AccountingAdvertising Industry as a partner forAluminium sustainable developmentAutomotiveAviationChemicals Waste ManagementCoal International Solid Waste Association (ISWA)ConstructionConsulting EngineeringElectricityFertilizerFinance and InsuranceFood and DrinkInformation andCommunications TechnologyIron and SteelOil and GasRailwaysRefrigerationRoad TransportTourismWaste Management Developed through a multi-stakeholder process facilitated by:Water Management
1Industry as a partner for sustainable developmentWaste ManagementA report prepared by:International Solid Waste Association (ISWA)Overgaden Oven Vandet 48 EDK-1415 CopenhagenDenmarkTel: +45 32 96 15 88Fax: +45 32 96 15 84E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgWeb site: http://www.iswa.orgDisclaimerIn a multi-stakeholder consultation facilitated by the United Nations Environment Programme, anumber of groups (including representatives from non-governmental organisations, labour unions,research institutes and national governments) provided comments on a preliminary draft of thisreport prepared by the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). The report was then revised,benefiting from stakeholder perspectives and input. The views expressed in the report remain thoseof the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme or the individuals and organisations that participated in the consultation.
2 Waste Management
Contents 3Contents5 Foreword9 Executive summary13 Part I: Introduction13 1.1 ISWA – The International Solid Waste Association14 1.2 Scope of the report17 Part 2: Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development17 2.1 Environmentally sound management of solid wastes18 2.2 Description of the waste industry19 2.3 Facts and figures on the municipal waste industry23 2.4 Hazardous waste management25 Part 3: Different approaches to waste management in different parts of the world25 3.1 The European Union26 3.2 The United States26 3.3 Other high and medium income countries26 3.4 Economically developing countries31 Part 4: Implementation of sustainable development practices31 4.1 Waste management and sustainable development32 4.2 Waste management today – social dimension34 4.3 Waste management today – economic dimension37 4.4 Waste management today – environmental dimension39 Part 5: Means of implementation39 5.1 Regulatory framework41 5.2 Market-based initiatives43 5.3 Economic instruments45 5.4 Informative instruments49 Part 6: Future challenges and goals49 6.1 Key areas of progress achieved49 6.2 Key areas for future progress51 6.3 Specific areas of attention53 6.4 Roles of other stakeholders54 Annexe 1: Case study 1: Sustainable development in Switzerland. An example of good practice with regard to electronic scrap disposal56 Annexe 2: Case study 2: Waste management in Metropolitan Cape Town A case study – the challenges facing a developing city65 Annexe 3: Case study 3: Management of municipal solid wastes in China70 References
4 Contents List of figures 20 Figure 1: Waste generation rates from 1960 to 1999 in the United States 20 Figure 2: 1999 total waste generation in the United States 21 Figure 3: Management of MSW in the United States 21 Figure 4: Total waste generation by sector – EEA countries, 1992 to 1997 22 Figure 5: Is there still a correlation between economic growth and waste generation? 22 Figure 6: Waste generation from daily household and commercial activities 59 Figure 7: Desirability hierarchy in integrated waste management 60 Figure 8: Typical elements of a waste management system Tables: 23 Table 1: Generation and transport of MSW in China 28 Table 2: Statistics of MSW generation and transport in 11 large cities in China 35 Table 3: Urban expenditure, total and on waste, selected cities and years
Foreword 5 ForewordSince the 1992 World Summit in Rio de practices, the need for increased efficiency,Janeiro, professional waste management has quality management and occupational healthmade significant technological and managerial aspects.contributions to the protection of theenvironment. However, we are still facing The impact of waste management on thenumerous and serious problems.The 1990s environment has been widely recognised incan be seen as a period of better less developed regions, as well. Getting controlunderstanding regarding the position and of the various waste streams from households,function of the waste management sector as small shops, from the industry, the healthcarespecialist in the ecological, economic, and social sector, and numerous other sources, allowsframework.The new decade offers an their proper handling, treatment and disposal.opportunity – and at the same time shows the Furthermore, it has been recognised that verynecessity – to proceed with the simple solutions for waste management oftenimplementation and consolidation of have tremendous effects on the health andenvironmental regulations. Focused action is safety standards in developing countries.required as soon as possible, especially indeveloping countries. Waste collection is the basis for all subsequent managerial measures and treatmentThis document summarises contributions from technologies.The early stages we hope toa number of International Solid Waste envisage comprise the establishment of a basicAssociation (ISWA) national members.The regulatory framework, of collection schemes,ISWA is well aware of the fact that the and of appropriate treatment and disposaloverview provided is far from being complete. facilities to prevent further damage to theNevertheless, the document clearly shows the environment.Training of operators and staff issignificant change of the role of waste a key element in this context. Local operatorsmanagement from the sector’s limited scope and authorities can definitely benefitof dealing with wastes to the new task of considerably from international support andmanaging our society’s metabolism. the transfer of know-how, so that they can run at least basic collection and recyclingWaste management has for quite some time operations, landfills or compost plants in thebeen understood as a key area in global best possible way under the givenenvironmental protection. Beyond that circumstances.integrated waste management may beregarded as an interface between the ISWA has recently entered into co-operationproduction, distribution and consumption of with UNEP and is now able to offer traininggoods on the one hand, and soil, groundwater, courses in developing countries. Furthermore,air and climate on the other.Thus, it is an a special training pack for hazardous waste isimportant partner in the context of being developed in order to support thissustainable development. training programme.The tasks and challenges we face today in our business and field ofIndustrialised countries are currently fine- research are the result of decades, if nottuning their regulatory framework and waste centuries, of economic and socialmanagement infrastructure.The waste development.management industry deals with considerablyrising environmental and legal standards, best
6 Foreword Our behaviour as consumers, as well as our economic growth by increased eco-efficiency roles as managers, operators or regulators, are as well as the problems caused by the trend of determined by our specific set of values, our rapid urbanisation. Given our present emotions, our culture, our cognitive production and consumption patterns, waste background, and by our personal degrees of generation is closely tied up with population freedom. Both education and legislation are growth and economic development. Many of required to change behavioural patterns. the most rapidly growing conurbations and Education will create awareness and support mega-cities are located in developing countries the development of a new frame of mind in a where funding is still a critical issue. While the mid-term perspective. Legislation, however, has introduction of fees for waste collection and to lay out the rules, to enforce them and to treatment services raises people’s awareness, it prevent violations as a short term measure. may push consumers and businesses to illegal practices.This makes education an even more In view of the variety and complexity of important factor in this context. products and consequently of wastes, by- products, and residues, there is no single Today, the waste management industry is well solution to the waste treatment demands of aware of the importance of social aspects. today. An appropriate mix of technologies is These include, among others the siting of needed in order to meet the various technical, facilities and the introduction of new collection ecological and economic requirements of schemes, training workers and staff and integrated waste management on a regional educating consumers, establishing and level. As long as industry and consumers promoting business, business relations and produce waste, we need an infrastructure that international dialogue, etc. Since the waste allows for their proper treatment and management sector of today has a wider detoxification and for the safe long-term scope, an increased potential and a sense of disposal of residues.This system may become growing responsibility, it needs to create trust less extensive once we achieve good results in in its management approaches, business the fields of waste detoxification and waste practices and technical operation.Trust as a minimisation. long-term commitment will be supported by high standards, transparency, documentation, The concept of producer’s responsibility was and an honest policy to fight offenders. realised by shifting the financial burden for the proper treatment or recycling of end-of-life As part of this programme, ISWA initiated the products to manufacturers.This has established development of a Waste Convention as a a new line of communication between the code of ethics for the waste management environmental sector and manufacturers. business worldwide to raise the level of Waste managers relay information regarding performance in this field. ISWA extends an the design for recycling and the design for invitation to other international bodies to disposal upstream to producers and contribute to this initiative. manufacturers, thus advocating the cause of the environment’s capacities and ISWA’s practical experience gathered in more environmental constraints.This communication than 30 years of international co-operation of will still be developed and further improved, practitioners and planners, regulators and but it can be regarded as a first step taken by operators, scientists and researches in the field the waste management sector. of waste management in more than 90 countries around the world proves how much Two main challenges for the future are the developing countries and economies in task of decoupling waste generation from transition can benefit from this transfer of
Foreword 7know-how. Of course, immediate support that efficient measures with the biggest possiblefacilitates the implementation of sound waste benefit for the environment?management strategies and practices is mostvaluable. In many cases, a small amount of Ten years after the World Summit of Rio demoney invested in training and education will Janeiro, environmental policy-makers now haveenable local staff and regional regulators to tools like environmental impact assessment, orsolve the problem themselves. cost-benefit analysis, life cycle analysis, material flow analysis etc. for improved and scientificallyIf the industrialised countries are willing to based decision making.The professional wastedonate just a minuscule fraction of the waste management sector anticipates that the 2002management industry’s profits for this purpose, Johannesburg Summit will address the macrothis sum – allocated under acknowledged measures that will help us to overcome theinternational auspices – will make a stall we may face due to financial constraints intremendous difference. With its unique and the developing world.balanced membership structure thatrepresents the public and the private sector as With this common goal in mind, we willwell as the academic and scientific world, the assume our shared responsibility for theISWA is ready to take the lead in this effort. future.The more the waste management sector I would like to thank all ISWA members,understands and accepts the paradigm of experts and staff involved in the preparationsustainable development, the more it of this document and especially Helenabecomes obvious that our traditional Bergman, ISWA general secretariat, for herapproaches and common tools will soon have dedicated work.reached their limits. Present planning andregulation in waste management still focus on Christoph Scharff,micro measures. On the other hand, very high President, ISWA January 2002standards have been successfully achieved inmany technical areas, from emission control toworking conditions.This know-how, thesetechnologies and practices have not beenimplemented in many parts of the world –not for technical reasons in the first place,though.Despite all efforts, there are huge areas inwhich no progress can be expected in thenear future due to other political priorities, toa lack of awareness or to poverty.Yet, we have a common goal – anenvironmentally sound, responsible andsustainable management of wastes with aminimum of detrimental effects on humanhealth and life, and on the eco system. And wehave a common restriction – limited financialresources. So we have to ask ourselves: whichare the key priorities and which are the most
8 Waste Management
Executive summary 9 Executive summaryWaste management is an important part of vast majority of countries are busy strugglingthe urban infrastructure as it ensures the with such basic issues as ensuring sufficientprotection of the environment and of human collection services and implementing a minimalhealth. It is not only a technical environmental degree of control at disposal sites at the sameissue, but also a highly political one. Waste time as they are facing increasing wastemanagement is closely related to a number of amounts due to the trend of urbanisation.issues such as urban lifestyles, resource They also lack the technical and financialconsumption patterns, jobs and income levels, resources to safely manage solid wastes –and other socio-economic and cultural factors. which includes adequate provisions for storing the waste at the point of generation as well asThe present report gives a brief review of the efficient and sufficient collection services. Finaldevelopment of the waste sector since the disposal in those countries is usually a matter1992 Rio World Summit, as well as a status of transporting the collected wastes to thedescription of the situation of waste nearest available open space and thenmanagement today and of future challenges. discharging them.The scope of the report is limited to themanagement of municipal solid wastes (MSW). However, important progress has been made in the waste sector over the last few years.This report is divided into five parts. Part 2, The most important improvement is thedescribes the status quo in the field of waste increased level of awareness among both themanagement and presents relevant facts and public and politicians.This is the first step tofigures. Part 3 takes a look at the differences in ensure that action is taken and resources arewaste management in different parts of the allocated accordingly. On the other hand, theworld. Part 4 deals with the implementation of availability of resources is closely connected tothe three dimensions of sustainable the economic situation and wastedevelopment in the waste industry. Part 5 management still holds a weak position in thisexplains different means of how to implement context compared with other public services.sustainable waste management systems. Some And since economic development is alsoof the instruments are widely applied whereas closely linked to the generation of waste, theothers mainly concern a few countries that are last couple of years with strong economicin the forefront of waste management. Part 6 development have resulted in increasing wastelooks into future challenges and goals for the quantities.waste industry. A number of case studies canbe found in the annexes to the report. It has become more common to use different instruments to reach environmental targets.One characteristic feature of sustainable waste Legislation plays an important role inmanagement is that it is achieved by using the establishing the framework for these targets; ittechnical, organisational, and financial resources is complemented with a number of marketavailable in a particular locality. based, economic and information related instruments.Their application and effectivenessThe waste management situation in the depends on the situation. During the last tencountries around the world is by no means years, new communication technologies anduniform. It is easy to forget that the category networking have played an increasinglyof countries that are now ‘fine-tuning’ their important role in the process of sharing know-waste management systems is a minority.The how and experience across borders.
10 Executive summary One major drawback for the industry is the investment in waste management systems. difficulty to get acceptance for the siting of This is especially important in those new waste treatment facilities.The NIMBY- countries where public health is adversely syndrome (‘not in my backyard’) makes the affected by insufficient or non-existent siting of facilities lengthy and costly all over the services. world. • It is of highest priority to achieve a The most important challenge for the industry reduction in the amount of waste is the prevention of waste, followed closely by generated and to decouple the link of the need to obtain clear, transparent and economic growth and waste generation. reliable data. Another task is the increased For this purpose, a uniform waste industry cooperation across industrial sectors to approach to raise public and political achieve the overall goal of improved resource interest is required in all parts of the world management and to render waste less to establish sustainable waste management hazardous. Solutions for those two goals will systems. have to be found in the conception, design and production phases of goods. • A most pressing area for future progress is the field of information and education. It seems clear that the tail (waste There needs to be a co-ordinated strategy management) cannot wag the dog (the entire with regard to information provision and economy).The tools of material and substance considerable work needs to be done to flow analysis, life cycle analysis and cost-benefit change people’s attitudes towards waste analysis have to be applied more widely, since management as a whole and increase focusing on the waste end only is the wrong participation in recycling and minimisation approach in many cases.The combined schemes. Once the public is participating in application of these methods for the recycling schemes it is important to comprehensively defined systems will result in give them feedback on what happens with concrete concepts of the optimal mix of the recycled waste to keep up their measures.The goals of dematerialisation and interest in participation. detoxification of all economic activities in a long-term perspective have to become more • Information and education are also needed important than goals just restricted to waste to allay the fears that people have with management. regard to waste management and to encourage them to take responsibility for The resulting concept could be called the waste they generate. One major goal ‘sustainable integrated resource and waste that needs to be achieved is increasing management’.The main future challenges and public confidence in the waste goals for realising this concept are: management sector. Extensive work needs to be done to remove negative • National waste policies have to be made perceptions and replace emotive views more coherent; the legal framework, its with views based on sound science and implementation and enforcement need to agreed facts. be improved in all parts of the world. Especially in developing countries, substantial • Future progress is also needed in improving efforts are of greatest importance in that the markets for recyclables. Producers must field. Waste management plans at national be encouraged to incorporate life cycle and local level are needed; these can serve assessments in the development stages of as the basis for the improvement of and their products and consider waste
Executive summary 11 management issues in the design stages – • The practical experience of practitioners something that does at present not happen and planners, regulators and operators, as a general rule. scientists and researches in waste management must be made more available• Alternatives have to be made available so to developing countries and economies in that consumers are encouraged to transition. Immediate support and transfer minimise their waste or buy products that of know-how are most valuable, as they are of a comparably high standard and facilitate the implementation of sound price but less harmful to the environment. waste management strategies and practices. In many cases, a small amount• Accessible and transparent data is crucial if invested in training and education can strategies are to be successful and enable local staff and regional regulators to sustainable waste management practices help them effectively. achieved.The industry needs to have access to clear, transparent and replicable • From a global point of view, the most data and information.The availability and urgent need is to close the gap between the quality of waste data cause difficulties developed and developing countries.The already at a national level; at an first priority in this context is to make sure international or regional level, these that there are collection services available to difficulties are even greater. as large a part of the world’s population as possible and to raise the quality of landfills.• We need to create standards for the whole waste industry that include new and The key priorities and the most efficient emerging technologies and also the measures with the biggest possible benefit for management of specific waste types such the environment have to be identified on the as agricultural waste. Considerable basis of the relevant facts and figures.Tools investments should be made in emerging such as environmental impact assessment, technologies and support should be given material flow analysis, or macro-economic to research and development (R&D). cost-benefit analysis must be applied more widely for improved and scientifically based• While progress has been encouraging to decision-making. A broad range of date, partnerships need to be developed stakeholders must be involved to achieve continually, so that all stakeholders can substantial progress in the minimisation and work together towards a common goal. detoxification of waste. Participation by all parties in the decision- making process is an important issue.The Step by step the isolated ‘end of pipe’ view of waste industry has to encourage and take waste management must be transformed into part in multiple stakeholder involvement. a concept of integrated resource and waste management.This will help to realise genuine• The waste industry must set and achieve sustainable development.The system sustainability targets. definitions of analyses used in decision- and policy-making must include the global picture• There needs to be access to training and of waste generation and resource education for everyone involved in waste consumption outside national systems.This is management. An increasing awareness of especially important in developing countries. networking opportunities is required to facilitate the information flow.
12 Executive summary To achieve the objective of integrated resource and waste management, new ways of policy-making will be needed that include a structured dialogue between numerous stakeholders. Waste management institutions will be challenged to contribute to that dialogue, the topics of which will include the whole picture and range from the supply of primary resources, production and trade, to transport and consumption. As a result of this comprehensive approach, the goals of waste minimisation and decoupling of economic growth and waste generation may finally be achieved.
