Motivation of individuals

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Motivation of individuals

  1. 1. Motivation of Individuals Nature of Motivation Importance of Motivation Historical Perspective on Motivation Need Based Perspective on Motivation Processed Based Perspective on Motivation Expectancy Theory of Motivation Learning Based Perspective on Motivation Reinforcement Theory and Learning OB Mod
  2. 2. The Nature of Motivation  Motivation  Is the set of forces that causes people to engage in one behavior rather than some alternative behavior.
  3. 3. Are the following people motivated?  Students who stay up all night to study.  A worker who hangs-out all day.  Doctors making follow-up phone calls to patients.  Students who don’t go to school, to play computer games  Teacher giving free tutorial classes during his vacant time.
  4. 4. The importance of Motivation Managers strive to motivate people In the organization to perform at high levels. This means getting them to work hard, to come to work regularly, and to make positive contributions to the organization’s mission.
  5. 5.  To reach high levels of performance, an employee must be motivated, is able to do the job effectively, and must have all the necessary resources to do the job. This relationship can be easily remembered as:  P= M+A+E Where: P = Performance M= Motivation A= Ability E= Environment Thus, a manager should strive to ensure that all three conditions are met.
  6. 6. The Motivational Framework Experienced Need Deficiencies Search for ways to satisfied needs Choice of goal- directed behaviors Enactment of behavioral Choice( Performance) Experienced rewards or punishment Reassessment of need deficiencies
  7. 7.  Need-something an individual requires or wants.  Motivated behaviors- usually starts when a person has one or more needs.  Need deficiency- usually triggers a search for way to satisfy the need.
  8. 8. Historical Perspective on Motivation  Historical views on motivation although not always accurate, are of interest for several reasons. For one thing they provide a foundation for contemporary thinking about motivation. For another the are generally based on intuition, an appreciation of their strengths and weaknesses.
  9. 9. The Traditional Approach/ Scientific Management  One basic premise of this approach is that it is assumed that employees are economically motivated and works to earn as much money as they can. Other assumptions are, that the work is unpleasant for most people and that the money they earn is more important to employees than the nature of the job they are performing.  Frederick Taylor  Developed a method for structuring jobs that he called scientific management.  one of the first writers to address work motivation.
  10. 10. The Human Relations Approach  This approach assumes that employees want to feel useful and important, that they have strong social needs, and that these needs are more important than money in motivating employees.  This supplanted scientific management during the 1930s.
  11. 11. The Human Resource approach  The human resource approach assumes that people want to contribute and are able to make genuine contributions.
  12. 12. Need-based perspective on motivation  Need-based perspective represents the starting point for most contemporary thought on motivation. The basic premise of need-based models is that humans are motivated primarily by deficiencies in one or more important needs or need categories.
  13. 13. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940’s and is the best- known needs theory.
  14. 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Self- actualization Needs Esteem Needs Belongingness Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs Deficiency needs Growth needs
  15. 15. ERG Theory  Developed by Yale psychologist Clayton Alderfer. It extends and refines Maslow’s needs hierarchy concept, although there are several important differences between the two.  ERG stands for three basic need categories:  E existence (necessary for human survival)  R relatedness ( need to relate to others)  G growth ( self-esteem and self- actualization)  In contrast to Maslow’s approach, ERG theory suggests that more than one kind of need may motivate a person at the same time. Another difference is that ERG theory includes a satisfaction-progression component and a frustration regression component.
  16. 16.  Satisfaction- progression concept suggests that after satisfying one category of needs, a person progresses to the nest level.  Frustration-regression concept suggests that a person who is frustrated by trying to satisfy a higher level of need eventually will regress to the preceding level.
  17. 17. Dual- Structure Theory  Originally called the ‘two-factor theory’.  Developed by Frederick Herzberg and his associates during the late 1950’s and early 1960s.  To use this theory in a workplace, Herzberg recommended a two-stage process. First, is to eliminate situations that cause dissatisfaction, second is to motivate the people in the workplace.
