation, in generalwe DO NOT  Wear white lab coats  Live in ivory towers  Find a revolutionary result every second day (scientist=genius) We are a pragmatic community capable to address in a very material way grand and (apparently) immaterial questions, knowing that for every answer we might find, we will open more and unpredicted questions. (we definitely prefer to be Ministers of Doubt than Kings of Truth: ubi dubium, ibi libertas)
  • 43. How can you manage such a community?Need individualized, enabling and integrated structureswithin supporting infrastructure to:  Allow everybody to keep his/her 5% of dream (i.e. the own original contribution to the advancement of Science), while operating in a very large symphony orchestra.  Encourage the emergence of gifted performers/soloists  Foster a leadership based on credibility and consensus more than on authority
  • 44. In conclusion The historic observation of a new particle compatible with the Higgs boson opens a new era in the understanding of nature. We are just at the beginning of a long journey into uncharted territories. CERN is a paradigmatic example of the powerful synergy of “pure” and “applied” science. The exploitation of this synergy is possibly the only way to enable a sustainable future.
  • 45. To conclude…. The relationship between basic research and sustainable progress is fundamental (contrary to common belief, technology does not sustain itself on the long term) In a globalized world, knowledge is becoming the most important asset. Developed countries are about to make a major strategic error by underestimating the value of fundamental research ( whereas emerging countries are doing the opposite and catching up fast)
  • 46. Paradigm shifts are a necessity! Refining candles would not have led candles into electric bulbs …
  • 47. THANK YOU!