Introduction 13 Part 1: IntroductionWaste management is an important part of ‘The total lapse of more than a century from thethe urban infrastructure, as it ensures the first clear stirrings of public interest in urbanprotection of the environment and of human waste services to the present time in high-incomehealth. It is not only a technical environmental countries suggests that a comparable change inissue, but also a highly political one. Waste low-income countries, where public interest is notmanagement is closely related to a number of yet fully aroused, is not likely to be swift. Untilissues such as urban lifestyle, resource public interest is aroused, additional publicconsumption patterns, jobs and income levels, funding for improved waste service is unlikelyand other socio-economic and cultural factors. unless accompanied by increased prosperity.’Lately there has been a trend to enlarge the (WHO, 1998) The organisation of efficientscope of waste management and include it waste collection in western Europe and Northwithin the larger concept of resource America took around 20 years, as public andmanagement.Today, waste management must political interest in waste management ‘wasbe seen in its full context. It cannot be solved delayed to the 1960s and 1970s in the wakewith merely technical end-of-pipe solutions. of another period of economic growth.’ (MacFarlane, 2001).When we employ a long-term wastemanagement strategy to ensure sustainable Due to this complex situation, it is indeed adevelopment, this will not only affect a number challenging task to come to a satisfyingof different dimensions; there are also different solution. On the following pages, we havelevels of decision-making and action involved. prepared a general report on the componentsDecision-making and action take place at necessary to attain sustainable wastevarious levels – nationwide, regional, local and management and we have included severalfinally in households. All aspects and all actors relevant examples.The information used in thismust be considered when we develop a waste report was provided by a number of ourmanagement system and implement it in daily national members and by a large number oflife. other sources (as referred to in the bibliography). A UNEP reference group hasThere are also large differences in the level of also contributed to this text by providingproficiency in the countries of the world. It is material input and giving comments.The ISWAeasy to forget that the category of countries Scientific and Technical Committee and anthat are now ‘fine-tuning’ their waste internal ISWA reference group have also beenmanagement systems is a minority.The vast helpful with advice.majority of countries is busy struggling withsuch basic issues as ensuring sufficient collectionservices and implementing a minimal degree of 1.1 The International Solidcontrol at disposal sites at the same time as Waste Associationthey are facing increasing waste amounts due to The International Solid Waste Associationthe trend of urbanisation.There is an interesting (ISWA) is a global body concerned withparallel to draw between the problems faced professional waste management. ISWA is aby the cities of today’s low-income economies non-political and non-governmental associationand those of 19th century North America and by statutes and follows the mission statementwestern Europe. In both cases, the pace of to promote and develop professional wastepopulation growth outstripped the capacity to management worldwide as a contribution tomanage urban services. sustainable development.
14 Introduction ISWA’s objective is the worldwide exchange • Working Group on Developing Countries of information and experience on all aspects Issues, of waste management. ISWA promotes the • Working Group on Economic Analyses for adoption of acceptable systems of professional Sustainable Development, waste management and of public cleansing • Working Group on Hazardous Wastes, through technological development and • Working Group on Healthcare Waste, improvement of practices for the protection of • Working Group on Legal Issues, human life and health and of the environment • Working Group on Recycling and Waste as well as the conservation of materials and Minimisation, energy resources. • Working Group on Sanitary Landfill, • Working Group on Sewage and The association is active in a variety of areas, Waterworks Sludge, including conferences, meetings, training • Working Group on Thermal Treatment. programmes, information development and dissemination, and technical assistance on a 1.2 Scope of the report global scale. The scope of this report is limited to the ISWA has a total of more than 1,200 management of municipal solid waste (MSW). members in 93 countries. Its network expands Hazardous waste will only be touched upon in to countries with more than 80% of the general terms.The delimitation of the scope world’s population. ISWA has three corresponds to Chapter 21 of Agenda 21 membership categories: national members, excluding sewage sludge issues.The definition organisation members and individual of MSW as referred to in Chapter 21.3 of members. At present, there are 32 national Agenda 21, is as follows: members or incoming national members that represent their country on solid waste issues. ‘Solid wastes, as defined in this chapter, include ISWA’s national members represent countries all domestic refuse and non-hazardous wastes with 48% of the world population and 87% in such as commercial and institutional wastes, terms of global GNP. street sweepings and construction debris. In some countries, the solid wastes management system ISWA’s members represent all aspects of our also handles human wastes such as night-soil, field and most regions worldwide: from ashes from incinerators, septic tank sludge and practitioners and industry to communities, sludge from sewage treatment plants. If these from associations, research institutes and wastes manifest hazardous characteristics they academics to regulatory authorities.The should be treated as hazardous wastes.’ association is the global forum for waste management, with 12 technical working groups The general descriptions of individual sectors covering all relevant aspects of sustainable reflect the state-of-the-art standards waste management and with special interest in characteristic of the most advanced countries developing countries issues: even if this is not representative of standards common on a global scale. Certainly, the • Working Group on Biological Treatment of disparities between developed and developing Wastes, countries are much more obvious than those • Working Group on Collection and between countries of the industrialised world. Transport Technology, A large number of people around the world • Working Group on Communication and are without adequate waste collection and Social Issues, disposal services.
Introduction 15It remains an important goal for all countriesto adopt general waste management policies,to allocate sufficient funds to ensure thesetting up of collection systems and wastetreatment facilities under controlled health andenvironmental conditions. It also remains amajor challenge for the waste managementsector to ensure the transfer of information,technology and experience to developingcountries. In this report, consideration will begiven to the different aspects and problemsencountered in the field of waste managementin developing countries.
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Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development 17 Part 2: Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development2.1 Environmentally sound Another important component is waste planning and the co-ordination of othermanagement of solid wastes policies on a national, regional and local level.Environmentally sound waste management is Waste planning makes it possible to take intorecognised by most countries as an issue of consideration the large number of differentmajor concern. For both developing and factors that have an impact on the wastedeveloped countries, waste management is an management system.important factor in ensuring both humanhealth and environmental protection. Article The overall policy is linked by the objectives21.4 of Agenda 21 states that ‘Environmentally and targets that form the regulatorysound waste management must go beyond framework for the industry.The complexity ofthe mere safe disposal or recovery of wastes the framework differs from one country tothat are generated and seek to address the another, but it sets the scene for the industry.root cause of the problem by attempting to In most developed countries, the industry ischange unsustainable patterns of production strictly regulated with regard to licensing,and consumption.’ authorisation and compliance with the law of the different waste treatment facilities. WasteSustainable waste management is realised by planning is also often subject to legislation: theusing the technical, organisational and financial general contents of a plan and the procedureresources available in a particular locality. of how to realise it are established by the law.Definitions of sustainable waste management Enforcement of the law and the powers of thewill differ depending on the circumstances.The regulatory authorities to ensure that thefollowing components are indispensable for regulatory framework is respected arethe purpose of guidelining the implementation necessary tools for efficient legislation.This is aof a system that will be able to achieve the weak point in most countries. Non-complianceoverall environmental objectives of countries with environmental legislation is not alwaysand/or regions: deliberate. But there is still a tendency in society to consider this kind of violation less• waste policy, including a waste hierarchy; serious than the violation of other laws.The• waste planning; lack of efficient enforcement of such laws is• regulatory framework; often due to the lack of financial and human• enforcement of the law. resources.Waste management is usually regulated by a In the last few years, the concept of integratednational and/or regional waste policy.The waste management has evolved. In such afollowing hierarchy is generally accepted in this system, the technical solution of disposing ofcontext: waste is not the only focal point. Instead, it relies on a number of different means to• waste prevention and minimisation; manage waste. It aims at a holistic approach to• reuse and recycling; the chain of waste management from• environmentally safe waste treatment generation to disposal and all stages in including disposal. between. All actors participating in and
18 Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development affected by the waste management system are and support programmes. In those countries, considered as well as cultural, social and separating and treating waste with economic factors. intermediate technology is a truly sustainable alternative to doing nothing at all. But since Since the Rio summit in 1992, the focal point healthcare waste goes well beyond the scope of waste management has shifted from raising of this report, there will be no further specific the level of public awareness to taking action. consideration of this waste stream.That does In most developed countries, the development not mean that the issue is not of a high has gone from improving the technical priority in the achievement of sustainable solutions of waste management to waste management. understanding the importance of an integrated waste management system.The fine-tuning of The individual steps in the waste management the system will continue and technical chain can be divided into the following: solutions are going to be complemented by increased activities on social and • waste prevention, waste minimisation and communication aspects. waste detoxification; • collection, transfer, transport and storage; 2.2 Description of the waste • reuse and recycling; • waste treatment including waste disposal. industry Over the years, the waste industry has Waste can be treated and recycled using a developed into three main groups depending large number of different technologies. But the on the type of waste dealt with: following categories specify the main groups of treatments: • municipal solid waste: this group often includes commercial and institutional • biological treatment, for example wastes, composting and anaerobic digestion; • industrial waste: industry-specific waste • incineration with or without energy depending upon the industrial activity recovery; concerned, • landfilling. • hazardous waste. Apart from those controlled treatment Household hazardous waste is usually included methods one cannot ignore the fact that a in MSW. In developing countries there is often considerable amount of waste is still done no distinction made between the different away with in an unacceptable way. Waste is still sources of waste; it is simply all mixed. disposed of by dumping it in the open or into the ocean, or by burning it on-site. Such ways Healthcare waste is a small, but highly of disposal have irreversible and potentially significant waste stream with a highly rated harmful effects on both human health and the perception of risk. It contains a wide range of environment.These are clearly not methods hazardous materials, as well as infectious that belong to sustainable waste management. materials. In this field, there is a significant Nevertheless, such disposal methods are potential for improvement in all countries frequently employed in an estimated 175 regarding waste prevention, segregation and sovereign nations and territories (Rushbrook, recycling.This is especially true in developing 1999). countries where there is a lack of special management and an urgent need for training As mentioned earlier, there are a number of different actors within the industry.These
Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development 19range from policy-makers and legislators on a municipal waste is normally within thenational level, to citizens taking part in the responsibility of the respective public authority.waste collection schemes.The role of the local The system is set up according to theauthorities is to deliver sustainable waste demands of an overall waste policy and itsmanagement to the citizens. Many of those targets.The amount of freedom to achieve setwho work in the field of waste management targets varies from one regulatory frameworkare elected and appointed for a limited period to another.of time.This is another factor that has animpact on the decisions taken and on long- A number of different factors such asterm planning. environmental, cultural, social, economic, and technical aspects must be taken intoThe fact that the industry is dealing with the consideration in the setting up of a sustainablepublic, influences the way industry works. waste management system.That is why wasteChanging and directing public behaviour in a management schemes vary substantially fromcertain direction takes a long time and a large one country to another and also from oneinformation campaign. Once a system is set up, region/city to another.it is difficult and costly to make changes to it.Furthermore, if citizens are required to behave The patterns of waste generation, itsin a certain way, they want to be informed on composition and treatment are highly diverseand assured of the environmental benefit of in the different regions, countries and parts oftheir efforts.The public willingness and capacity the world. We have put together someto pay for waste management are other statistical information illustrating thosefactors that limit the scope of waste differences in the figures on pages 20 to 22.management services.2.3 Facts and figures on themunicipal waste industryWe can only comprehend the currentsituation, assess future trends, set targets, anddetermine the means to reach those targetsefficiently, if we have precise information onwaste amounts and on its composition. Acommon terminology is also an importantelement in the waste industry. However, thewaste industry is still characterised byinconsistent and non-comparable data and theabsence of a common terminology, ofparameters and monitoring standards.Municipal waste includes domestic refuse andnon-hazardous waste from commercialactivities and the public sector. But asmentioned earlier, this is not true fordeveloping countries where different kinds ofwaste are usually mixed.The organisation ofthe collection and treatment systems for
20 Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development Figure 1:Waste generation rates from 1960 to 1999 in the United States Total waste generation Per capita generation (millions) (Ibs/person/day) 250 10 Total waste generation (Y1) 200 8 150 6 100 4 Per capita generation (Y2) 50 2 0 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 1999 Source: US EPA, 2000 Figure 2: 1999 total waste generation in the United States - 230 million tonnes Yard Food waste waste 10.9% 12.1% Paper 38.1% Plastics 10.5% Metals 7.8% Other 3.2% Rubber, leather Wood and textiles Glass 5.3% 6.6% 5.5% Source: US EPA, 2000
Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development 21 Figure 3: Management of MSW in the United States Recovery 28% Land disposal 57% Combustion 15%Source: US EPA, 2000 Figure 4:Total waste generation by sector - EEA countries 1992 to 1997 Other 5% Municipal waste 14% Construction and demolition 22% Energy production Mining 4% and quarrying Manufacturing 29% 26%Note: Sewage sludge is included under other waste. EEA countires are the 15 member states ofthe EU and Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.Source: US EPA, 2000
22 Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development Figure 5: Is there still a correlation between economic growth and waste generation? Waste generation in tonnes per capita 5 Construction waste 4 3 Manufacturing industries 2 Household waste 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 1,000 Euro per capita Source: EEA, 2000 Figure 6:Waste generation from daily household and commercial activities kg per capita Mixed bagged waste Separate collection Austria 96 Iceland 96 Netherlands 96 Finland 94 Denmark 96 Denmark 98 Belgium 96 Norway 98 Sweden 94 Germany 93 Luxembourg 96 Greece 96 EEA-Average 96 France 95 Ireland 95 Ireland 98 Portugal 96 United Kingdom 96 Spain 96 Italy 96 Italy 98 0 100 200 300 400 500 Note:The variations in waste generated from daily household and commercial activities between member countries are limited, except for Austria and Iceland, which have slightly lower generation rates.The increase in Ireland can be related to such themes as improved collection of waste and a more firm registration of waste or in changes in some of the household activities. Such as, the number of single households and the lifestyle change towards pre-prepared food and take-away restaurants. Source: EEA, 2000
Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development 23 Table 1: Generation and transport of MSW in China Year Actual Statistical Urban Area of Quantity Quantity Per capita Total refuse number number population road swept of refuse of faeces refuse generation of cities of cities (million) (million m2) transported transported generation (million (million tonnes)(million tonnes) (kg/capita.day) tonnes) 1986 353 348 122.34 445.07 50.09 27.10 1.12 136 1987 381 371 128.93 511.41 53.98 24.22 1.15 147 1988 434 424 139.70 588.76 57.51 23.53 1.12 156 1989 450 441 143.78 64.71 62.91 26.03 1.21 174 1990 467 455 147.52 691.98 67.67 23.85 1.26 186 1991 479 473 149.21 782.51 76.36 27.64 1.40 209 1993 570 552 165.50 924.10 87.91 31.68 1.45 240 1995 640 633 184.90 1110.40 106.71 30.66 1.59 294 1996 1227.88 108.25 29.31 Source: UNEP-Infoterra China National Focal PointFrom the few examples given, one can draw management systems in place, other countriesthe conclusion that worldwide waste with a long-term industrial base have not yetproduction is still growing.That goes for EU developed hazardous waste managementcountries as well, despite the fact that a waste systems to the same extent.reduction policy was adopted and despite arelatively low growth in economic activity and In the developed world, hazardous wastea balanced population growth. Part of this management programmes were startedincrease in waste quantities is due to an around 30 years ago.They were prompted byimprovement in statistical data collection and a number of pollution incidents. Some of thosemonitoring, part of it is real growth. early mistakes turned out very costly, and the task of cleaning up old pollution can be a veryThe examples above may also be regarded as long one. In the United States of today, morean indicator of the difficulty to obtain reliable money is spent on dealing with past pollutionand comparable data on waste generation and than on managing the current disposal oftreatment methods. hazardous wastes, even though the quantities of newly generated waste are greater.2.4 Hazardous waste While each country’s hazardous wastemanagement(1) management system is different, the nationalAll countries generate hazardous waste.The systems have some common features. Perhapsquantities generated and their potential the most important of those are the stagedimpacts depend on many factors, including the introduction of controls and the graduallevel of industrial development, the way in development of facilities. While the proper (1) The source of thewhich wastes are managed, the existing state controls and facilities are put in place, interim information in this chapter isof the local environment and the capacity of solutions are employed. Some environmentally the ISWA Training Resource developing countries have already started to Pack for Hazardous Wastethe receiving media. While many developed Management incountries now have effective hazardous waste develop a comprehensive system for the Environmentally Developing Countries.
24 Implementing the three dimensions of sustainable development environmentally sound management of 1. Controlling transboundary shipments – hazardous wastes. Many are considering how particularly controlling exports from the to start, while others have not yet realised the developed world to the developing world necessity to begin at all. (viz. the Basle Convention). 2. Controlling trans-national companies – There is a number of lessons to be learned controlling the behaviour and operating from the experiences and the mistakes made standards of trans-national corporations to in developed countries during the ensure that they employ the same implementation phases of their hazardous standards worldwide and do not lower waste management systems.These include: their environmental standards where regulations may be more lax. Under some • wide-ranging hazardous waste management circumstances, relatively small quantities of control cannot be introduced overnight, it hazardous wastes produced may make the must be introduced in stages; best available technology uneconomic. • legislative and enforcement measures must 3. Helping environmentally developing be developed at the same time as facilities countries to control their own wastes – and support services are established; the use of shared expertise and technology • as controls on emissions to air, land and transfer to assist developing countries in water are gradually tightened, specific areas the management of their own hazardous of pollution can be identified and taken wastes. care of; • waste minimisation should be addressed at an early stage, as any reduction in the quantity or toxicity of the waste will affect the number and size of treatment facilities needed as well as the economics of the waste management system. Since the development of legislation and establishment of long-term treatment and disposal facilities will take ten to 15 years, it is important to develop interim or transitional facilities in the short-term to allow the rapid phasing out of uncontrolled dumping. Industrialising countries cannot wait until they have detailed waste data and an infrastructure in place before taking action. It is better for them to do something now than to investigate for too long.Transitional technologies offer that short-term solution. There are three main objectives, which need to be addressed if environmentally developing countries are to improve their control and management systems for hazardous wastes.
