Speed training

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  • 1. Ben Harris, University of Canberra SPRINTING ORSPRINTING OR SPEED?SPEED? TRAINING THETRAINING THE DIFFERENCESDIFFERENCES
  • 2. Ben Harris, University of Canberra
  • 3. Ben Harris, University of Canberra SPEEDSPEED Relates to the speed ofRelates to the speed of muscular contraction andmuscular contraction and limb movement.limb movement.
  • 4. Ben Harris, University of Canberra PHYSIOLOGICALPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTSASPECTS
  • 5. Ben Harris, University of Canberra ENERGY SYSTEMSENERGY SYSTEMS CP/Alactic anaerobic systemCP/Alactic anaerobic system used primarily.used primarily. Lactic and aerobic systemsLactic and aerobic systems play little role in actual speedplay little role in actual speed of movement.of movement.
  • 6. Ben Harris, University of Canberra FLEXIBILITYFLEXIBILITY Range of motion forRange of motion for appropriate joints is essentialappropriate joints is essential Speed demands a largeSpeed demands a large amplitude of movement atamplitude of movement at shoulders, hips and knees.shoulders, hips and knees.
  • 7. Ben Harris, University of Canberra Dynamic flexibility V staticDynamic flexibility V static flexibility.flexibility. –Remember how muscleRemember how muscle spindles work!spindles work! Requires joint stabilisationRequires joint stabilisation and balanced strengthand balanced strength development.development.
  • 8. Ben Harris, University of Canberra STRENGTHSTRENGTH MAX STRENGTHMAX STRENGTH EXPLOSIVE STRENGTHEXPLOSIVE STRENGTH REACTIVE STRENGTHREACTIVE STRENGTH
  • 9. Ben Harris, University of Canberra NEURAL ASPECTSNEURAL ASPECTS Requires properRequires proper synchronisation of firingsynchronisation of firing patterns resulting in ultra fastpatterns resulting in ultra fast excitation and relaxation.excitation and relaxation.
  • 10. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 MAXIMISE MOTOR UNITMAXIMISE MOTOR UNIT RECRUITMENTRECRUITMENT –Increases the rate of motorIncreases the rate of motor unit activation. Enablesunit activation. Enables Fast Twitch fibres to beFast Twitch fibres to be utilised earlier.utilised earlier.
  • 11. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 INCREASE MOTOR UNITINCREASE MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATEFIRING RATE –Increases rate coding ofIncreases rate coding of neural impulsesneural impulses (frequency)(frequency)
  • 12. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 INCREASE MOTOR UNITINCREASE MOTOR UNIT SYNCHRONISATIONSYNCHRONISATION –INTRAMUSCULARINTRAMUSCULAR COORDINATIONCOORDINATION –INTERMUSCULARINTERMUSCULAR COORDINATIONCOORDINATION
  • 13. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 SKILL ASPECTSSKILL ASPECTS
  • 14. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 Optimal stride length approx.Optimal stride length approx. 2.3-2.5 leg length for2.3-2.5 leg length for sprinters.sprinters. Shorter stride with increasedShorter stride with increased leg speed increases control.leg speed increases control.
  • 15. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 Applying force in relevantApplying force in relevant direction.direction. Minimise inefficientMinimise inefficient movements (lateral,movements (lateral, rotational)rotational)
  • 16. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 Minimise ground contactMinimise ground contact time. Why?time. Why? Minimise the time taken forMinimise the time taken for the leg to complete a fullthe leg to complete a full stride rotation.stride rotation.
  • 17. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 Place each foot as closePlace each foot as close under C of G as possible.under C of G as possible. Why?Why? Minimise C of G collapseMinimise C of G collapse with each stride. Why?with each stride. Why?
  • 18. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 SPEEDSPEED COMPONENTSCOMPONENTS
  • 19. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 1 REACTIONREACTION TIME/STARTTIME/START Overcoming inertiaOvercoming inertia Identification and Reaction toIdentification and Reaction to primary stimulusprimary stimulus Different to reflexes due toDifferent to reflexes due to trainability.trainability.
  • 20. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2
  • 21. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2 ACCELERATIONACCELERATION Rate of change of velocity,Rate of change of velocity, usually first 6-8 strides.usually first 6-8 strides. Maximum and explosiveMaximum and explosive strengthstrength Emphasis on backsideEmphasis on backside mechanics due to forwardmechanics due to forward leanlean
  • 22. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2
  • 23. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2 MAX SPEEDMAX SPEED Highest level ofHighest level of neuromusular controlneuromusular control Minor role in most team/courtMinor role in most team/court sportssports Short ground contact timeShort ground contact time (reactive strength)(reactive strength) Limb speedLimb speed
  • 24. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2 SPEEDSPEED ENDURANCEENDURANCE Maintain high percentage ofMaintain high percentage of max. speed for duration ofmax. speed for duration of event.event. Good sprint mechanicsGood sprint mechanics increases efficiencyincreases efficiency
  • 25. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2 Requires high alacticRequires high alactic anaerobic capacity.anaerobic capacity. Purpose of creatinePurpose of creatine monohydrate.monohydrate.
  • 26. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2 DECELERATIONDECELERATION Minimise to aid speedMinimise to aid speed enduranceendurance Maximise to aid directionMaximise to aid direction changeschanges
  • 27. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2 LATERAL SPEEDLATERAL SPEED (AGILITY)(AGILITY) Rapid deceleration andRapid deceleration and direction changes underdirection changes under controlcontrol High kinesthetic awareness.High kinesthetic awareness. Reactive strength.Reactive strength.
