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  • 1. Piping Fundamentals: M.N.Raghu
  • 2. Piping Fundamentals Agenda: •Definition of Pipe and Piping •Concept Layout Development • Piping Components • Orientation of various tapings, components, etc. • Piping Drains & Vents • Material & Sizing
  • 3. PIPE: It is a Tubular item made of metal, plastic, glass etc. meant for conveying Liquid, Gas or any thing that flows. It is a very important component for any industrial plant. And it’s engineering plays a major part in overall engineering of a Plant. PIPING: The term Piping means not only pipe but also includes components like fittings, flanges, valves, bolts, gaskets, bellows etc.
  • 4. In any plant various fluids flow through pipes from one end to other. Now let us start with a plant where we see Three tanks: Tank-1, Tank-2 and Tank-3 We have to transfer the content of Tank no. 1 to the other two tanks. We will need to connect pipes to transfer the fluids from Tank-1 to Tank-2 and Tank-3 LET US PLACE THE PIPES.
  • 5. We have just brought the pipes, now we need to solve some more problems. Pipes are all straight pieces. a es ip e p izes! m so nt s en re Ev diffe of We need some bend connections We need some branch connections To solve these problems we need the pipe components, which are called PIPE FITTINGS re
  • 6. These are the pipe fittings, There are various types of fittings for various purposes, some common types are Elbows/Bends, Tees/Branches, Reducers/Expanders, Couplings, Olets, etc. Anyway, the pipes and fittings are in place, but the ends are yet to be joined with the Tank nozzles. We now have to complete the end connections. These, in piping term, we call TERMINAL CONNECTIONS.
  • 7. So far this is a nice arrangement. But there is no control over the flow from Tank-1 to other tanks. We need some arrangement to stop the flow if needed These are flanged joints This is a welded joint To control the flow in a pipe line we need to fit a special component. That is called - VALVE
  • 8. There are many types of valves, categorized based on their construction and functionality, Those are - Gate, Globe, Check, Butterfly, etc. Other than valves another important line component of pipe line is a filter, which cleans out derbies from the flowing fluid. This is called a STRAINER
  • 9. Here we see a more or less functional piping system, with valves and strainer installed. Let us now investigate some aspects of pipe flexibility. This tank nozzle expands, when the tank is hot. In such case we need to fit a flexible pipe component at that location, which is called an EXPANSION JOINT
  • 10. When some fluid is flowing in a pipe we may also like know the parameters like, pressure, temperature, flow rate etc. of the fluid. To know these information we need to install INSTRUMENTS in the pipeline.
  • 11. There are various types instruments to measure various parameters. Also there are specific criteria for installation of various pipe line instruments. Next we shall look into how to SUPPORT the pipe/and it’s components.
  • 12. Here are some of the pipe supporting arrangements. There can be numerous variants. All depend on piping designer’s preference and judgement. Let us see some OTHER types of supports
  • 13. While development of piping layout we have to consider the following: Material to withstand the high pressure and high temperature. Piping from source to destination should be as short as possible with minimum change in direction. Not Preferable Preferable Should not hinder any normal passage way. Also should not encroach any equipment maintenance space. Valves, strainers, instruments on the pipe should be easily accessible.
  • 14. If needed separate ACCESS PLATFORMS to be provided to facilitate piping operation. Desired location and orientation of valves / instruments and other pipe components are to be checked and maintained, like some valves or strainers can only be installed in HORIZONTAL position. Specific requirements of STRAIGHT LENGTH of pipe for some components to be maintained, like for flow orifice we need to provide 15 D straight pipe length at upstream of orifice and 5 D straight at down stream of orifice. Example of Straight length requirement for Flow Orifice
  • 15. To ensure that there is no air-trap in the pipeline, a VENT connection with Valve is provided at the top most point of the pipeline. A DRAIN connection with Valve is provided at the lowest point of the pipeline for liquid drain from pipeline. Pipes are also slopped towards low points. Let us look into typical Vent and Drain arrangement in a pipeline
  • 16. Provision to be made to absorb thermal expansion in pipes during high temperature applications. Avoid Piping load transfer to applications- with suitable supports and anchors. Underground / Embedded piping issues. Insulation / Freeze protection issues There are many recognized international codes which lay down guide lines and mandatory requirements for design of piping. Most followed standards are: ASME ANSI B31.1- Power Piping Code & IBR - Indian Boiler Regulation (in INDIA)
  • 17. Pipe Material Selection - to select appropriate pipe material based on flowing fluid property. Find out type of Fluid flowing Find out Fluid Temp. & Pressure Check Pipe life Expectancy Select suitable Material per practice (Note-1) Check Mat. Listed in Design Code YES Pipe Material OK NO Note-1 : Material is selected per past experience with cost in mind and per material listed in design code. If material is not listed in code we may select next suitable material listed. See Note-1 Pipe Sizing Calculation - to select required pipe diameter based on velocity and pressure drop. Find out Flow volume per second Check Velocity Allowable per second Calc. flow area required and Pipe size Calc. Press. Drop for that Pipe size Check Press. YES Drop meets Press. Budget Pipe Size OK NO Increase Pipe Size Pipe Thickness Selection - to select appropriate pipe thickness based on flowing fluid property Select Mat. & Diameter as above Find out Fluid Temp. & Pressure Decide on Corrosion allowance Calc. Pipe Thickness per Code
  • 18. We have just completed a pipe line design. How Piping design is done in practice? Determine the Flow scheme: 1) What, 2) From what point, 3) To which point Selection of Pipe material, Pipe sizes and Pipe wall thickness are selected. Selection of suitable Valves and fittings wrt functions required Instrumentation required All of the above are represented in a drawing which is called Piping and Instrumentation Drawing, in short P&ID. This drawing contains all the information about a pipe like, Pipe size, Flowing Fluid, etc.
  • 19. Sample P and I diagram
  • 20. After the P&ID is ready, the layout work, pipe routing / layout is generally done in a Virtual 3D environment using a customised software. This is called as Piping modeling or Physical design. 3D drawing of a Typical piping system
  • 21. Piping Example Observe: Bending of pipes is better than bend fittings to avoid leakage and pressure drop issues.
  • 22. Piping Example
  • 23. Piping Example
  • 24. Any Questions? Thanks, M.N.Raghu