Different approaches to waste management in different parts of the world 25 Part 3: Different approaches to waste management in different parts of the worldThe current status of waste management is by Environmental Action Programme (EAP), theno means uniform in different parts of the waste issue is being incorporated into theworld. For the purpose of showing these management of natural resources. In thedifferences, it seems sensible to divide the communication for the 6th EAP, drafted by theglobe into the following four geo-political areas: Commission, the waste issue is part of a chapter called ‘The sustainable Use of Natural• the European Union, Resources and Management of Waste’.The• the United States, Commission has also announced that it will• other high and medium income countries, launch a resource and recycling strategy during• economically developing countries. this year, which will be the framework for future waste regulation within the EU.3.1 The European Union Furthermore, it became clear that the integrated product policy (IPP) is theThe member states of the European Union cornerstone of the 6th EAP.This will set the(EU) have reached the most advanced state in agenda for European environmental legislation.waste management in the world. Extensivesource separation and material and energy The fact that the waste management unit inrecovery from wastes have led to a constant DG Environment no longer exists may bedecrease of landfilled material.The landfill regarded as a visible sign for this reorientation.directive in force will reduce the landfilled A new unit called ‘Sustainable Resources –amounts to a minimum and at the same time Consumption and Waste’ was established in itsreduce the content of organic carbon. An place.This change demonstrates that a moreimportant part of waste legislation is based on integrated approach is taken that considersthe concept of priority waste streams.(2) entire life cycles of products. Furthermore, theIndividual directives set concrete targets for general objective of attaining sustainablereduction, recycling, recovery and development shall be the guideline to widendetoxification.The gap between more and less the perspective from a mainly environmentaladvanced member states is getting smaller. focus to the inclusion of economic and social aspects.In the EU, policy-making in the field of wastemanagement is primarily driven by Maybe this change will also lead to a new wayenvironmental objectives. Economic of applying the European waste managementconsiderations are mostly restricted to hierarchy (minimisation – material recycling –statements like ‘economically reasonable’ energy recovery – disposal) in a morewithout concrete valuation.The resulting high- comprehensive way to find the optimaltech solutions are rather expensive.The final combination of options.The concept ofgoal is reducing landfilling to a minimum.The priority waste streams will probably remain,question of whether or not the environmental but this new approach (which is more lifebenefits outweigh the financial costs is hardly cycle oriented) could lead to the revision ofever asked. existing regulations.The increasing consideration of economic aspects willWaste management policies in the EU are probably lead to more cost-effective solutions (2) Packaging waste, end-of-currently subject to remarkable changes. In the life vehicles, electric and for existing and new regulations. electronic equipment,Commission’s proposal for a 6th batteries
26 Different approaches to waste management in different parts of the world It is obvious, however, that the tail (waste 3.3 Other high and medium management) cannot wag the dog (the entire economy). Since focusing on the waste end income countries alone is certainly the wrong approach in many Some high- and medium-income countries cases, material and substance flow analyses will obviously follow the approach of the EU, some be more widely applied.The goals of follow that of the United States. Limited dematerialisation and ‘detoxification’ of all availability of land normally leads to more economic activities in a long-term perspective ‘European’ solutions (for example, Hong Kong, will become more important than goals in the Singapore, Japan). Countries where this field of waste management. limitation does not exist tend to follow the pragmatic course of the United States (for Thus, new ways of policy-making are needed. example, Australia). These may result from a structured dialogue between a broad range of stakeholders. Waste management institutions will be challenged to 3.4 Economically developing contribute to that dialogue, the topics of which countries will be the whole picture and issues like supply 3.4.1 General overview of primary resources, production, trade, Economically developing countries generally transport and consumption. As a result of this lack policies aimed at the management of solid comprehensive approach, the goals of waste wastes. In addition, most countries do not have minimisation and decoupling economic growth modern regulations; existing regulations are and waste generation may finally be achieved. antiquated and rarely enforced. Within the next ten years, several accession However, solid waste management has candidates will become member states of the become an issue of concern for public health EU.They will have to fulfil the EU’s legal and environmental protection agencies in framework for waste (and resource) many developing countries.There are large management, probably with specified extended differences in the waste management deadlines. standards of developed countries.This gap is even greater between developed and 3.2 The United States developing countries.The waste produced by human settlements and the resulting problems Compared with the EU, a more pragmatic are mainly the same – but there are approach is used in the United States. differences between regions and locations due Economic considerations based on cost- to variables such as climatic, cultural, industrial, benefit analyses play an important role in geological, legal and environmental factors.The policy-making. Due to this approach, landfilling waste management systems in different continues to be the most common solution in developing countries vary substantially and are the United States.Two factors play an in some cases virtually non-existent. important role in this context: a relatively low population density, and incomplete cost Most developing countries do not have the accounting on waste management alternatives. technical and financial resources to manage solid wastes safely.This means that storage at the point of waste generation is often inadequate and collection services are inefficient and insufficient. Final disposal in those countries is usually a matter of
Different approaches to waste management in different parts of the world 27transporting the collected wastes to the the basic principles of occupational health andnearest available open space and then in some instances cause significantdischarging them. In some cases, the waste is environmental problems such as the recoveryset on fire in order to reduce its volume and and reprocessing of automobile batteries atto minimise the attraction of animals and the ‘home level’. Resource recovery orvermin. scavenging, as it is commonly called, takes place in most urban areas in developing countries.Developing countries in the process of The process is carried out at various stages ofindustrialisation have to cope with larger the waste management system and in differentquantities of more diverse materials.They are manners. Some of the most common methodsoften hosting industries which are hazardous are briefly described in the following sections.waste-intensive such as oil-refining,petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals manufacture In large urban areas with an active and well-and metal production. But the method for defined commercial area or an area with awaste disposal is still the same as mentioned large number of apartment buildings occupiedearlier – uncontrolled dumping.The challenge by people earning a high income, scavengersin those cases is to get from ‘no control’ to a typically sort through the waste before themanaged situation, and the first step towards authorised collection vehicle arrives.The mostthat is through so-called transitional common materials that are recovered includetechnologies. various types of paper products (cardboard, newspaper, and office papers), some plasticsIn many developing countries, the rapid and aluminium containers. In most cases, thepopulation growth and the increasing scavengers use carts or similar units for theeconomic activity combined with a lack of storage and transport of the recoveredtraining in modern solid waste management materials. In areas where there is a relativelypractices complicate the effort to improve the high generation of recyclable materials, thesolid waste service. Some improvements have scavengers store the materials in specificbeen made or are under planning, for example locations for their eventual collection byextending the waste collection system and commercial trucks.There are isolated casesstoring the wastes under improved conditions. where scavengers travel from house to houseTable 2 (page 28) illustrates the problems buying secondary materials.posed by the rapid growth of urban areas inChina. Another method of scavenging takes place during the collection process. In this particular3.4.2 Resource recovery in developing method, the collectors themselves and/orcountries(3) helpers conduct a certain amount ofMost developing countries have various segregation during the loading of the wasteprocesses aimed at the recovery of materials into the collection vehicles.The segregationfrom the solid waste stream. Studies have process is facilitated in the situations whereshown that local industries are, in some cases, open trucks are used which allows for somestrongly dependent on the availability of of the collectors to be stationed inside thesecondary materials for re-processing. Some of vehicle.The recyclable materials are storedthese materials include: cardboard, various either inside the truck or on the sides of thepaper products, different types of plastics and vehicle.metals. The last and the certainly the most onerous (3) This chapter is an inputUnfortunately, the methods used to recover by L. F. Diaz , G. M. Savage and type of scavenging is the one that takes place L. L. Eggerth, CalRecovery, Inc.,secondary materials are inefficient, disregard at the disposal site. Disposal sites, particularly Concord, California, USA.
28 Different approaches to waste management in different parts of the world Table 2: Statistics of municipal solid waste generation and transport in 11 large cities in China Cities Year Area of road Area of road Quantity Quantity Urban Per capita that should actually swept of refuse of faeces population refuse be swept (million m2) transported transported (million) generation (million m2) (million tonens) (million tonnes) (kg/capita.day) Beijing 1990 35.26 32.44 3.45 2.05 5.54 1.70 1993 36.30 4.10 2.08 5.75 1.95 1995 39.14 4.40 2.42 5.94 2.03 Tianjin 1990 42.98 42.98 2.17 0.25 4.54 1.32 1993 46.37 2.03 0.22 4.58 1.21 1995 46.94 1.80 0.19 4.65 1.07 Shanghai 1990 26.67 23.15 2.78 2.43 7.50 1.10 1993 26.86 3.34 2.34 8.94 1.01 1995 26.47 3.72 2.16 9.22 1.10 Chongqing 1990 4.94 2.89 0.40 0.15 2.27 0.49 1993 9.42 0.80 1.23 2.34 0.93 1995 9.82 0.95 1.42 2.75 0.96 Haerping 1990 30.23 30.23 1.50 0.35 2.44 1.67 1993 36.66 1.80 0.42 2.58 1.92 1995 38.42 2.06 0.41 2.67 2.11 Shenyang 1990 39.07 37.95 2.08 0.81 5.54 1.04 1993 41.19 2.03 0.90 5.75 0.96 1995 46.60 2.33 1.22 5.94 1.07 Dalian 1990 14.80 14.45 0.70 0.18 4.54 0.41 1993 14.99 0.67 0.14 4.58 0.41 1995 17.93 0.77 0.14 4.65 0.47 Xian 1990 9.51 9.51 0.58 0.10 7.50 0.22 1993 11.39 0.66 0.09 8.94 0.19 1995 12.64 0.70 0.05 9.22 0.22 Nanjing 1990 4.40 42.8 0.61 0.30 2.27 0.74 1993 4.87 0.71 0.21 2.34 0.82 1995 6.87 0.77 0.25 2.75 0.77 Wuhan 1990 22.80 17.34 1.42 0.36 2.44 1.59 1993 18.45 1.55 0.38 2.58 1.64 1995 19.98 1.66 0.38 2.67 1.70 Guangzhou 1990 21.13 21.09 1.05 0.31 2.91 1.00 1993 23.06 1.55 0.34 3.04 1.40 1995 23.72 1.55 0.33 3.17 1.34 Source: UNEP-Infoterra China National Focal Point
Different approaches to waste management in different parts of the world 29those located in medium and large Adequate modifications to the existingmetropolitan areas attract hundreds and in the scavenging systems must be made so thatmegacities thousands of individuals for the resource recovery is limited to specificrecovery of a variety of materials for sale. locations and those that conduct the processSome of the scavengers live on or near the do so under safe and ‘clean’ conditions. Mostdisposal site. Living in disposal sites is not only importantly, children and the elderly must bedetrimental to the health of the scavengers, absolutely prohibited from conducting any kindbut, as it has been shown in several instances, of scavenging activities.it can be dangerous due to slides and fires.The relative closeness of the disposal site tothe scavengers’ dwellings and other factorsmake it easy for them to allow theparticipation of their children and other familymembers in segregation activities.Thescavengers work at the landfills under some ofthe most precarious conditions and underdifferent climatic situations (from extremelyhot to very cold and wet conditions). In someof the very large disposal sites, the scavengersset up their rules and have been known todivide the site into areas where only specificgroups are allowed to work.The authors are well-aware of the fact thatscavenging activities play a major role in thesurvival of many of the people that performthose activities. However, the methods usedfor the activities reduce the efficiency of thewaste management system and mostimportantly are detrimental to the health ofthe scavengers.Scavengers that perform their activities priorto the collection phase break open bags tohave access to their contents orindiscriminately remove other materials fromcontainers and leave them on the streetincreasing the time required to collect thematerials by the formal collection sector.Resource recovery conducted during thecollection process reduces the efficiency of thecollection system. Scavengers that conducttheir work at the disposal sites have atremendous influence on the speed at whichthe collection vehicles discharge their contentsas well as on the effectiveness and efficiency ofthe tractors and/or compaction equipment.
30 Waste Management
Implementation of sustainable development practices 31 Part 4: Implementation of sustainable development practices4.1 Waste management and benefit analyses for example is such a tool, which could help to clarify complex issues andsustainable development to deliver a clear strategy for realisingHistorically, health and safety have been the sustainable development. Furthermore materialmajor concerns in waste management.These flow analyses should also be developed andtwo still apply – waste must be managed in a adopted by policy-makers in order to evaluateway that minimises risk to human health. the environmental benefit.However, today’s society demands more thanthis: apart from being safe, waste management A structured dialogue among a broad range ofmust also be sustainable. At the simplest level, stakeholders will be needed to find new wayssustainable waste management must therefore of policy-making. Waste managementbe: institutions will be challenged to contribute to that dialogue that will deal with the whole• efficient in terms of environmental picture including the supply of primary protection, resources, production, trade, transport and• socially acceptable, consumption.This comprehensive approach• efficient in terms of economic viability. will help to achieve the goals of waste minimisation and decoupling the link ofIn the past, the up-front economic cost of a economic growth and waste generation.waste management system was the mostimportant limiting factor in the decision Waste management should not only be amaking process. More recently, however, matter of managing end-of-pipe problems.environmental considerations have played an Instead, it should be an integrated part of theincreasingly important role in this process.The overall environmental policy towardssocial aspects of waste management, although sustainable development. It is clear that the tailnot a new concept in itself, have been included (waste management) cannot wag the dog (thein the decision making process to a lesser entire economy). Material and substance flowextent, as the research work into how to analysis should be applied more widely.measure the impact of waste management Focusing on the waste end alone is the wrongsystems on people’s lives is only just beginning. approach in many cases.The goals of dematerialisation and ‘detoxification’ of allThe challenge today is how to reach a policy economic activities in a long-term perspectivewhere all three aspects are taken into have to become more important than goals inconsideration.The most important question in the field of waste management.this context is – how do we manage ourresources with a maximum of environmental The first objective for sustainable wasteprotection and social acceptability? management is clearly to reduce the amount of waste generated. However, waste will stillNew tools have to be developed to be able be produced.The second objective isto answer these kinds of question, tools that therefore to manage waste in a sustainablecan help the policy makers in taking more way.This involves minimising the overallsustainable decisions. It is not our goal to find environmental burdens, minimising the overallone universally applicable tool but to use economic costs, and maximising the socialdifferent tools in a combination. Welfare cost acceptability of the whole waste management
32 Implementation of sustainable development practices system.The third objective is to shift the Many of the employment opportunities are ‘waste’ focus of the whole waste debate to a regarded as ‘blue collar’ jobs that require less ‘resource’ focus. Only when waste skills and training and therefore provide management systems evolve into optimised opportunities for traditionally disadvantaged or resource management systems will they be excluded elements of society. In addition, truly sustainable. employment opportunities for less able bodied and people with learning disabilities have To put it in a nutshell, waste management has increased in recent years particularly due to to become an integral part of sustainable the development of material reclamation integrated resource and waste management. facilities (MRF). On the other hand, we may observe a trend in 4.2 Waste management some countries that the demands placed on today – social dimension the waste management personnel are 4.2.1 Employment increasing.This is a general change of the labour As the waste management industry has market that touches upon the waste industry, as developed and evolved, its social importance well. Waste collectors, who are in the forefront has increased, particularly in terms of providing and meet the public, are often confronted with employment. Employment opportunities in questions concerning source separation, waste management have traditionally been recycling or other questions in relation to waste within the policy sector of local and national management.The implementation of quality authorities, in the regulation sector within assessment and environmental management national environmental protection agencies, systems will also put more stringent and the industrial sector within waste requirements on all personnel. treatment companies.This is still the case in large parts of the world. The implementation of compliance schemes, requirements of local waste plans and However, with the development of sustainable increased communication etc. have created waste management strategies, the focus on additional ‘white collar’ jobs, as well. It is also better uses for resources by collecting, sorting, likely that further legislative initiatives will recycling, remanufacturing and refurbishing generate more employment opportunities. materials, has given rise to new opportunities for employment in the recycling sector. A large Gender perspectives are rarely discussed in number of jobs have been created in the waste the waste management industry.(4) management sector, and recycling is one of the main sub sectors continuing to show growth. 4.2.2 Public participation and public perception It is difficult to establish exactly how many The growth of the waste management sector people are employed in the waste sector as it and the implementation of schemes that is hard to identify the boundaries. In the involve the public, either in terms of(4) However, the Commune participation or employment, or both, have recycling sector as one example, there is aof Capri, Italy, may serve as agood example in the field of significant number of non-profit companies, caused the social issues associated with thefemale labour. Unemployed charities and voluntary organisations working industry to become more apparent. In mostpeople were taken on to run countries, it has become increasingly difficult toa treatment plant for WEEE in the sector in addition to public and privateand other electronic wastes companies collecting, distributing and obtain planning permission for landfill sites orand waste recycling schemes. reprocessing recyclable waste. In the waste to energy facilities.The general public has20 persons are now employed a rather negative perception of the options infull time and 95% of these are developing countries, there is also a largewomen. informal recycling industry through scavenging. the lower half of the waste hierarchy.