  • 28. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2
  • 29. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 2 STRAIGHT VSTRAIGHT V LATERAL SPEEDLATERAL SPEED
  • 30. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 STRAIGHT-LINESTRAIGHT-LINE SPEEDSPEED Three separate componentsThree separate components Each component different due toEach component different due to nervous regulation and functionalnervous regulation and functional role of muscles involved.role of muscles involved.
  • 31. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 Initial accelerationInitial acceleration Up to 10-12mUp to 10-12m Large rate of change ofLarge rate of change of velocityvelocity
  • 32. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 Continued accelerationContinued acceleration 10m-Vmax10m-Vmax Slower rate of change ofSlower rate of change of velocityvelocity
  • 33. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 Max speed/MaintainingMax speed/Maintaining max speedmax speed Vmax-finishVmax-finish No further accelerationNo further acceleration (trying to limit(trying to limit deceleration)deceleration)
  • 34. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 LATERAL SPEEDLATERAL SPEED
  • 35. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 Involves the need toInvolves the need to –deceleratedecelerate –adjust stride pattern and bodyadjust stride pattern and body positionposition –accelerate againaccelerate again
  • 36. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 Less than 25% of agilityLess than 25% of agility performance is accounted forperformance is accounted for by straight line speed.by straight line speed. Increased stride frequency,Increased stride frequency, balance and proprioceptivebalance and proprioceptive components.components.
  • 37. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 TRAININGTRAINING METHODSMETHODS
  • 38. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 STRENGTHSTRENGTH Max Strength Base For AllMax Strength Base For All Speed AspectsSpeed Aspects
  • 39. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 3 Maximum strengthMaximum strength improvements should beimprovements should be emphasised in theemphasised in the weightroom for later transfer.weightroom for later transfer. Hard to simulate specificHard to simulate specific movements in the gymmovements in the gym Action velocity trainingAction velocity training
  • 40. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 OVERSPEEDOVERSPEED TRAININGTRAINING (ASSISTED)(ASSISTED) Cadence increaseCadence increase Overloads neural (skill)Overloads neural (skill) componentcomponent Increases stabilisationIncreases stabilisation
  • 41. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 METHODSMETHODS Speed cannon (elastic cord)Speed cannon (elastic cord) Running downhillRunning downhill Pedaling in easier gearPedaling in easier gear
  • 42. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 RESISTEDRESISTED Overloads theOverloads the strength/power componentstrength/power component (neural + physiological)(neural + physiological) Maximum 10% load increaseMaximum 10% load increase as too much load alters theas too much load alters the skillskill
  • 43. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 High correlation betweenHigh correlation between power and acceleration.power and acceleration.
  • 44. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 METHODSMETHODS Weighted vestWeighted vest running/jumpingrunning/jumping Towing (sled, tire, parachuteTowing (sled, tire, parachute etc)etc)
  • 45. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4
  • 46. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 Uphill running, ridingUphill running, riding Sand/shallow water runningSand/shallow water running
  • 47. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4
  • 48. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 PLYOMETRICSPLYOMETRICS Stretch-Shorten CycleStretch-Shorten Cycle Stretch ReflexStretch Reflex
  • 49. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 4 COURT/FIELD SPORTCOURT/FIELD SPORT SPECIFICSSPECIFICS The ability to start quicklyThe ability to start quickly from different positions,from different positions, accelerate to top speed inaccelerate to top speed in the shortest possible time,the shortest possible time, change direction and stopchange direction and stop rapidly under control.rapidly under control.
  • 50. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 Is the aimIs the aim –a specific movementa specific movement pattern (straight line)pattern (straight line) –general movement speedgeneral movement speed (lateral)(lateral) Important to use speed drills,Important to use speed drills, not just make game drills asnot just make game drills as fast as possible.fast as possible.
  • 51. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 Is there equipment involved?Is there equipment involved? Can cause skill alterations.Can cause skill alterations. Technique modifications (egTechnique modifications (eg Rugby players)Rugby players)
  • 52. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 TRAINING METHODSTRAINING METHODS Speed ladder - fast feetSpeed ladder - fast feet Agility balls/throwing cradlesAgility balls/throwing cradles (cricket)(cricket) Patters (to sprint/jump)Patters (to sprint/jump)
  • 53. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 HurdlesHurdles ““Doggies” with structure, eg.Doggies” with structure, eg. lettersletters Start from different positionsStart from different positions (ground, running etc.)(ground, running etc.)
  • 54. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5
  • 55. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 PERIODISATIONPERIODISATION Relationship between speedRelationship between speed and powerand power –can train similar attributescan train similar attributes simultaneously (SSC)simultaneously (SSC) Preseason is not the time toPreseason is not the time to retrain movement patterns forretrain movement patterns for speed.speed.
  • 56. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 Continue speed trainingContinue speed training throughout the year since itthroughout the year since it is a major skill componentis a major skill component –early in training year workearly in training year work mainly on techniquemainly on technique –increase speed of activityincrease speed of activity in competitionin competition
  • 57. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 INJURY CONCERNSINJURY CONCERNS High velocity eccentricHigh velocity eccentric loading can resulting muscleloading can resulting muscle tearstears Agility sports have highAgility sports have high incidence of ankle/kneeincidence of ankle/knee injuries.injuries.
  • 58. Ben Harris, University of Canberra 5 PreventionPrevention Appropriate conditioning,Appropriate conditioning, warmupswarmups Ankle braces have noAnkle braces have no significant inhibiting effectssignificant inhibiting effects on athletic performance.on athletic performance. Can reduce the incidence ofCan reduce the incidence of ankle injuriesankle injuries