  18. 18. The Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
  19. 19. Herzberg’s view Satisfaction No Satisfaction Motivation Factors Achievement Recognition The work itself Responsibility Advancement and growth Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction Hygiene factors Supervision. Working Conditions. Interpersonal Relationships. Pay and Job Security. Company Policies.
  20. 20. Other important needs  Need for achievement  Most frequently associated with the work of David McClelland.  Arises from an individuals desire to accomplish a goal more effectively than in the past.  Need for affiliation  Need for human companionship  Need for power  Desire to control one’s environment, including financial, material, informational, and human resources.
  21. 21. Processed-based perspective on Motivation  Processed-based perspective are concerned with how motivation occurs. Rather than attempting to identify motivational stimuli, it instead focuses on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals.
  22. 22. Equity Theory of Motivation  Equity theory is based on the relatively simple premise that people on organizations want to be treated fairly.  Equity- belief that we are being treated fairly in relation to others.  Inequity- belief that we are being treated unfairly compared with others.
  23. 23. Forming equity perceptions  Four-step process  1 they evaluate how they are being treated by the firm.  2 they form a perception of how a another person is being treated.  3 they compare their own circumstances with other people and use this comparison as the basis for forming an impression of either equity or inequity.  4 depending on the strength of this feelings , the person may choose to pursue one or more of the alternatives.
  24. 24. Equity Comparison Outcome(SELF) Outcome(OTHERS) Input(SELF) Input(OTHERS) Compared with
  25. 25. Expectancy Theory of Motivation  The basic expectancy model was first applied in the workplace by Victor Vroom.  The basic premise of this theory is that motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it.  The models general components are effort, performance and outcomes.
  26. 26.  Effort to performance expectancy  A persons perception of the probability that effort will lead to successful performance.  Performance-to-outcome Expectancy  A persons perception of the probability that performance will lead to certain other outcomes.
  27. 27.  Outcome  Anything that might potentially result from performance.  Valence  Is the relative value of the outcome to the person.
  28. 28. The Porter-Lawler Model  Porter and Lawler used the expectancy theory to develop a novel view of the relationship between employee satisfaction and performance.  If rewards are adequate, high levels of performance may lead to satisfaction. Performance results in two kinds of rewards:  Intrinsic rewards  intangible, a feeling of accomplishment, a sense of achievement.  Extrinsic rewards  Tangible outcomes such as pay and promotion
  29. 29. Learning-based perspective on Motivation  Learning  Is a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential that results in maintaining motivated behavior
  30. 30. How Learning occurs  Traditional View : Classical Conditioning  Developed by Ivan Pavlov in his experiments with dogs.  A simple form of learning in which a conditioned response is linked with an unconditioned stimulus.  The contemporary View: Learning as a Cognitive Process  It assumes that people are conscious, active participants in how they learn  It suggests that people draw on their experiences and use past learning as a basis for their present behavior.
  31. 31. Reinforcement Theory and Learning  Also called operant conditioning, is generally associated with the work of B.F. Skinner.  It suggests that behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior that results in pleasant consequences are more likely to be repeated, and those that result in unpleasant consequences are least likely to be repeated.
  32. 32.  Reinforcement  Consequences of behavior Types of Reinforcement:  positive reinforcement  Reward or other desirable consequence  Avoidance  Negative reinforcement; the person is given an opportunity to avoid an unpleasant consequence.  Extinction  Decreases the frequency of behavior, especially behavior that was previously awarded.  Punishment  An unpleasant, or adverse consequences of a behavior.
  33. 33. Schedules of reinforcement  Continuous reinforcement  Rewards behavior every time it occurs.  Fixed-interval reinforcement  Reinforcement provided on a predetermined, constant schedule.  Variable-interval reinforcement  Varies the interval between reinforcements  Variable-ratio reinforcement  Number of behavior required for reinforcement varies over time.
  34. 34. Social Learning  Occurs when people observe the behavior to others, recognize their consequences, and alter their own behavior as a result
  35. 35. Organizational Behavior Modification  OB Mod is the application of reinforcement theory to people in organizational settings.

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