Implementation of sustainable development practices 33NIMBYism (‘not in my backyard’) has become committees, round table discussion groups,an important factor, as the public is focused on open days, visits for schoolchildren, leafleting,their right to a clean environment, and and special events. Many waste treatmentunfortunately there is mistrust regarding the facilities establish proactive liaison committeeslevel of environmental emissions associated with local residents, the local authority and thewith landfill and incineration even when the operators of the plant in order to address anyhighest of standards are adhered to.This public issues of concern, promote goodantipathy has generally resulted from emotive communications practices, and raise therather than scientific evidence, promoted by public’s awareness with regard to the facility.environmental groups. This high level of engaging the public in waste management projects is becoming moreOften, the public has a negative perception of widespread, particularly in the case of morethe waste industry.There is concern among contentious projects such as energy fromsome sectors of the industry that waste and landfill.environmental groups are unfairly targetingthem. Information provision is an important step in minimising concerns that people may haveThe negative press that the waste industry has regarding the safety of a waste managementreceived as a result of several incidents has system. Waste companies publishmade it imperative that good clear lines of environmental reports on a regular basis andcommunication are opened up between waste make their company information moremanagers and the local population in the siting accessible to the public.The increased use ofand operation of waste facilities.The public’s the Internet has opened up new channels ofuncertainty concerning waste practices means it communication and the waste industry isis increasingly difficult to obtain a consensus and already using it as an effective tool inmake people accept different waste information dissemination.management options. Most, if not all, wastefacilities require a full environmental impact 4.2.3 Environmental justiceassessment, which takes into consideration An important issue in relation to the socialenvironmental and social issues. Where lines of dimension of waste management iscommunication were opened in the early stages environmental justice. Environmental justiceof a project and information and data was can be defined as ‘fair treatment for people oftransparent and accessible, the relationships all races, cultures, and incomes, regarding thebetween the public and the proposer of the development of environmental laws,waste facility have been more positive. regulations, and policies’ (US EPA). People are concerned that minority populations and low-The South East London Combined Heat and income populations bear a disproportionatePower facility is a good example in the United amount of adverse health and environmentalKingdom, where involvement of the public in effects. Is the increased attention tothe decision making process throughout meant environmental problems prevalent in allthat planning permission was eventually segments of the society?granted for what is generally regarded as anunpopular option by the public. Environmental justice and the right to a clean environment are related to the location ofA number of different measures can be taken facilities.Today, it is very difficult to findto improve relations with the public and locations for new waste treatment plants.ensure that good environmental practice is Citizens groups are established to demonstrateadhered to.These range from liaison against attempts to locate a facility in their
34 Implementation of sustainable development practices neighbourhood.Those demonstrations and the A number of measures have been taken to public opposition are often sufficiently strong minimise the risks and unpleasant working to force the planners to make changes to the conditions, but fact is that the effects on project. But successful opposition depends human health have not been sufficiently upon the capacity, time, number and investigated.This issue is also directly related to competence of the complainants to pursue the concept of environmental justice, as most their interests. of the jobs referred to above are low qualified and low-paid jobs. One would tend to draw the conclusion that higher-income populations are in a better 4.3 Waste management position to mobilise the effort needed to participate actively in the public debate on the today – economic dimension location of sites for waste facilities. In The economic aspects of waste management developing countries, the lack of efficient waste can be divided into the three following planning, communication channels and site categories: permission procedures and above all, more basic preoccupations, may further increase the • costs, problem. • funding of waste management, • taxes. 4.2.4 Occupational health Occupational health is another social issue in The first two points will be described in this the context of sustainable development, which chapter; the issue of taxes is discussed in must be given sufficient attention.There is a section 5.3.1 on economic instruments. risk of replacing an outside environmental problem by an internal environment problem. 4.3.1 Costs The well-documented traditional accidents and The total cost for waste management depends risks for waste collectors are replaced by new on the system in place, and the funds allocated health risks.Technical solutions and changes in to waste management determine the future of working routines have been introduced to the system.This is an area where great reduce the risk of, for example, sharp and variations will be found in different regions of cutting waste and accidents connected to the world. In developed countries, the heavy lifting. But the changes in the waste allocation of resources is assured by management chain that were made to obtain established organisational structures and by sustainable waste management have not the public’s interest, willingness and capacity to sufficiently taken into account the issue of pay. Many developing countries have a large occupational health. number of citizens who are not at all concerned about the cleanliness of the urban The collection of a biodegradable fraction and neighbourhood and the allocated resources its impact on the health of the waste are small. But they are of critical importance collectors, for example, has not been because they usually consume a substantial sufficiently investigated. Another example is the fraction of urban revenues. working conditions at sorting plants where, for the whole or parts of the sorting process, Table 3 below provides an overview of the manual sorting takes place.This problem is annual expenditure on urban services and especially difficult at sorting facilities that waste services in a number of cities.The cost receive household hazardous waste in of a waste service is compared with the state dispersed quantities and often without proper of national prosperity (measured in GNP per labelling or indication of content. capita). Where data on total urban
Implementation of sustainable development practices 35 Table 3: Urban expenditure, total and on waste, selected cities and years Annual expenditureCity Year Total urban Solid Waste GNP % GNP expenditure USD per capita per capita spent on USD per capita wasteAccra1 1994 2.76 0.66 390 0.17Ahmedabad2 1995 24.27 1.61 350 0.46Bogota3 1994 7.75 1,620 0.48Bombay2 1995 63.65 3.92 350 1.12Bucharest4 1995 94.75 2.37 1,450 0.16Budapest5 1995 310 13.80 4,130 0.33Buenos Aires6 1989 10.15 2,160 0.47Caracas6 1989 6.67 2,450 0.27Dhaka7 1995 8.31 1.46 270 0.54Hanoi8 1994 2.00 250 0.80Jakarta9 1993 82.75 2.50 740 0.34Kuala Lumpur10 1994 15.25 4,000 0.38Lahore11 1985 9.70 1.77 390 0.45London12 1991 46 16,550 0.28Madras13 1995 14.75 1.77 350 0.51Moroccan cities14 1990 1.12-2.03 950 0.12-0.21New York15 1992 5,804 97 23,240 0.42Riga5 1995 153 6.00 2420 0.25São Paulo6 1989 13.32 2540 0.52Strasbourg16 1995 1,600 63 24,990 0.25Surabaya17 1993 3.90 740 0.53Sydney18 1995 38 18,720 0.20Tallinn5 1995 8.11 3,080 0.26Tokyo19 1987 3,010 100 15,840 0.63Toronto20 1994 2,043 48 19,510 0.25Sources1 World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1997 10 Hassan, M.N. & Rahman, R.A. Solid waste management in2 Mazumdar, N.B. Municipal waste management: the Indian Malaysia: existing solution, issues and problems. Waste perspective. Energy environment monitor, 12(2):57-69 management and research (accepted for publication), (1996) 1998.3 Canrede Inc., Resource Development Engineers and 11 Lahore Municipal Corporation, Lahore, Pakistan, 1988. Planners, Whitby, Canada, 1996 12 Greater London Council, London, United Kingdom, 1993.4 EX Corporation and Yachiyo Engineering Co.Ltd, for 13 World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1997. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The study 14 Said, N. Management of solid waste in Morocco. University on the solid waste management system for Bucharest of Mohammed V, Ecole Supérieure de Technologie, Sale, Municipality in Romania – Final report. Bucharest, Ministry Morocco, 1993. of Public Works and Regional Planning, 1995 15 U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Bureau of the5 Canadian Urban Institute ,Toronto, 199 Census. City government finances, 1991-1992,6 Bartone, C.R et al. Private sector participation in municipal Washington, D.C., 1994 solid waste service: experience in Latin America. Waste 16 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, management and research, 9(6) (1991). Nancy, 1997.7 Preliminary data provided by World Bank, Washington, 17 World Bank. Private sector participation in solid waste D.C., 1998 management, Indonesia. 1995.8 Solid Waste Management in Hanoi,Vietnam. Warmer 18 Beverage Industry Environment Council. Domestic waste Bulletin, 44 (1995). management in Sydney: costs and efficiencies. Sydney,9 Compiled from: (i) Porter, R.C. The economics of water 1997 (research project) and waste: a case study of Jakarta, Indonesia. Aldershot, 19 Tokyo Municipal Corporation. The fiscal outlook for the Avebury, 1996; (ii) World Bank. Private sector Metropolis of Tokyo, 1989.Tokyo. 1990 participation in solid waste management, Indonesia, 1995; 20 Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Municipal financial and (iii) PT Katika Pradiptaprisma. Promotion of waste information, 1994.Toronto, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, recycling and reuse in developing countries, Jakarta 1996. Metropolitan City, Final report, April 1992. Bandung, Source: WHO, 1998 1992.
36 Implementation of sustainable development practices expenditure per capita was available, it has Furthermore, what is done must be done with been added. From this it is possible to portray an improved environmental performance. In the proportion of waste costs to total urban several countries, different taxes on waste have expenditure.The data should be taken as been introduced in order to divert waste from indicative only, because no two cities provide landfill to options higher up in the waste fully comparable services, and no uniform hierarchy.Those taxes are constituted in a urban accountancy system has been adopted number of different ways and are sometimes to permit reliable comparisons. However, the returned to the industry. But they will data permit some assessment of relative cost nevertheless increase the costs for the disposal burdens in these cities. of waste. The costs implied with waste management can 4.3.2 Financing/cost recovery be divided into three categories: The financing of waste management differs from one country to another. Fees and • overhead as for administration, planning, charges recover the costs for waste information, enforcement, inspections etc. management but taxes are also used. In some New costs occur for municipalities when cases, there is no direct recovery from the different systems for household hazardous collective using the waste services; instead, the waste, batteries, electrical and electronic service is financed by the general municipal waste etc. are implemented; budget.The contributor is normally the • collection and transport; significant household. rationalisations have been made, but with increased separation at source the industry Developing countries face the problem that will be confronted with increased; people can hardly afford to pay for the waste • treatment of waste; the costs increase as service and are often not willing to do so. At well. the same time, local taxation systems are often inadequately developed and the financial basis The total costs for waste management seem for waste management services is weak.There to be increasing and the allocation of financial are systems, in both developed and developing resources to the different components is countries, in which the costs for waste changing.The increase in the overall costs management are linked to the electricity or related to waste management is less important water bill to ensure that the services provided than might be expected. Costs for collection are paid for. and transportation have decreased due to increased efficiency, improved collection Countries with well-established procedures for technologies and better logistics. waste management cost recovery now examine new systems to recover costs. A On the other hand, overhead and treatment dilemma that may be observed in some costs have increased.The legal requirements countries with far-reaching source separation on treatment facilities and the political and a high level of public engagement in waste ambitions to make better use of waste have prevention, recycling and separation is that implied higher costs. As referred to on several people expect to pay less since they discard occasions in this report, the increasing need smaller amounts of waste. for information for and dialogue with the public has incurred increased costs, as well. Citizens who take an active role in the Some costs are new in the sense that they minimisation of waste consider it a reasonable correspond to services that were not carried compensation for their effort to be charged out before. less. Instead, they may even notice that costs
Implementation of sustainable development practices 37are increasing. It is an important function of Other influences on the air environment arethe waste management authorities to explain the destruction of the ozone layer caused bythe mechanism behind the cost charged to the refrigerants and rain acidification caused byconsumer and which elements the charge sulphur dioxide and oxides from nitrogen fromconsists of. incineration plants.The waste management industry also affects the soil, ground andThere is a trend towards promoting the fairer surface waters through leachate escape fromdistribution of waste management costs across landfills, land spreading and waste storage.households.The base for calculating this fee or Leachate may contain persistent, toxic and bio-charge can be made in a variety of ways – by accumulable compounds, and nutrients thathousehold, by weight or volume, by size of can cause eutrophication.domicile. Another trend is the use ofdifferentiated waste fees to change public 4.4.2 Waste quality and quantitiesbehaviour. Households play an important role Waste management is a service industryin waste management.The application of providing recycling, recovery and differentservice-related fees is a direct, visible and treatment methods and final disposal.Theimmediate means of influencing people’s waste generated by the industry itself isbehaviour. minimal, especially considering the amounts that the industry receives.The environmental effects of the industry are in direct relation to4.4 Waste management the quality and quantity of the waste ittoday – environmental receives.dimension In the last decades, the awareness of4.4.1 Environmental effects sustainable consumption has increased andWaste that is not properly collected, stored there is a trend to phase out a number ofand treated gives rise not only to detrimental products and substances that have direct andenvironmental effects, but, what is even more unquestionable effects on human health andurgent, it poses a risk to public health.The first on the environment (asbestos, PCBs etc).Thispriority is therefore to ensure the proper has had positive effects on the environmentcollection and storage of waste in order to and there is a large number of good examplesminimise risks to both the environment and to where the environment and its fauna and florapublic health. In countries without sufficient are recovering well.The trend of detoxificationcoverage of collection services, the resulting of production and consumption has also hadadverse environmental effects clearly its effects on the environmental performancecorrespond to the lack of collection services. of the waste industry. But there is still important work to be done to increase theA number of environmental effects is quality of waste through preventive actions inpotentially caused by the waste management the production and consumption phases.industry and all of them should be properlycontrolled. Waste management affects the One measure that affects both the quality andenvironment through land use, through the quantity of the waste requiring disposal ispollution with hazardous substances that the source separation of a number of types ofescape into air, water and soils. Waste facilities waste that are known to generateproduce greenhouse gases in varying environmental nuisances (household hazardousquantities, either in the form of methane gas waste). As to the quality aspect, some fractionsfrom landfill sites or carbon dioxide from cause harm when found in the general MSWcomposting or energy from waste plants. stream, but if taken care of correctly, the
38 Implementation of sustainable development practices environmental effects can be limited. Some 4.4.3 Hazardousness of waste waste fractions have a positive economic value One of the most important goals of the waste and can be sold on the market.The possibility hierarchy is to prevent and minimise the to sell waste fractions and the price obtained amount of waste.The aim for the waste that is in direct relation to its quality, because cannot be prevented or minimised is to cleanliness and purity enhance its value. render it as least hazardous as possible. Therefore source separation is a necessary requirement. With regard to the quantity, Waste management is subject to strict source separation has a preventative effect and legislation in most developed countries and it increases the public awareness of waste the highest of standards are adhered to in an management by making families aware of their effort to limit the environmental impact of the responsibility for the separation of their waste. different processes and operations. But emissions from landfill and incineration The technology and operation processes are processes can lead to air, land and water also improving and can still be optimised to pollution on a local and global scale.This is control the environmental effects caused by why it is so important to have regulations that the specific waste treatment method. In the ensure that standards are maintained, developed countries, the environmental effects legislation is adhered to and potential impacts of individual waste treatment facilities have are minimised. improved substantially during the last years. But the quantities of waste produced are still The quality of waste reflects the production rising; therefore the total pollution from the and consumption patterns of society.That waste industry is also still increasing.Technical means that efforts must be made in other improvements will continue to minimise the sectors of society, as well (for example, environmental effects of waste management – chemical policy). especially in countries where the standard for waste treatment is low. But the main challenge is to minimise the quantity of waste that goes to waste treatment facilities.
Means of implementation 39 Part 5: Means of implementationWithin the waste industry, a wide range of Nevertheless, a well-established and supportedinstruments is used to implement waste policy is of crucial importance for theenvironmental policies and attain set state of the waste management in any country.environmental goals. Some are voluntary and Another limiting factor is the financialothers are regulatory, some again are financial resources required to ensure the realisation ofwhereas others are aimed at raising awareness a well-functioning infrastructure for theand public perception. Nevertheless, the main treatment of waste.priority and the basis for further action is theadoption of a regulatory framework One element common to most waste policiesconnected with sufficient means to reach goals is a waste hierarchy.This hierarchy is aand objectives set. stepwise approach to waste management in the order of environmental priority for different waste management options.The5.1 Regulatory framework general principle of the waste hierarchy is as5.1.1 Waste policy follows:(5)Waste management can no longer beregarded as a single activity carried out by the • waste minimisation and reuse,local authorities. It is one part of society • recovery and recycling,infrastructure that depends upon a number of • safe final disposal.other factors. An overall national or regionalwaste policy determines and governs the How flexibly should this hierarchy be applied,framework for the activities in the waste and secondly, which components constitutesector. the different levels of the hierarchy? We believe that the hierarchy must be seen as aMost countries do have a waste policy, but a general guideline and as a good basis forlong-term and well-prepared waste policy is establishing a waste policy.The ranking wasstill requested by the waste industry all over made with regard to the environmental effectsthe world. A clear, concise and consistent and does not take into considerationpolicy is a necessary requirement for the economic and social criteria. Any decision mustwaste industry to establish and set up waste take into account a broader range of factorsmanagement systems and make necessary than just considering the environmental effects.investments. A waste hierarchy based on the ranking aboveThe content and the quality of existing waste forms a good basis for the creation of a wastepolicies vary considerably. Apart from policy if the hierarchy is applied with flexibilityconsidering environmental and health aspects, and takes into account economic and sociala waste policy must take into consideration criteria. If the waste policy is furthermore wellsocio-economic, political, structural and cultural elaborated and contains clear, concise andfactors.The lack of traditional procedures and consistent objectives and measures, the wasteof a proper understanding of how to integrate industry has the necessary political frameworkall the relevant factors is a hindrance to to plan and organise the local wastesuccessful waste policy. Some factors may management system. (5) Some countries havechange rapidly – which will have an effect on developed a slightly different waste hierarchy - it is oftenthe policy – and others may contradict each more detailed - but the mainother. grouping of the hierarchy is globally recognised.
40 Means of implementation The second issue mainly concerns the final Commission has announced that they believe disposal option. In most countries, biological that the pieces of legislation necessary for the treatment is considered as a recycling option time being have been adopted and that focus through the recuperation of compost and must be made on consolidation. other end-products. Incineration with energy recovery is considered as final disposal. As with Most modern waste legislation contains all waste management options, there are large requirements on licensing, authorisation and differences in the performance and efficiency compliance for waste management facilities. levels of different incineration facilities and the Those requirements are complemented with role of that option in different countries. In powers of inspection and enforcement.This is some parts of the world waste-to-energy normally referred to as ‘command-and- makes an important input to public district control’.The legal framework constitutes the heating and is therefore regarded differently baseline. In several parts of the world, the from incineration that takes place without industry has become a driving environmental energy recovery. force that even goes ahead of the legislator in some aspects. In other parts of the world, incineration is literally a ‘technology’: to put waste on fire to 5.1.3 Waste planning reduce its volume and the risks for diseases. The national and/or regional waste policy together with the legal framework forms the 5.1.2 Legal framework – effective basis for waste planning on regional or local implementation and enforcement level.The general policy must be transformed Apart from the adoption of a detailed and into tangible action and the establishment of a well-structured waste policy, the waste system that provides a service to the citizens. industry requires a legal framework that enables it to reach set objectives and targets. Thus, efficient waste planning is another A well-elaborated legal framework will assist in necessary element to ensure a well functioning the effective implementation of those targets. waste management system. Waste planning at The legal framework must also be provided local level is often insufficient when compared with an effective enforcement system. to national planning. Again, local factors must be taken into consideration in the preparation In most countries, environmental legislation of a waste management plan. Experience and was introduced as a reaction to an occurring information can be transferred to and environmental problem.There is often a lack collected from other regions and localities, but of coordination between different pieces of each plan is specific to the local circumstances. legislation that protect different environmental One major problem in the field of waste interests. Legislation is often incoherent, as planning is the lack of competent and skilled well, since it was developed at different times human resources.This problem is especially and for different reasons, protects different pressing in developing countries. interests and encompasses different objectives. Local waste planning is of more tangible In the context of environmental legislation, the character and a local waste plan will EU is superior to national legislation. It has encompass figures on waste quantities, waste instituted a large number of different legal acts composition and treatment capacity.Typically, it in the field of environmental protection.The will also contain measures on waste result is a good example of a legal framework minimisation and prevention, on recycling and that has responded to environmental on a reduction of waste going to landfill. A problems rather than being proactive.The well-prepared waste plan at local level can be
Means of implementation 41a very useful tool for local waste managers to With the current trend towards deregulationimprove local waste management. and increased competitiveness in the industryFurthermore, the long-term planning assists in and with the role of the local wastemaking provisions and enables waste managers management authority as increasingly one ofto be pro-active before it comes to planning, determining and buying wastedeficiencies in the system (bottlenecks in the services, the role of public procurementdisposal capacity, major investments etc). becomes increasingly important.The buyer needs to be competent in order to buy wellIn developing countries, waste planning is and to know what to ask the service providerconcerned with other issues and realities; the for. It is not a question of only looking at themost limiting factor is how to achieve the price – but to look at the price for a givenmost with the limited funds available to the quality and quantity level as specified by thewaste service. But improvements are not buyer.necessarily dependent on massive investments.Developing countries can probably increase There is a large number of innovative andtheir performance by using what they already successful tenders, but it would require toohave in a more efficient way. Good much space to report them here.Therefore,organisational structure and a high-quality we would like to give some examples ofmanagement are two other important factors environmental considerations that could befor efficient waste management.The process of specified in a tender for waste managementwaste planning forces people to consider services:those factors; it may help to stress theirimportance. • definition of the level of environmental performance required, • requirement that an environmental5.2 Market-based initiatives management scheme be used as part of a5.2.1 Public procurement process,The market for public procurement is large • environmental classification of vehicles,and therefore the potential to make • green fuel standard used in vehicles,environmental improvements is considerable. • requirements on primary materials andEnvironmental considerations can be recycled material in products,introduced as an important aspect in the • stipulation that a product or itssetting of tender specifications and evaluation components must have an eco-label orof the responses. energy label or similar environmental label if available,Again, the legal framework is of importance in • requirement on personnel involved to havepublic procurement. In most countries, public specific training or specific environmentalprocurement is regulated concerning both the experience.content of the tenders and the criteria forevaluating the responses.The legal framework 5.2.2 Environmental managementmay hinder the consideration of environmental systemseffects at the evaluation stage if that implies Within the commercial sector, the drive (6) There are two mainhigher costs. On the other hand, public towards more sustainable practices has recognised systems for EMS:procurement can also enhance the markets for resulted in an increase in the implementation the worldwide recognised ISOrecyclables by promoting (or even making 14001 and the European of environmental management systems voluntary scheme EMAS (Ecoobligatory) the use of recyclable materials in (EMS).(6) In some countries, the local Management and Auditproducts that are subject to a tendering authorities have also taken the step towards Scheme). But there is no obligation to have an EMSprocess. implementing an EMS.The waste management certified or registered.
42 Means of implementation industry (both public and private) has a high A study carried out by a number of European public profile and is closely scrutinised by local waste management organisations in 1999 residents, pressure groups and environmental showed that there is an interest within the authorities.Therefore it is advantageous and European waste industry to implement an necessary for the industry to improve its EMS. At that time the number of EMAS- environmental performance and thus also registrations and ISO 14001-certifications was improve its image by addressing environmental not very high. But the number of companies issues. participating is continually increasing. The scope of environmental improvements 5.2.3 Life cycle assessment and cost- through an EMS can be considerable. Many benefit analysis waste management organisations are already Specific tools, such as life cycle assessments reaping the rewards.The waste industry is (LCA), are extremely useful when we consider therefore in a unique position to set an the overall impact of a product and assess its example for high standards in environmental sustainability. LCA measures inputs and management. outputs, from the mining of the resources to final disposal. It can take into consideration The arguments for implementing an EMS in environmental benefits and costs and include the waste industry are the same as in other the technical, social and economic implications industries. But it can be argued that the waste of different waste management options. industry is more closely connected to the environment than other industry sectors. LCA has been used to an increasing extent by Whatever method is used to treat or dispose environmental groups or as a marketing of waste, it is ultimately the environment that initiatives. LCA can be used to compare is used to dilute, disperse, break down or comparative acceptability of consumer stabilise the waste. Furthermore, the waste products, such as disposable nappies versus industry in its role as a public service provider cotton nappies, plastic drinks containers versus is not in the position to prescribe the quality glass. But it can also be used in more complex of the waste that is delivered to them for situations as when evaluating the setting up of treatment and/or disposal. By implementing an a local waste management system in order to EMS, the waste industry can demonstrate that determine which treatment methods to rely they take the environmental effects of their on. Any LCA will, of course, depend on the activity seriously. local circumstances and the results may vary from one region to another.(7) There are also examples An EMS at its simplest has a systematicof national ‘simplified’ approach to understanding how the laws of a The following example of LCA used in theprogrammes. In Norway, forexample, there is a local country affect an organisation’s activities, to waste industry is from the United Kingdom.environmental certification identifying which environmental effects its The WISARD (Waste Integrated Systemsscheme for companies named‘Miljøfyrtårn’.This certification activities may generate, to developing a Assessment for Recovery and Disposal)is much easier to obtain for strategy of how to reduce and control these computer software launched by the Unitedsmall-sized companies than effects and finally of how to communicate to Kingdom Environment Agency was designed toISO 14000 certification. It isorganised by the local the public the actions taken and the results of help waste managers identify more sustainable,municipality and is a co- those actions. However, waste companies are integrated approaches to waste management.operation of the industry and increasingly seeking recognition for the The system uses life cycle assessment forthe local authorities. 240enterprises have so far standards they are achieving, which results in recovery and disposal and allows modelling ofachieved certification and 60 more companies registering for EMAS or all aspects of different waste managementmunicipalities have started to systems and compares their environmental ISO14001.(7)certify municipally ownedcompanies. impacts.
Means of implementation 43Another example is an Austrian study(8) based Another kind of voluntary initiative areon LCA and CBA that compares one-way initiatives taken by industry to show theirbeverage packaging with refillables.The results goodwill and sense of responsibility in differentled to significant changes in the Austrian aspects – environmental, social or educational.legislation regarding targets for beverage Different companies have launched take-backpackaging. schemes in order to keep a high environmental profile. Any such schemes are5.2.4 Standardisation of benefit to the waste management as theyStandards within the waste industry can cover normally tend to sort out a waste fraction thateverything from the bins used for collection to is not desirable in the feed stock (for examplereferences for the best available technology. printer toners, ink cartouches, mobileEven if waste management must take into telephones, batteries etc).consideration local, political, cultural and socio-economic factors in each country, there is still Voluntary agreements have recently becomesome scope left for the co-operation across one way for the industry to be proactive tocountry borders. avoid detailed national legislation. In Norway, for example, there is at the moment no legalA number of organisations promote best regulation of the collection and recyclingpractice and the creation of best practice targets for packaging waste.The governmentguidelines for the waste industry.The EU has and the industry have agreed on a voluntaryset up a body with the aim to establish initiative on the part of the industry to fulfilreference documents for different activities certain collection and recycling targets. As longcovered by the EU Directive on Integrated as the industry lives up to its commitment, theProduction and Pollution Control.(9) There are government is not going to regulate.The list ofalso different national initiatives to set national such examples could be very long.standards. We believe that the correct way ofsetting standards in a globalised world is toturn to the international scene first and try to 5.3 Economic instrumentsset standards there. Only if this attempt fails There are different economic instruments thatshould recourse be made to national are increasingly used either directly in thestandards. waste industry (for example landfill taxes) or at levels that directly influence the generation5.2.5 Voluntary initiatives of waste (taxes or fees on packaging). It is veryIn a large number of countries, different forms difficult to compare different financial initiatives (8) The legislative authoritiesof voluntary initiatives have been introduced. in different countries since there is no and the relevant industriesThere is no uniform terminology for voluntary common ground either for the definition of jointly commissioned theinitiatives, but it is a large field that expert opinion expressed in taxes, charges, fees etc. or for defining who this study.encompasses a large number of different contributes to them. A broad range of (9) The Referenceactions. instruments, including economic instruments Documents (BREFs) must be taken into account when the where appropriate, in the right mix is most competent authorities of EUThere have always been voluntary initiatives in likely to achieve the goals set. Member States determine thethe waste sector for the collection of different conditions for IPPC permits. The BREFs will inform theseparated waste fractions.The establishment of A simple explanation of an economic decision makers about whatthose initiatives relied upon a positive instrument used in waste management quickly may be technically andeconomic market for the material in question. economically available to the becomes complex.The costs for waste industry in order to improveDifferent associations (charities, sport clubs, management include taxes and charges, and in their environmentaletc.) collected material to sell in order to some countries taxes are used as the basis for performance andreceive money. consequently improve the the funding of waste management systems. whole environment.
44 Means of implementation What is a tax in one country may be a charge In 1997, the European Commission presented in another; a fee in one country does not a communication on Environmental Taxes and necessary have an equivalent in another Charges in the Single Market. The paper country. supports the increased use of fiscal instruments to make environmental policy In a large number of countries, there is a trend more efficient and cost-effective and to ensure to shift the focus towards effective market- that the environmental taxes and charges are based and other economic instruments such used in ways that are compatible with as environmental charges and the use of fiscal Community legislation. At EU-level, any instruments to achieve waste policy goals. economic instrument must in design and application avoid trade barriers and a Below we have tried to distinguish between distortion of competition. Customs duties and different financial instruments that are used to charges with similar effects are not accepted. change people’s behaviour or that simply This goes for state-aid rules, as well. indicate a preferred direction of policy and means of recovering the costs for waste A comparison of taxes is often misleading management services. since both the tax-base and the tax-rate differ from one country to another. It is difficult to 5.3.1 Taxes get comparable figures unless we study the Similar measures may be defined variously as rules and applications of a tax.The structures taxes, charges, levies, fees and duties in and the objectives of taxes are comparable, different countries.The definition of a term in however.(11) one language does not necessarily have an exact counterpart in other languages.There 5.3.2 Cost recovery – waste fees and are also differences between taxes; some are charges explicitly recognised as having an In this section, we will discuss the use of waste environmental purpose whereas others have fees and charges as tools to instigate a certain significant effects on the environment although desirable behaviour on the part of the their original purpose was revenue population. As already mentioned above, the considerations. In the following, we distinguish funding of waste management differs from one between fiscal instruments and measures that country to another. Fees, charges and taxes are are explicit or implicit payments for various used to recover the costs for waste services.The latter type of instrument is management.The legal status of these discussed in chapter 4.3.2 ‘financing/cost instruments may differ considerably as may recovery’. those who contribute to the fee or charge. In the case of municipal waste, it is normally the(11) The United Kingdom, forinstance, has a landfill tax that Taxes can be divided into different categories: households that finance the system.indirectly also provides income • cost-covering charges where the revenue isand economic support for used either to pay for disposal services orother sectors via the landfill The different methods for recovering the coststax credit scheme. Landfill to finance recycling; from the households are a good means tooperators can use 20% of • incentive taxes levied to change influence and change public behaviour. It cantheir landfill tax contribution environmentally damaging behaviour (withto support or develop also be a way of making people aware of theenvironmental projects, thus no specific intention to raise revenues); fact that their behaviour has an impact ongenerating further • fiscal environmental taxes where the waste generation. When the costs areemployment and investment surplus revenue from the tax can be used recovered via a tax, the use of innovativeopportunities.The scheme isintended to direct at least to finance budget deficits or shift taxes methods is less transparent. It may even be40% of the money available to from labour to resources.This can also be difficult to be transparent and show the costsrecycling and wasteminimisation projects. referred to as ETR – ecological tax reform. of the waste management system to the
Means of implementation 45citizens.The waste management services will 5.4 Informative instrumentsthen be one item among others in the generalmunicipal budget. 5.4.1 Raising awareness and promoting public participationRecovering costs via a charge or fee makes it In a large number of countries, the localeasier to design the system in a innovative way authorities launch education projects andand in a way also to support a specific awareness raising initiatives. Most localbehaviour.The task of identifying and allocating authorities have in employment a wastecosts is a good exercise for the waste minimisation officer, recycling officer or Agendamanagement authorities. 21 officer. Many waste management companies also run a communication and public relationsWhen fees or charges are used to fund the programme.Those campaigns aim either atservice provided, it is easier to make the generally raising awareness, or they aim atwhole process transparent and to giving more detailed and specific information.communicate to the contributor what he isactually paying for.This is why differentiated Another important issue in this context iswaste fees are used to an increasing extent: to public participation in projects prior to theirchange public behaviour or to promote a realisation, especially if these projects are likelyfairer distribution of waste management costs to have an impact on people’s lives. In mostacross households.The behaviour at household countries, environmental impacts assessmentslevel plays an important role in waste are required for a large number ofmanagement.The application of fees and infrastructure projects. One of thecharges is a direct, visible and immediate components in such assessments is that ofmeans of influencing their behaviour. By establishing communication with the public.constructing the fee or charge in a certain way, Here again, cultural differences influence thethe households can be encouraged to display way in which the public communication takescertain behaviour.The waste quantities place and which importance it is accorded ingenerated by households vary considerably as the decision-making process.do the efforts to reduce those quantities. One chapter of the New Spanish Urban WasteThe base for calculating the fee or charge can National Plan 2000-2006 deals with the issuebe made in many different ways.(12) Some part of public consciousness. A general programmeof the costs will always be fixed since it does for raising public awareness will be launched, (12) By household, by weightnot occur in relation to the quantity of waste with a special programme for the different or volume, or by size of(planning and information, for example), activities in municipal waste management.(14) domicile. (13) For example, reducewhereas other parts of the costs could be waste quantities, encouragevariable. If a part of the costs depends on the In 2000, the Swedish Ministry of the recycling, introduce a systemamount collected or on the number of times Environment launched an information of payment in relation to campaign to promote the separate collection service utilised, etc.the waste is collected, the households could (14) The budget for thisinfluence their contribution.The differentiated of household hazardous waste.The aim of the programme is a total of 12approach may help to attain a set goal(13), but campaign was to increase public knowledge of million Euro.This hazardous substances and hazardous waste. Consciousness Programmereverse effects must be closely examined. will be co-ordinated with The campaign was arranged together with the other initiatives in the field of municipalities. professional qualification and development in agreement with the representatives of the Union of Workers.The Professional Qualifications and Training budget totals almost 60 million Euro.
46 Means of implementation In the United Kindom, the campaign ‘Are you spread information and knowledge in the field doing your bit?’ is another example of a of waste management. A number of nationwide awareness campaign.The £25 universities is also offering distance-learning million publicity campaign was launched by the courses to provide training for those already government to promote sustainable lifestyles. employed in this sector.There is a need not Simple environmental messages (for example only to prepare people entering the sector, but on recycling) are broadcast through TV, press also to make people active in the sector and radio advertisements in addition road evaluate their practical experience and to shows and special events. encourage them to go in for higher education. 5.4.2 Professional qualifications and 5.4.3 Environmental reporting training Environmental reporting is a way of presenting It is of crucial importance to have an effective the environmental effects of an activity in a and competent workforce at all levels of waste clear and systematic manner. Environmental management. Compared with other fields reporting is complementary to financial within the sector of civil engineering, waste reporting and so far, only a few countries management lacks a structured academic impose legal obligations to provide approach to get the required professional environmental reports. On the other hand, the qualifications. During the last ten years, market is pushing for those reports and different environmental programmes were companies in the waste industry are booming, with the issue of waste management increasingly interested in demonstrating their forming part in varying degrees. In developing environmental ambitions and achievements. countries, there is also an acute problem caused by the lack of academic programmes In Denmark, an amendment concerning green to achieve diplomas in waste management accounts was made to the Danish subjects. Environmental Protection Act in 1995.This amendment requires certain types of industrial With regard to education and training, the sites to prepare green accounts and send International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) them to the Danish Commerce and and its national members offer training courses Companies Agency. Most facilities in the waste on a range of waste management issues sector are required to draw up green designed for different levels. Both national and accounts.(15) Public or private companies are international consultancies and other training not required to submit green accounts.They providers offer different types of in-house are, however, allowed to do so on a voluntary training in environmental management for basis.Their accounts have to fulfil the same business and the industry. Many waste requirements as the compulsory green management companies have also taken up accounts. the challenge of internal education programmes, mostly as part of their quality The green accounts are required to be and environmental management schemes. prepared and drawn up in accordance with Today, such initiatives form an integral part of certain rules listed in the statutory order.The the social and ethic dimension of corporate statement of green accounts must include(15) E.g. waste incineration policies. three parts:plants and plants for theprocessing, treatment and final In the era of new communication • basic particulars;disposal of waste. Excludedfrom this obligation are usually technologies, there is a large number of • a management report;landfills, collectors of waste examples where Web-based resources are • specification of environmental impacts(haulage contractors) andcomposting plants. used to enhance training opportunities and to summarising the consumption of energy,
Means of implementation 47 water and raw materials, the nature and quantity of the most important pollutants involved in the production process, the products and wastes as well as the discharges to soil, water and air.5.4.4 Research and technology transferThere is a continuing need for research andtechnology transfer between countries.Theexchange of experience can take place fromindustrialised countries to developing countriesor between developing countries.The R&D of solid waste management is oftengiven low priority in developing countries.Handbooks and guidelines for developingcountries which discuss the choice of wastemanagement options need to becomplemented with studies that take intoconsideration the appropriate managementapproaches and technologies, local climatic andphysical conditions, the financial and humanresources as well as social and culturalacceptability.
48 Waste Management
Future challenges and goals 49 Part 6: Future challenges and goals6.1 Key areas of progress increased recycling and reduced waste generation.achieved• The whole waste industry has made great 6.2 Key areas for future progress over the last ten years. Significant progress has been made at a technical level. progress • Waste policies have to be made more• More and more developing countries are consistent and coherent; the legal concerned with sustainable waste framework and its implementation and management. enforcement need to be improved on a national and supranational level in all parts• The development of national waste of the world. Substantial efforts in that field strategies has also been an area of are of greatest importance especially in progress. Most developed countries have developing countries. adopted waste management plans and implemented measures to achieve set • Mid-term waste management plans at objectives and targets. Sustainable waste national and local level are required that management has been defined at the can serve as a sound and reliable basis for policy level and statutory targets were set the improvement of and investments in to increase recycling and move away from waste management systems.This is the options on the lower half of the waste especially urgent where public health is hierarchy.The local and/or regional waste already adversely affected. management plans have also taken shape and in some cases they have already been • It is of highest priority to achieve a subject to first revisions. reduction in the amount of generated waste and to decouple the link of economic• The most dynamic change for the public growth to waste generation. For this was the increase in public awareness and purpose, a uniform waste industry approach participation. Community recycling has is required to raise public and political improved and so has the willingness to interest in the establishment of sustainable participate in different source separation waste management in all parts of the world. schemes. • A most pressing area for future progress is• Another area of progress was the response information and education.There needs to of business and industry to sustainable be a co-ordinated strategy with regard to waste initiatives. Important improvements information provision; considerable work have been made in the design and needs to be done to change people’s conception stage of products.This can attitudes towards waste management as a particularly be seen within the regulated whole and to increase participation in market for packaging that has been recycling and minimisation schemes. Once encouraged to optimise material use for the public is participating in the recycling packaging.There has also been an increase schemes, it is important to give them in the incorporation of environmental feedback on what happens with the management systems in the business and recycled waste to keep up their interest in industry sector, which has in turn led to participation.
50 Future challenges and goals • Information and education are also needed waste. Considerable investment needs to to allay the fears that people have with be made in emerging technologies and regard to waste management and to support should be given to R&D on a encourage them to take responsibility for national level. the waste they generate. One major goal that needs to be achieved is increasing • Developing countries need appropriate public confidence in the waste technologies and management approaches management sector at large. Extensive which are compatible with the specific local work needs to be done to remove the demands, requirements, capabilities, and negative perceptions and replace emotive resources. views with views based on sound science and agreed facts. • While progress has been encouraging to date, partnerships need to be developed • The markets for recyclables have to be continually so that all stakeholders can improved, as well. Producers must be work together towards a common goal. encouraged to incorporate life cycle Participation by all parties in the decision assessments (LCA) in the development making progress is an important issue.The stages of their products and consider waste waste industry has to encourage and take management issues in the design stages – part in multiple stakeholder involvement. something that does not happen as a general rule at present. • The key priorities and the most efficient measures with the biggest possible benefit • Alternatives have to be made available so for the environment have to be identified that consumers are encouraged to on the basis of facts and figures.Tools like minimise their waste or buy products of a environmental impact assessment, material comparably high standard and price that flow analysis or macro-economic cost- are less harmful to the environment. benefit analysis must be applied more widely for improved and scientifically based • The access to transparent and coherent decision-making.To achieve substantial waste data is crucial if strategies are to be progress in the minimisation and successful and sustainable waste detoxification of wastes, a broad range of management practices achieved.The stakeholders must be involved. industry needs to have access to clear, transparent and replicable data and • The waste industry must set and achieve information.This access and the quality of sustainability targets. waste data cause difficulties at a national level, and the difficulties are even greater at • Step by step, the isolated ‘end of pipe’ view the international or regional level.The waste of waste management must be management industry, the public sector and transformed into integrated resource and researches have to become more aware of waste management.The system definitions the present and future networking for analyses used in decision- and policy- opportunities to facilitate information flow making must include the issues of waste and the exchange of know how. generation and resource consumption on a global scale.This is especially important in • We need standards for the whole waste developing countries. industry that include new and emerging technologies and also the management of • There needs to be access to training and specific waste types such as agricultural education for everyone involved in waste
Future challenges and goals 51 management. An increasing awareness of growth and waste production. It is a major networking opportunities is required to challenge for the industry as a whole to facilitate information flow. decouple this link.The means to do this is mainly in sectors other than the waste• The practical experience of practitioners industry itself. and planners, regulators and operators, scientists and researches in waste Waste prevention and minimisation take place management must be made more available at the conception stage of a product and not to developing countries and economies in when it enters into a waste treatment facility. transition. Immediate support and know- There are different approaches to reach the how transfer is most valuable as it aim of waste prevention and minimisation. facilitates the implementation of sound These are based on resource management – waste management strategies and as the integrated product policy (IPP), practices. In many cases, a small amount sustainable production etc. invested in training and education can enable local staff and regional regulators to Within the waste industry, there are also help themselves effectively. several measures to be taken that will be driving forces in changing production and• From a global point of view, the most consumption behaviour. Economic instruments, urgent need is to close the gap between such as taxes or differentiated gate-fees developed and developing countries.The depending on the quality of the waste, have first priority is to provide sufficient proved especially efficient in raising the collection services to as large a part of the awareness of commercial waste generators. world’s population as possible and to raise The waste industry also plays an important the quality of landfills. role in communicating with the industry and calling the industry’s attention to possible improvements.6.3 Specific areas of attention6.3.1 Clear, transparent and reliable 6.3.3 Render waste less hazardousdata Another important goal is to render wasteThorough knowledge and consistent data less hazardous.This again is closely linked toabout waste generation patterns, waste areas outside waste management. Currentcomposition and developments are necessary chemical policies and production andrequirements in the preparation and consumption patterns influence the quality ofmonitoring of efficient waste regulations and in the waste and the environmental impact ofwaste planning. It is highly important that the waste management systems. But renderingnational authorities provide clear, transparent waste less hazardous also depends on theand reliable data to the industry and that the existing collection systems for hazardous wastewaste industry participates in the provision of and on the level of information and educationthe basic data. of both the industry and of households.The setting up of collection systems for household6.3.2 Waste prevention and hazardous waste will help to create publicminimisation – improved resource awareness of the risks this type of waste posesmanagement to human health and to the environment. InMost modern waste strategies recognise a the long run, this awareness will lead towaste hierarchy that has the prevention and changed consumption patterns and to anminimisation of waste as its the first priority. increasing demand for substitute products withBut there is a direct link between economic less risk.
52 Future challenges and goals The issue of rendering waste less hazardous is 6.3.5 Economy and costs of great importance in developing countries, The issue of costs is an important one, and it mainly for public health reasons. Most needs to be addressed by all stakeholders. developing countries do not separate waste; Currently, landfilling is still the cheapest option the waste collected consists of household and this creates difficulties when we attempt waste, hazardous waste and healthcare waste. to persuade the local authorities to adopt Improper storage, collection and treatment of more sustainable practices, which would this waste pose a high risk to public health. probably result in higher charges. But the This is a priority area for making implementation of a sustainable waste improvements. management system needs to be funded accordingly. Hazardous waste, regardless if it originates from households or industries, should not be 6.3.6 Improved public perception included in the municipal waste fraction for A concerted effort will be needed to address several reasons.The most important one was the poor public perception of the waste mentioned above. Another reason why the industry today.There is severe opposition to industry is interested in ensuring that the siting of landfills and waste to energy hazardous wastes are properly collected and facilities, and even opposition to composting taken care of is of commercial nature. As facilities, MRFs and recycling centres. People attempts are being made to create markets for have to become more aware of their recyclables, compost and other end-products responsibility for the waste they produce.The from biological treatment, it is vital that waste industry needs to work closely with all hazardous waste is taken care of correctly in stakeholders to implement a communication order to eliminate any risk of contamination of strategy to change public perception and those tradable waste fractions. ultimately encourage the public to make lifestyle changes towards more sustainable 6.3.4 Developing countries practices. Waste management is often either virtually non-existent or unsatisfactory in developing 6.3.7 Occupational health countries. Any measure taken will be a great This is an important issue in the field of waste improvement to public health and to management that has been widely neglected environmental protection.The increased even in the most advanced countries. In order transfer of experience and knowledge from to avoid replacing one problem with another, the north to the south, but also among we need to more research work on this topic countries of the south, is a factor of high and we have to make it a priority issue. importance in this context.The first step to improve waste management systems in 6.3.8 Sustainability reporting and developing countries is to use more efficiently performance indicators what they already have and not necessarily Sustainability reporting has a larger scope than immediately look at major investments to just environmental reporting; it covers remedy the situation. economic and social issues, as well. Sustainability reporting is a way for the waste When waste management schemes are set up industry to present a clear picture of the or improved, the large numbers of scavengers environmental, economic and social impacts of have to be considered, as well.They should be the industry. It is important that the waste integrated in the system in a socially balanced industry establishes widely accepted reporting way that improves their health situation. principles that should be applied consistently to promote transparency and credibility.The
Future challenges and goals 53elaboration of a set of relevant performance information and the transfer of ideas andindicators is an issue of importance for the good practice among them.future. • Increased collaboration among all sectors is6.3.9 Professional qualifications and of paramount importance. People have totraining recognise the need to work togetherImproving the standards of waste management towards a common goal.systems will have great effect on the issue ofenvironmental protection.Therefore, we need • A greater sense of responsibility is neededwell-trained and highly qualified professional in the use of material resources and in thewaste managers who understand the effect of generation of waste.poor operations and misguided policies on theenvironment and who have the skills necessary • Sustainable practices should be fullyto lead change.Thus, other challenges for the incorporated at the earliest possible time.waste industry are the establishment ofguidelines for professional qualifications andmore access to qualified training in the future.6.4 Roles of otherstakeholders• There needs to be a co-ordinated nationwide approach towards awareness raising and information provision.This will require all relevant organisations to work more closely together in delivering a single message, which can then be built upon at a regional and local level.• A greater level of awareness and increased use of LCA and design for the environment within the product design, development and manufacturing sectors will prevent the delivery of mixed messages to consumers and encourage the consideration of waste management throughout the life cycle of a product instead of making it an end-of-pipe solution.• Other stakeholders should work towards reduced use of energy and materials resources.• Clear lines of communication should be established between all other stakeholders to encourage the dissemination of
54 Annexe 1 Annexe 1: The subsequent concept developed by SWICO in collaboration with its members in Case study 1: 1993 is based on four pillars. Sustainable development in 1. The manufacturers and importers assume Switzerland – an example of responsibility for their products up to the end of the useful life of such equipment. good practice with regard to This means they provide the trade electronic scrap disposal companies and the ultimate consumers In the late-1980s, those using office and with a working recycling system that is informatics equipment in Switzerland operated by their association. expressed the view, in increasingly clear terms, 2. The system in which equipment is taken that they expected instructions from back operates on a region-wide basis and producers as to how used equipment could in line with the population’s practice of be disposed of without a detrimental effect on dealing with other types of waste.The the environment.The then practice of taking owner of used equipment can hand it in at such equipment to refuse incineration plants an allocated site; this may be the or disposal sites met with resistance from manufacturer/importer, the dealer or an those using such equipment, as well as the official collection site. Returning equipment authorities because it meant, among other to the dealer or manufacturer is strongly things, that key resources were irretrievably recommended because here are specialists lost and pollutants released into the to assess the possibility to recycle environment. equipment or parts of it. 3. Used equipment is taken back free of Consequently, manufacturers and importers of charge to make people respond to the office and informatics equipment created system.The logistics and recycling costs are solutions for their products which enabled financed via an advance recycling fee customers to return their used equipment and imposed on new equipment.The costs that have it recycled against payment of a fee.This arise for used equipment are thus covered seemed to correspond to the consumers’ by the fees imposed on new equipment by wishes, but the solution was not viable from a way of a cost allocation method. practical point of view for a number of 4. Specialist companies are issued licences to reasons. It would have been necessary, for process the used equipment.These example, to account for users of various companies meet the high requirements of brands of informatics equipment, and the processing, classifying pollutants according sorting and returning of individual items would to types and recycling raw materials have required a disproportionate effort. without undue harm to the environment. The licensed companies are continually The manufacturers and importers therefore checked by a control office which also approached their association, SWICO (Swiss advises the association regarding further Association for Information, Communications development of the recycling technology. and Organisational Technology, Zurich), and The control office endeavours to increase asked for the development of a recycling the recycling quota and improve the quality concept for the sector to remove the of the recycled material. disadvantages of individual solutions and conform to the principles of a lasting development.
Annexe 1 55The concept was authorised in December high technical knowledge.1993 by the association members during an 3. The financing model of using an advanceextraordinary annual general meeting.The recycling fee has proven successful.introduction of the system was adopted on Consumers prefer to pay their contribution1 April 1994. when they purchase new equipment as opposed paying it when the equipment isHowever, the resolution of the association returned.The system is well-designed andmembers was not sufficient in itself to ensure comprehensive which has resulted inthe implementation of the system. Since there savings that can be passed on towas no legal pressure in place at that time, consumers in the form of low advancecompanies had to be convinced one by one to fees.sign up to the voluntary agreement.This step 4. The success of the voluntary sectorwas a success as a result of the environmental solution shows that it is possible to takemanagement systems and concepts that are steps to achieve greater environmentalincreasingly better incorporated in the compatibility without strict legal regulations.companies.The SWICO Recycling Guarantee The assumption of responsibility by the– this is the name of the system – has grown manufacturers/importers has, on thefrom initial 36 members to an association of contrary, resulted in a clear division of tasksmore than 150 members. In addition to office in the system, which simplifies theand informatics equipment, appliances from organisation and has a positive effect onthe mobile telephone and graphics industries costs.are now also taken back. The Ordinance on the return, the taking backAfter almost eight years’ operations of the and the disposal of electrical and electronicsystem, the following conclusions can be appliances, ORDEA, which has been in place indrawn. Switzerland since 1 July 1998, provides the legal basis for an obligation of consumers to1. The amount of returned used equipment return equipment and the obligation of the increases every year.This is due to two trade companies and manufacturers to take factors: on the one hand, the system has back and dispose of equipment. SWICO will become more widely known and, on the further develop and supplement its concept in other hand, the amount of installed line with the future requirements of ORDEA equipment has increased sharply.The and incorporate the wealth of experience proportion of incorrectly disposed gained during the past eight years.The next equipment has decreased significantly. step has already been introduced – the2. The processing of used equipment inclusion of consumer electronics equipment according to strict regulations means that in the disposal solution as per 1 January 2002 . 78% of the materials contained in such equipment can be recycled.The sorting and dismantling of equipment is carried out by specialist companies that employ many people who are socially underprivileged. The SWICO Recycling Guarantee has also provided the processing industry with an important impetus. As a result of the investments made, the sector has become a model of excellence, and it is taken as an example in other countries because of its
56 Annexe 2 Annexe 2: financial and environmental.The demands are growing whereas resources are somewhat Case study 2: static. In addition, the local government is in a process of transition as the local authorities Waste management in and the Cape Metropolitan Council, in the Metropolitan Cape Town. Metropolitan Area, are presently being transformed into a single modern unicity A case study – the challenges council, the new City of Cape Town. Along facing a developing city (16) with this change comes a new service delivery strategy which was developed to remove past Cape Town is a developing city with all the inequalities in service levels. symptoms of a city in transition. New solid waste strategies are needed which aim at It is difficult to improve the waste management involving all citizens and achieving a sustainable system without sufficient financial resources. system.The status quo with regard to solid But the funds available are used for seemingly waste management in Cape Town is discussed in more pressing issues, such as housing, health, this paper, highlighting the problems and possible fighting crime etc. solutions that can be incorporated into policy and strategies. In conclusion, the paper ‘Sustainable cities’ is a buzz-word widely used postulates that it is possible to achieve the goal these days and achieving sustainability and for Cape Town of being a world class yet harmony with the environment is a major African city, while caring for the needs of all challenge for new Cape Town. Sustainability people, and without compromising the cannot be achieved in isolation, it must include environment.This depends on whether the right waste issues and environmental aspects as well decisions are made and solutions to the as consider the social makeup of the city. challenges that face the city are adopted in the Waste strategists, scientists and managers have short term. Public involvement, along with to ensure that the needs of the city and its education and information processes, are seen inhabitants are addressed without as the keys to success of the solid waste system. compromising the environment. Introduction Legislation and policy Cape Town is a metropolitan city of some Section 24 of South Africa’s Bill of Rights three million people, situated on the southern (Constitution of the Republic of South Africa – most tip of Africa.The city is located in an area Act 108 of 1996) states that everyone has the of extraordinary beauty and variety – a rich right to an environment that is not harmful to floral kingdom, rugged mountain ranges, forests their health and well-being. Furthermore, and endless coastlines. In stark contrast, a large everyone has the right to have the percentage of the population is poor, with environment protected, for the benefit of many living below the breadline who cannot present and future generations.This is achieved afford even rudimentary services. Mere survival through reasonable legislative measures that (i) and basic housing issues, which are taken for prevent pollution and ecological degradation, granted in most first world cities, are issues that (ii) promote conservation and (iii) secure need to be addressed in Cape Town. ecologically sustainable development and the use of natural resources while promoting The city can be regarded as a developing justifiable economic and social development.(16) P. H. Novella, City of Cape African city; it exhibits many of the symptomsTown, Waste Management The Act allows citizens to take legal actionDepartment, PO Box 16548, associated with cities in transition.The against the local government to ensure theseVlaeberg 8018, Cape Town, challenges facing Cape Town include social, rights.South Africa
Annexe 2 57Legislation and policy to uphold this right have alarming rate as a culture of non paymentalready been implemented or are currently in prevails in certain communities within the city.the process of preparation or promulgation. The resulting lack of funds causesThese are: the White Paper on Integrated infrastructural problems as well as operationalPollution and Waste Management – Gazette and capital budget cutbacks. In addition to theNo. 20978 (DEAT, 1999), the National presence of many bureaucratic procedures,Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of there is also a lack of performance1998) and the National Waste Management management and incentives for staff.Strategy (NWMS) (DEAT, 1999).Thislegislation and the resulting actions once it is There are pockets of excellence in thefully implemented will make a holistic, provision of services including the handling ofintegrated and sustainable approach to waste solid waste.These are overshadowed by areasmanagement mandatory in South Africa. which are littered and which have become the dumping ground for unscrupulous illegalWaste disposal was specifically neglected in dumpers.These persons dump their waste atthe past; landfills were mostly poorly sited, the roadsides or in any open space in theunengineered and badly managed.The dead of night or even in broad day light,Environment Conservation Act (Act 73 of thereby causing health problems and other1989) (DEAT, 1999) introduced new major environmental problems.requirements for landfills. 11 years after thepromulgation of the act, some landfills have In every community there are people whoimproved, but a number have not. A large have little concern for the state of thenumber of landfills remain unlicensed. In order environment.This is due to ignorance or socialto implement the provisions of the Act, a hardship.There is little formal environmentalseries of guideline documents (the Minimum education on a significant scale for theRequirements)that enable compliance with the residents of Cape Town. Numerous clean-upAct, were published in 1994 and revised in programmes have been run in the past, but1998 (DWAF, 1998).The minimum they have had only limited success in keepingrequirements have become important Cape Town clean.reference documents for waste disposal inSouth Africa.These documents were also used The importance of waste disposal facilities hasto form the basis for waste disposal policy in been neglected in the past and the city isother countries. facing a shortage of suitable landfill space for both general and hazardous waste. But there isProblems in the field of waste still an increase in hazardous waste importsmanagement into the Cape Town area from other cities inThe Unicity of Cape Town has recently been South Africa that are worse off with regard toformed out of seven autonomous Councils hazardous waste facilities. An intensive capitaleach with its own administration, level of investment programme was introduced toservice and tariffs for its residents.The address these problems; it aims at closingproblems in the field of waste management unsuitable sites, upgrading suitably positionedare immense. Fourie (2000) reports that there sites and modernising facilities which haveis fragmentation and duplication of services become run-down. Legislation has beenwhich results in wastage and places a burden drafted to control the flow of waste into siteson financial resources.The problems are in Cape Town from outside the metropolitanexacerbated by the fact of ever increasing area.debtors’ books which resulted from unpaidaccounts.These arrears are increasing at an
58 Annexe 2 The problems associated with illegal dumping that make up the city must take responsibility and the task of getting all waste into the for keeping that area clean and ensuring a formal waste stream and upgrading the strategy that keeps it clean. In this way, the collection, transfer and disposal facilities cleaning of the street-scape is identified as a coupled with the lack of supporting legislation roads function, the cleaning of beaches is have resulted in a slow progress towards the within the responsibility of beach amenities goals of waste reduction, minimisation and etc. In this way, the specialised solid waste recycling.The waste stream is mixed and very systems of waste collection, transfer and little pre-sorting takes place on a formal level. disposal can be customer-focused in their business and do not have to perform the task Structural reorganisation of cleaning up everyone else’s mess. Along Following the international trend, water, with this an intensive educational drive will electricity and solid waste management are ensure that all citizens are aware of reorganised into outcome focused, ring fenced environmental protection as well as of the business units with an emphasis on the core effects of littering, illegal dumping and other business of each unit.This will result in efficient, bad waste management practices. cost-effective services for all residents, which are not harnessed by unnecessary bureaucracy. The involvement of communities will be In the initial study, the trading arm of solid encouraged through policies that assist in the waste, which comprises waste transfer and employment of SMMEs (small, micro and disposal, has been identified as an area of medium enterprises). In addition, policies are progress, which could result in improved investigated that focus on waste management internal mechanisms or corporatisation into, as a vehicle for job creation. Entrepreneurial for example, a utility company.This part of the community-based collection systems have service is tariff funded and has clearly defined already been successfully implemented in Cape customers from both within as well as outside Town, where previously unemployed people the council. are now small business owners and employers. These community waste management systems Waste collection is receiving attention and will all have a place in the integrated waste be subject to similar studies at a later stage. If management plan for Cape Town. the decision-makers favour utility companies, as has been the case in Johannesburg, these Sustainable and integrated waste companies will be registered with the council management as the sole share holder.The adoption of clear The development of sustainable environmental lines of responsibility, accountability, control of plans such as IMEP (integrated metropolitan resources linked to performance management environmental programme) is under way and possible incentive schemes will surely which include integrated waste plans for Cape result in greater operational and economic Town.These plans cannot be developed and efficiency. Bad debts might still remain a implemented overnight. In addition, continual problem, however, we hope that the improved review and assessment are necessary to keep levels of service as well as increased visibility the plans up to date and make sure that they and responsiveness to the needs of all respond to the needs of a rapidly changing customers will result in a culture of payment city. for services over time. It is important to understand the terms The issue of cleaning the city has been sustainability and integrated in the context of discussed in many debates. It has been waste management.These terms mean proposed that the owners of the components different things depending on the context. In
Annexe 2 59this paper, they are defined as follows: In order to be sustainable, waste management must consider the waste stream in a holistic• sustainability: ‘solving today’s problems in a cradle-to-grave manner in order to optimise responsible and environment-friendly the use of natural resources and reduce manner without prejudicing the ability of environmental impacts. An integrated future generations to exist or solve their approach, which combines several techniques own problems’, such as waste reduction, reuse, recycling,• integrated waste management: ‘the composting, treatment and disposal must be consideration of all components which considered. Figure 7 shows the widely make up the waste hierarchy and the accepted desirability hierarchy in integrated selection of appropriate components in waste management, which is used to guideline consideration with each other in a cradle- waste management planning and policy to-grave approach’. development to an increasing extent.The first step to sustainability can be achieved The decision on which processes to use mustby complying with all legislation in the field of be based on an appraisal of all costs andenvironmental protection. In addition, specific benefits as well as of the impacts on theimpacts are analysed and mitigatory actions environment. Aumonier and Coleman (1997)are taken to minimise those impacts. It must point out that LCA is an appropriatebe clear, however, that the waste management technique for examining waste managementapproach alone cannot be considered scenarios.sufficient to achieve sustainability. The overall emphasis of the system used mustJust as waste management systems must have be on reducing waste quantities, therebyan integrated approach, so too, must waste protecting natural resources and hencemanagement be integrated into other services reducing the mass requiring disposal.The mixthat have an impact on the environment. All of processes must be selected with a goal inplanning and operational activities must be mind. Figure 8 (page 60) shows a typical wasteconsidered holistically. A city development management system with a number ofstrategy (CDS) for the city as a whole and a options. Once the desired mix of processescouncil-specific integrated development plan has been selected, an environmental(IDP) are being developed for Cape Town to management system (EMS) which embracesfacilitate overall integration. ISO 14001 needs to be developed and put in place to ensure that environmental objectives are met on an permanent basis in each process. Figure 7: Desirability hierarchy in integrated waste management Reduction Reuse Recycling Desirability Composting
60 Annexe 2 Figure 8:Typical elements of a waste management system Waste Waste Disposal Collection generation storage site Transfer Recycling/ station reuse Materials recovery facility Source Compost separation making In terms of the NWMS, all local authorities waste information system that can be kept up will have to develop Integrated Waste to date to enable proper planning and Management Plans for waste (DEAT, 1999). In continual review. a move towards an integrated approach to waste management, the former Cape It has been estimated that, on average, each Metropolitan Council finalised a strategy with resident of the Cape generates approximately regard to waste generation, reduction, 1kg of waste per day that requires landfill transfer and disposal for the Cape Town area. disposal. Existing recycling and composting In this plan (CMC, 1999), in which waste programmes were evaluated. Some 6% of management objectives are set, emphasis is domestic waste is recycled. Judging from the placed on a phased approach to the waste that goes to landfills, it is estimated that implementation of more sustainable domestic waste recycling could be increased processes in addition to solving immediate to about 22%. As a first step, sorting of mixed problems with high priority followed by a waste is investigated, but long-term plans to continual improvement through review and encourage and phase in source separation will assessment. be put in place. Education and public awareness are considered as critical The selected disposal method is sanitary components in the success of the plan. landfill, which must in all respects comply with the Minimum Requirements. A waste stream Waste management is generally considered to assessment and audit was carried out for the comprise two facets viz. community/logistics as first time. Waste and transfer methods were well as scientific/engineering. In developing assessed and landfill airspace and capacity for countries, these two facets are poles apart and disposal were determined as well as the require different approaches to achieve projected needs for the next 30 years. Waste sustainability.The cleansing and waste collection generation statistics are now available for the services may be regarded as community first time. It is essential, however, that this services requiring a logistics approach while the information is transferred into a dynamic planning and management of waste transfer
Annexe 2 61and disposal require a scientific/engineering rudimentary service, black bags service, and aapproach. In order to achieve sustainability, we containerised system.need an approach that takes these two facetsinto account. If they are considered separately, Illegal dumping in Cape Town must be stoppedwe still need an integrated approach to brings as soon as possible. An intensive strategy wasthe two together. launched to clean the city, but also to educate and inform the people.This is seen as theIn Cape Town, cleansing (litter removal and corner-stone of any successful strategy; bylawsstreet sweeping) and waste collection are the are redrafted to improve the enforcement ofmost costly components of the waste the laws.The causes of the underlyingmanagement systems.These will be replaced problems are established and solutionsby optimised, appropriate and cost effective developed; major cleanups without sustainablesystems. Communities will be encouraged to results are discouraged.The first and foremosttake responsibility for their waste; they will be task is to make all waste enter into the wasteconsulted in the preparation of a strategy for stream. Communities will be encouraged tocleaning their area. In addition, citizens will be take responsibility through proper campaignsmade aware of and continually reminded of that promote a clean and sustainable city.the aims and objectives of the waste strategyimplemented in their area. Recycling and composting Waste reduction, recycling and compostingInformation on waste types and quantities will form major components of a sustainable wastebe made available.The implementation of any management system. Along with improvedstrategy can only be successful with the active standards and increasing disposal andparticipation and support of the communities. transport costs, waste reduction is alsoThe public must be involved in the entire becoming more financially attractive.Thisprocess; people must be included early on in concept includes more than just separatingthe process so that they understand the post-consumer materials; it also includes reuse,effects and costs of management of the wastes re-processing and re-manufacturing.Thethat they produce. complete loop must be considered to be able to assess long-term viability and sustainability.One of the common mistakes that were madein the past was the belief that there is one Recycling is also a vehicle of job creation, andsolution.This is not the case. It is now a number of operations are being looked at toaccepted that there will be a number of determine which of them are suitable for thedifferent strategies with varying action plans sorting of waste to recover reusable productsand varying costs for different sectors of the and raw materials. It is reported that thesame city. For this purpose, appropriate status informal sector in Egypt was employed in thequo analyses are carried out and achievable, cleaning, waste collection and recycling sectors,acceptable and affordable strategies are thereby handling about one third of Cairo’sdeveloped along with action plans. waste (Iskandar Kamel, 1999).The base is a minimum service level for all. It is important that proper planning is carriedFrom this basis, varying service levels will be out prior to implementing a programme.selected with resulting differing costs.These Markets need to be assessed and thedepend on the type and quantity of waste dynamics understood. Realistic goals must beproduced as well as on the specific needs and set and the public must be involved. Decision-demands of each community.There are makers must be made aware of the total costspresently three levels of collection service: of the loop.The elements that should be
62 Annexe 2 included are, among others, source separation, required large subsidies. However, as curbside collection, materials recovery facilities acceptable landfills are often scarce near areas and mixed waste processing.There are many where waste is generated and transfer stations combinations of these elements to be are implemented to move the waste further considered. afield, a new move is evaluated towards composting as a cost-effective alternative. Drop-off points in Cape Town currently form Private sector involvement in these systems is the major part of existing recycling initiatives. welcome. In this way, a significant amount of Recycling schemes in schools and other organic wastes can be diverted away from institutions all provide a necessary service and valuable landfill airspace. earn an income in the process.There are many success stories in school recycling schemes. In The method of reducing waste going to landfill some cases, bottle and paper banks situated in by way of introducing a Web-based industrial convenient spots also provide other solutions. waste exchange (IWE) system for Cape Town These recycling centres are, however, often- (Dittke and Novella, 2000) is a unique solution poorly sited and cause social nuisances. to the problem of reduced landfill space (http://www.cmc.gov.za/iwe). While such an These sites within urban areas are currently in approach is new to South Africa, similar the spotlight as they reportedly encouraged systems have been used successfully informal salvagers to break open bags or tip elsewhere, for example, in the United States out the contents in a quest to find high value and in Australia, to promote the reuse of waste. Managing these sites presents a waste materials.The system has its roots challenge. Public pressure forces the city to somewhere between recycling and reuse with consider closure of certain drop-off sites attractive financial rewards for waste providers because of the social problems they cause. (in terms of reduced waste disposal costs and Sites must not be neglected; instead, they the possible sale of waste materials) as well as should be integrated into municipal for waste users (replacement of expensive programmes with appropriate control. virgin material).The IWE system can form an Litterbins must be available at each site. integral part of Cape Towns integrated waste system and promote sustainability. Composting is an internationally recognised method of waste reduction (EPA 1989). Disposal by landfill Organic material in household waste in the Both the NWMS and the study of an form of green and kitchen waste is a resource integrated strategy for the Cape Town have that should be returned to the environment to recognised landfill disposal as an appropriate increase soil integrity and productivity. and a necessary component of waste Composting is a natural way to turn waste management in South Africa. Landfills must be into a resource in a controlled way before it is properly sited, well engineered, and efficiently returned to the environment. operated, and the general effects of operations and the impact on the environment must be The scale of composting systems can vary monitored.Thus, landfills remain an important from households with a compost heap in the component of Cape Town’s integrated waste backyard to small areas at drop-off facilities to management plan. large plant installations. In Cape Town, there are three large municipal composting facilities, Since landfills are increasingly situated in all of which have been in operation for some remote areas transfer stations are established. two decades.These plants have one thing in Some of them are rail based, and all of them common – they were not financially viable and are ideally located in strategic positions in
Annexe 2 63order to ensure long-term economic viability • Special attention needs to be given tofor the entire system. education and information programmes, which are seen as the corner-stones ofSelected landfills are upgraded, while others are sustainable solutions.closed. Airspace is used up at a rate of some1,5 million m3 per annum.This means that • Sustainability can be achieved.Thethere is still space available for approximately framework for a national system iseight years.This time is increased to about currently in place. Local plans and policies13 years by expanding selected sites. At the for Cape Town are in the process of beingsame time, regional studies determine whether put together and implemented.it is possible to increase the capacity of certainsites to 30 years. • Sustainability must be aimed at by implementing integrated waste managementAccording to Novella (2000), sustainable systems, which use a mix of alternativelandfills can be defined as landfills where air solutions that complement each other. Aspace, processes, use of products and residues cradle-to-grave approach is needed.are at an optimum with minimal negativeeffects on the environment. An EMS is applied • Waste managers have the responsibility ofto landfill operations in Cape Town to achieve ensuring a cradle-to-grave approach whereISO 14001 compliance. Reyneri et al, (1999) complementing components are selectedand Bertolini et al, (1999) give details useful in an integrated manner. Local plans mustfor the development of EMSs of landfill sites. In be set with achievable goals. Reviewthis way, management methods and processes must be put in place to measureprocedures followed for disposal operations the effectiveness of the plans. Publicwill be improved.This will lead to more participation is seen as important and willefficient control and improved environmental go hand in hand with education andperformance and the prevention or reduction information programmes.of risks. Risk analysis can be used tosuccessfully control health, hygiene, safety, • IWE system can be part of Cape Town’ssecurity and environmental effects at landfill integrated waste management system,sites (Reyneri and Belfiore, 1999). thereby promoting sustainability.Conclusions • Landfills are seen as part of an integratedThis paper attempted to shed light on some approach.They must be designed,of the complicated issues related to solid engineered, operated and monitored in awaste management in Cape Town. Improved way that ensures environmentaland more sustainable waste management compliance and a sustainable approach.systems can be achieved.The followingconclusions result from the above discussion. It • Environmental management systems thatmust be noted, however, that this is an comply with ISO 14001 must be put inevolving dynamic subject; the conclusions must place.Their actual performance must bebe seen in this light. monitored.These goals cannot be achieved by waste management measures alone but• The transformation of the fragmented solid as part of an overall system. waste management services into optimised customer focused business units is • Waste reduction, recycling and composting regarded as the most effective way to must be encouraged and increased as the manage waste in Cape Town. amount of waste going to landfill is reduced.
64 Annexe 2 Acknowledgement and EPA (1989). Decision-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management. United States disclaimer Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/530- The presentation of this paper would not have SW-89-072 been possible without the co-operation of the City of Cape Town.The views expressed in the Fourie F (2000). From Tygerberg Metropolitan paper are those of the author alone. Local Council Cleansing to Cape Metropolitan Area Unicity waste utility company: a vision. References Proc. Wastecon 2000. Biennial conference of Aumonier S and Coleman T (1997). Life cycle the Institute of Waste Management (SA). assessment for waste management planning. Somerset West, Cape Town, South Africa. Proc. Sardinia September 97, 6th International Waste Management and Iskandar Kamel L (1999). MSW Management: Landfill Symposium. S. Margherita di Pula, Italy. Local Knowledge and National Development A October case study from Egypt. Proc. Sardinia’99. 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Bertolini E, Meglioli E, Canovi L, Bonvicini V and symposium. S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy. Bertolotti L (1999). Implementation of an October. environmental management system conformed to the ISO 140001 regulation. Proc. Sardinia 1999, Novella PH (1999). Waste management in 7th International Waste Management and South Africa: Can sustainability be achieved? Landfill Symposium. S. Margherita di Pula, Italy. Proc. Sardinia’99, 7th International Landfill and October waste management symposium. S. Margherita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy. October CMC (1999). Towards an Integrated Approach to Waste Management in the Cape Metropolitan Reyneri G and Belfiore F (1999). Use of risk Area. Cape Metropolitan Council P O BOX analysis in the implementation of an integrated 16548,Vlaeberg 8018. South Africa. management system at landfills. Proc. Sardinia 99, 7th International Waste Management and DEAT (1999). Environment Conservation Act Landfill Symposium. S. Margherita di Pula, Italy. (1989), Integrated Pollution and Waste October Management./National Waste Management Strategy. Department of Environmental Affairs Reyneri G, Kociolek P and Belfiore F (1999). and Tourism, Private Bag X447, Pretoria 0001, Implementation of an environmental South Africa management system (ISO 14001 and EMAS) at landfills. Proc. Sardinia 99, 7th International Dittke SY and Novella PH (2000). Industrial Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. S. waste exchange as a powerful tool for waste Margherita di Pula, Italy. October. reduction. Proc. Wastecon 2000 Biennial conference of the Institute of Waste Management (SA). Somerset West, Cape Town, South Africa. September DWAF (1998). Waste Management Series. Minimum Requirements for Waste Disposal. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Private Bag X313 Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Annexe 3 65Annexe 3: Increasing quantities of municipal solid waste As a result of the rapid population growth inCase study 3: cities and towns and the continuous improvement of living conditions, both theManagement of Municipal overall quantities and the per capita quantitiesSolid Wastes in China(17) of municipal solid wastes increase. Before theGeneral introduction 1980s, per capita refuse generation per dayWhen China implemented the policy of was 1kg; the total amount of refuse generatedreform and opened to the world, the in the whole country was about 70 millionurbanisation progress sped up, the amount of tonnes. In recent years, per capita refusecities and towns and their urban population generation has increased to 1.3kg to 1.5kg, andincreased rapidly.There were more than 200 the total amount of refuse is appr. 200 millioncities with a total population of 200 million in tonnes.This is an increase by more than twothe early 1980s; today, there are 668 cities and times since the early-1980s.16,500 cities and towns with a totalpopulation of nearly 400 million. Serious refuse problems forced some cities to increase their investments in environmentalThe increase in residents of cities and towns sanitation work. 11 large cities, includingcertainly leads to more municipal solid wastes. Beijing,Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou,Since a considerable number of urban invested a total of 5.757 billion yuan RMB, aresidents still use crude coal as energy source, sum that is 5.345 times higher that the sumthe municipal refuse is not only large in invested in 1986.The increase in investmentquantity, but also contains large amounts of was highest in Guangzhou: 9.57 times, followedcoal ash and cinder (more than 50%).This by Wuhan 6.97 times, Shanghai 6.01 times, andcauses great difficulties in the treatment of the Beijing 5.8 times. Other cities also increasedrefuse: the fertiliser efficiency of refuse their investments in varying degrees, thuscompost with large amounts of coal ash and increasing the capacity of the road sweep andcinder is not high; the amount of refuse for refuse transport systems.landfill treatment is large; the mixed plastics inrefuse affect the compactness of landfills; and Furthermore, some cities built several refusesuch refuse is unsuited for incineration treatment facilities in succession. In 1986, therebecause its calorific value is low. was a total of 23 refuse and faeces treatment facilities, with a treatment rate of 0.07%. InSince the national financial resources are 1995, there were more than 900 treatmentlimited and the incomes of residents are facilities, with a treatment rate of 43.7%.Therelatively low, there are no sufficient financial main treatment methods used are simpleresources to fund the construction of refuse landfilling and high temperature composting.treatment facilities.These are conditions that The quantity of landfill refuses accounts forcommonly occur in cities all over the country. 70%.The quantity of compost accounts for 20%. Only Shenzhen has refuse incinerationTherefore, the current management of facilities with a day treatment capacity ofmunicipal solid wastes is limited to road sweep 300 tonnes. Beijing, Shanghai and Zhuhai etc.and refuse transport.The sound disposal rate are planning to build refuse incinerationof municipal solid wastes is far behind the facilities.growth rate of generated waste, which causes (17) Kangsheng Zhang,serious environmental problems. executive director, UNEP- Infoterra China National Focal Point
66 Annexe 3 Problems in the management of municipal packing bags.These certainly bring great solid wastes convenience to consumers, but the arbitrarily In 1992, the sound treatment rate of municipal abandoned plastic wastes cause serious ‘white solid wastes and faeces in the cities of China pollution’. Since there is a lack of management was only 28.3%. In urban areas, per capita work, this does not only damage the annual refuse generation was 440kg, with an appearance of cities and landscapes and affect annual growth rate of 8% to 10%. Large air and water qualities, but also causes amounts of municipal solid wastes are simply difficulties to treatment. As these plastic wastes transported to the periphery of urban areas can not be reduced by microbial activity, they for open dumping. Municipal solid wastes also affect the compactness of landfills. In around more than 200 cities greatly damage addition, large amounts of polyvinyl chloride the urban environment, worsen living waste plastics have a potentially high level of conditions and hinder the development of leach toxicity, so they are not suitable for urban construction. landfilling. Since the amounts of municipal solid wastes Although waste plastics have a high calorific are so large and the proportion of sound value, they can not be simply incinerated control is so low, the majority of cities are because incinerating polyvinyl chloride plastics puzzled by the problem of what to do with at temperatures below 1,200°C will generate the refuse. By 1997, the refuse transport a very toxic matter: dioxin.The treatment of capacity of the national environmental such incineration fumes will incur high sanitation system was 100 million tonnes, while investments; such funds are not available to the the amount of refuse discharged by urban general incinerator plants of the country. residents was 200 million tonnes. Therefore, the pollution caused by waste plastics is a prominent difficulty among the The refuse that could not be transported was current refuse problems. detained in uncontrolled sites.This is a source of heavy pollution. Even if the refuse is Measures taken in the field of solid transported to refuse sites, it is generally just waste management piled up in the open. Large amount of stacked The national principles for preventing and refuse tend to ferment and generate high controlling solid waste pollution are the temperatures and methane, which often reduction of solid waste generation, the causes explosive accidents. Furthermore, there appropriate utilisation of solid wastes are serious environmental problems, such as wherever possible, and the sound disposal of stink to high heaven, rampant mosquito and fly solid wastes.The state encourages and populations, or damage caused by pathogenic supports clean production in order to reduce bacteria and viruses. solid waste generation; it encourages and supports the comprehensive utilisation of Due to the limited financial input, the resources, the adequate and appropriate provisions against leakage at landfill sites are recovering of solid wastes; and it adopts generally inadequate, which allows refuse economic and technical policies and measures pollution to leak from the ground into the that favour the comprehensive utilisation of underground; the leakage seriously pollutes the solid wastes. surrounding underground waters. In response to the nationwide conditions, the Another environmental problem caused by state has formulated a short-term technical municipal solid wastes is that caused by the policy to control solid wastes pollution: wide use of disposable plastic dinner sets and minimisation, recycling and decontamination.
Annexe 3 67Decontamination will be the main point of solid wastes should be stimulated on the basissolid waste pollution control for a relatively of the act for solid waste pollution control.long-term. Later, the focus will be shifted from Special rules for hazardous wastes should bedecontamination to recycling. Recycling is an drawn up as soon as possible.The wholeimportant factor in the decontamination and process management of production, collection,minimisation of municipal solid waste. storage, treatment, disposal or utilisation should be implemented as soon as possible.Strengthening the legal systemThe state has issued a set of relevant laws and Implementing the policy of solid wasteregulations in order to effectively prevent and minimisationcontrol solid waste pollution, such as the The basic task of solid waste minimisation is toAtmospheric Pollution Prevention and Control use appropriate tools to reduce the quantityLaw of the People’s Republic of China; and volume of solid wastes. It should be accomplished in two respects: treatment and• the Water Pollution Prevention and utilisation of solid wastes and reduction of Control Law of the People’s Republic of solid waste generation. In addition, a technical China; policy and encouraging measures for clean• the Provisions on Preventing Electrical production should be stimulated. Action Installation Containing PCBs and its Wastes; guidelines for waste minimisation of those• the Certain Provisions on Preventing and main industries (such as metallurgical industry, Controlling Environmental Pollution in chemical industry, light industry, etc.) that Chromic Compound Production; generate hazardous wastes should be laid• the Management Methods for Preventing down and implemented. and Controlling Environmental Pollution of Tailings; There are other measures to be implemented,• the Notice on Strictly Controlling as well.These are a reform of traditional Transform of Hazardous Wastes from production modes, the improvement of abroad to Our Country; process and equipment, the use of clean raw• the Control Standards for Agricultural Use materials and energy, and shifting the focus of Refuse; from ‘end-of-pipe’ management to ‘source’• the Pollution Control Standards for 11 control.The state has set up a Centre for Pollutant Compounds of Industrial Solid Clean Production, and it has selectively Wastes, etc. compiled the first set of effective techniques of clean production in electrical, chemical,The Solid Waste Pollution Control Law of the mechanical, light, textile, building material,People’s Republic of China was issued on metallurgical and nonferrous metal industries30 October 1995.The law puts forward for allocation and dissemination.directive principles for the comprehensiveprevention and control of solid waste pollution. Management measures and actionsThis marks the end of a long period without In the field of municipal solid wastelaws and regulations for the prevention and management, the following measures andcontrol of solid waste pollution and without actions should be taken:supervisory management.Thus, the preventionand control of solid waste pollution in the • Formulate and implement laws andcountry enters into a new stage. regulations governing municipal solid wastes, improve the system of managingDetailed rules and regulations for the urban refuse with all due haste andminimisation, recycling and decontamination of gradually introduce a system of fees for the
68 Annexe 3 treatment of refuse. Cities that attract improvements to the infrastructure are to tourists should establish a system for the be integrated into the design, construction segregated collection and safe disposal of and operational planning processes for refuse in the near future, while other cities municipal and industrial development. will achieve this goal more gradually. Individuals and institutions are encouraged • Improve technical engineering studies on to create professional service companies municipal refuse collection and treatment. for municipal solid waste collection, Introduce and assimilate advanced transportation and safe disposal. technologies from other countries. Emphasise the development of • Take measures to minimise the generation environmentally sound technologies and of municipal refuse, such as increasing the equipment for use in the reclamation, supply of coal gas and natural gas and treatment and utilisation of municipal solid developing district central heating systems wastes. to reduce solid residues from direct coal combustion. Measures will also include • Establish demonstration projects as models providing clean vegetables to urban for municipal refuse treatment and disposal. residents in developing decomposable These should demonstrate sanitary landfills, plastic packaging, gradually implementing high temperature composting, incineration the use of garbage bags and segregated and comprehensive recycling. Implement disposal, and encouraging waste recycling. well-designed citywide programmes for municipal refuse collection and transport. • Promote the safe disposal and recycling of urban refuse in accordance with local Comprehensive utilisation of solid wastes conditions.The primary options for the safe Comprehensive utilisation is the most effective disposal and recycling of municipal solid approach for recycling and decontamination of wastes are sanitary landfill and composting, solid wastes. It is of a great significance in the although some cities might employ prevention and control of solid waste pollution incineration. By means of high-temperature and in the protection and improvement of the composting, domestic refuse is now being environment. Practical experience has shown processed into organic fertiliser and used that comprehensive utilisation of solid wastes locally. Monitoring of the rural environment is an important component in the must be improved. From the year 2000 on, implementation of sustainable development biogas generated in sanitary landfills will be strategies. recovered and closed composting piles will be afforested; Our regulations will: implement a preferential policy for the production and construction of • Establish appropriate economic policies to comprehensive utilisation of resources, such as encourage the development of remitting taxation, financial support, comprehensive technologies for utilising preferential credit, etc; implement the principle municipal solid wastes, for example in of ‘who invests will benefit’ to the enterprises brick-making and cement-making. employing comprehensive utilisation. Benefits from comprehensive utilisation projects • Improve the infrastructure for sanitation by, constructed with funds raised by the for example, improving public lavatories, enterprises themselves belong to the municipal solid waste transfer sites, faeces enterprises.The responsible departments and disposal sites, parking for sanitation vehicles administration departments should support and sanitation works yards.These kinds of them in this context.They should neither levy
Annexe 3 69nor apportion charges, nor should theyarbitrarily allocate products. One of the maincheck-up targets for mine enterprises will bethe raising of the total recovery rate ofmineral resources.Carrying out comprehensive utilisationresources and scientific and technical researchshould be encouraged, as well. Scientific andtechnical markets for comprehensive utilisationshould be organised.Technical transferincluding payments should be practised.Thestate should set up comprehensive utilisationrewards in order to encourage the units andindividuals that make contributions to thedevelopment of comprehensive utilisation.
70 References References Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente, Osservatorio Nazionale sui Savage, Goluek, et al.; 1998, Guidance for Rifiuti Italy, 2000: Report on Waste 2001 Landfilling Waste in Economically Developing Countries, ISWA CONAI, Consorzio Nazionale Imballaggi, Italy, Web site http://www.conai.org EEA, 1998:Technical report No 37: Development and application of waste factors Research by ISWA-ITALY, Federambiente Italy an overview and FISE-Assoambiente Italy EEA, 1996: Environmental Taxes, Implementation Research by Ategrus, Spain, National Member and Environmental Effectiveness. Copenhagen of ISWA EEA, 2000:Topic report No 3/2000: Household Research by NRF, Norway, National Member and municipal waste: Comparability of data in of ISWA EEA member countries. Copenhagen Research by IWM, UK, National Member of EEA, 2000:Topic Report 8/2001: Waste Annual ISWA topic update 2000. Copenhagen Research by DAKOFA, Denmark, National European Commission, 1997: COM(97) 9 final Member of ISWA Communication from the European Union – Environmental Taxes and Charges in the Single Research by EKOVTORMET, Russia, National Market Member of ISWA US EPA, 1999: Municipal Solid Waste in the US: Research by ISWA-Switzerland, Switzerland, 1999 Facts and Figures National Member of ISWA IWM, 1999: The Application of Environmental Rushbrook, P, 1998: Eastern Promise: Waste Management Systems in the European Waste Management in Eastern Europe and beyond, Industry. Northampton Presentation at IWM 1998 Centenary Conference GRI – Global Reporting Initiative, 2000: Sustainability Reporting Guidelines on WHO – Regional Office for Europe, 1998: Economic, Environmental and Social Financial and operational factors influence the Performance provision of municipal solid waste services in larger cities. World Health Organization. ISWA et al, 2001: Draft on Training Resource Copenhagen Pack for Hazardous Waste Management in Environmentally Developing Countries WHO – Regional Office for Europe, 1996: Municipal Solid Waste Management in middle- Hisashi Ogawa, WHO Western Pacific Regional and lower income countries. World Health Environmental Health Centre (EHC), Kuala Organization. Copenhagen Lumpur. ISWA 7th International Congress and Exhibition, Hong Kong 2000: Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries
References 71CREED, 1999: Analysing Urban Solid Waste inDeveloping Countries: A Perspective onBangalore, India. Working paper No 24.Collaborative Research in the Economics ofEnvironment and Development, LondonRushbook, P, 1999: Upgrading open dumps tosafe landfills requires steady effort. In WasteManagement, Volume 9, Issue 4, July 1999Macfarlance, C.J., 2001: Personal comments
72 Waste Management
UNEP contribution to the World Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentThe mission of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is to provide leadership andencourage partnerships in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations andpeoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations. The UNEPDivision of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) contributes to the UNEP mission byencouraging decision-makers in government, business, and industry develop and adopt policies, strategiesand practices that are cleaner and safer, make efficient use of natural resources, ensure adequatemanagement of chemicals, incorporate environmental costs, and reduce pollution and risks for humansand the environment.This report is part of a series facilitated by UNEP DTIE as a contribution to the World Summit onSustainable Development. UNEP DTIE provided a report outline based on Agenda 21 to interestedindustrial sectors and co-ordinated a consultation process with relevant stakeholders. In turn,participating industry sectors committed themselves to producing an honest account of performanceagainst sustainability goals.The full set of reports is available from UNEP DTIE’s web site (http://www.uneptie.org/wssd/), whichgives further details on the process and the organisations that made it possible.The following is a list ofrelated outputs from this process, all of which are available from UNEP both in electronic version andhardcopy:- industry sectoral reports, including • accounting • consulting engineering • oil and gas • advertising • electricity • railways • aluminium • fertilizer • refrigeration • automotive • finance and insurance • road transport • aviation • food and drink • tourism • chemicals • information and • waste management • coal communications technology • water management • construction • iron and steel- a compilation of executive summaries of the industry sectoral reports above;- an overview report by UNEP DTIE;- a CD-ROM including all of the above documents.UNEP DTIE is also contributing the following additional products:- a joint WBCSD/WRI/UNEP publication entitled Tomorrow’s Markets: Global Trends and Their Implications for Business, presenting the imperative for sustainable business practices;- a joint WB/UNEP report on innovative finance for sustainability, which highlights new and effective financial mechanisms to address pressing environmental, social and developmental issues;- two extraordinary issues of UNEP DTIE’s quarterly Industry and Environment review, addressing key regional industry issues and the broader sustainable development agenda.More generally, UNEP will be contributing to the World Summit on Sustainable Development withvarious other products, including:- the Global Environmental Outlook 3 (GEO 3), UNEP’s third state of the environment assessment report;- a special issue of UNEP’s Our Planet magazine for World Environment Day, with a focus on the International Year of Mountains;- the UNEP photobook Focus on Your World, with the best images from the Third International Photographic Competition on the Environment.
Sustainability profile of the Waste Management industry• Achievements - Improved environmental and technical performance. - Awareness among decision-makers and consumers.• Unfinished business - Integrated research on effects of waste management on soil, air, water and climate. - Waste management in developing countries.• Future challenges and possible commitments - Decouple the link of economic growth and waste generation. - Improve communication, education and training.For further information contact: United Nations Environment ProgrammeInternational Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Division of Technology, Industry and EconomicsOvergaden Oven Vandet 48 E 39-43 Quai André CitroënDK-1415 Copenhagen 75739 Paris Cedex 15Denmark FranceTel: +45 32 96 15 88 Tel: +33 1 44 37 14 50Fax: +45 32 96 15 84 Fax: +33 1 44 37 14 74E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgWeb site: http://www.iswa.org Web site: http://www.uneptie.org/wssd/