Passive Voice


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Passive Voice

  2. 2. LET´S LOOK INSIDE!!! HAVE FUN WHILE LEARNING ... By: Emilce Galeano & Mª Fernanda Trujillo
  3. 3. Passive Use: <ul><li>Passive voice is often used in bussiness and others areas where </li></ul><ul><li>the object is more important than those who perform the actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: We have produced over 20 different models in </li></ul><ul><li>the past 2 years. (Active) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 20 different models have been produced in </li></ul><ul><li>the past 2 years. (Passive) </li></ul><ul><li>We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or </li></ul><ul><li>when we do not know who caused the action. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Appointments are required in such cases. </li></ul><ul><li>We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence </li></ul><ul><li>when there is an object in the active sentence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>TO DESCRIBE ARTISTIC, SCIENTIFIC  AND LITERARY ENDEAVORS: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The Mona Lisa was painted   by Leonardo Da Vinci. Research is  now being done on a cure for this disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TO EXPLAIN DIRECTIONS AND PROCEDURES: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The game of Monopoly can be played   by two to four players. </li></ul><ul><li>Carefour is being built on the fifth avenue.  </li></ul><ul><li>TO DESCRIBE LEGAL AND GOVERNMENTAL MATTERS AND TO AVOID PLACING DIRECT BLAME: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Raul Reyes´computer was found in Venezuela. </li></ul>
  5. 5. In Passive sentences we use: the correct form of be (is/are/was/were/has been, etc) + the past participle. (be) done (be) cleaned (be) written (be) built Passive Form: to be + past participle How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given: - object of the &quot;active&quot; sentence becomes subject in the &quot;passive&quot; sentence - subject of the &quot;active&quot; sentence becomes &quot;object&quot; in the &quot;passive&quot; sentence&quot; (or is left out) by Peter. is built A house Passive: a house. builds Peter Active:
  6. 6. Examples by Peter. is built A house Passive   Simple Present a house. builds Peter Active by Peter. was built A house Passive   Simple Past a house. built Peter Active: by Peter. has been built A house Passive   Present Perfect a house. has built Peter Active
  7. 7. More examples by Peter. will be built A house Passive   will-future a house. will build Peter Active by Peter. can be built A house Passive   Modals a house. can build Peter Active
  8. 8. Transitive Verbs When active sentences have verbs with direct objects (are transitive), they can become passive: <ul><li>A Transitive Verb is one that takes an object . </li></ul><ul><li>He opened the door. ('Door' is the object of the action; it is affected </li></ul><ul><li>by the operation.) </li></ul>Write, eat, tell, break, look at, act, ask, answer, appreciate, avoid, become, built, buy, choose, bother, read, clean, catch, play…   My stereo has been stolen by a thief.   A thief stole my stereo.   A table is being reserved.   She is reserving a table.
  9. 9. Intransitive verbs An intransitive verb is one that does not take an object . They arrived. (The verb does not require an object to complete it.) They do not have a passive form. Arrive, sleep, play, run, fell, improve, cry, etc … Tom grades improved (what ó whom) with the help of a tutor The child cryed (what ó whom) loudly.
  10. 10. When there are two objects in an active sentence, there are two possible passive sentences. Example:   Mr Smith sent Tom a book. ( Active ) (Passive) 1 possibility: Tom was sent a book by Mr Smith. This structure is not possible in spanish.because translating it would be like this: A Tom le fue enviado un libro por el señor Smith. 2 POSSIBILITY : A book was sent to Tom by Mr Smith. (Un libro fue enviado a Tom por el señor Smith). Object 1= indirect object: Tom  Object 2= direct object: a book Two objects in the Active Sentence
  11. 11. <ul><li>THE IMPERSONAL STRUCTURES (se dice, se comenta, etc.) are commomly used in passive voice, but they are difficult to translate for native spanish speakers. This kind of passive structure is often implemented by the media. </li></ul><ul><li>It is formed with the structure: </li></ul>ACTIVE: Everybody thinks Cathy works very hard.(Todo el mundo piensa que Cathy trabaja muy duro).  PASSIVE 1: Cathy is thought to work very hard. (Se piensa que Cathy...) PASSIVE 2: It is thought that Cathy works very hard. (Se piensa que Cathy...) SUBJECT + TO BE + PARTICIPLE : It is reported (Se informa); It is said (Se dice); It is known (Se sabe); It is supposed (Se supone); It is considered (Se considera); It is expected (Se espera).
  12. 12. Differences between English and Spanish Remember... Passive voice is more common in English than in Spanish.
  13. 13. Qué es la VOZ ACTIVA? La voz activa es la forma en que hablamos habitualmente. Siempre decimos que alguien (una persona) realiza (o no realiza) una acción. ejemplo: Presente: Michael corta la manzana. · Michael cuts the apple. Pasado: Michael cortó la manzana. · Michael cut the apple.
  14. 14. Qué es la VOZ PASIVA? Hay ocasiones en que no queremos resaltar que una persona es la que realiza la acción. En este caso, hacemos que el objeto (cosas o personas sobre las que recae la acción) cobre el protagonismo de la acción. <ul><li> Presente: La manzana es cortada. </li></ul><ul><li> The apple is cut. </li></ul><ul><li>Pasado: La manzana fue cortada. </li></ul><ul><li>The apple was cut. </li></ul>Ejemplo: En la voz pasiva utilizamos al objeto de la frase activa como sujeto.
  15. 15. ESTRUCTURA DE LAS ORACIONES EN VOZ PASIVA . Ejemplo: This house was built in 1980. Esta casa fue construida en 1980 Objeto (hace de Sujeto) + verbo &quot;to be&quot; conjugado + participio pasado + complemento ¿Cómo transformamos una frase activa en una frase pasiva?
  16. 16. IMPORTANTE: Hay que hacer coincidir los tiempos verbales del verbo &quot;to be&quot;. Si el verbo en la frase activa está en Present Tense diremos, por ejemplo: &quot;is/are + built&quot;. Si el verbo está en Past Tense diremos &quot;was/were + built&quot;. Si el verbo está en Present Perfect diremos &quot;have/has been + built.&quot; Ellos fueron asesinados (por él). Él los mató. They were killed (by him). He killed them. Los juguetes son hechos. Ellos hacen juguetes. Toys are made. They make toys. Ella es amada (por él). Él la ama. She is loved (by him) He loves her. Pasiva Activa
  17. 17. <ul><li>CUESTIONES GENERALES SOBRE LA VOZ PASIVA </li></ul><ul><li> La voz pasiva se utiliza mucho más en inglés que en español. </li></ul><ul><li> La voz pasiva se utiliza más en el lenguaje periodístico y científico que en el coloquial. </li></ul><ul><li> También la voz pasiva se utiliza para poner mensajes en lugares públicos. Por ejemplos: Dogs are not allowed. No se permiten perros. Algunas veces se suprime el verbo &quot;to be&quot;. Por ejemplo: Help wanted. Se necesitan empleados. </li></ul><ul><li>La expresiones con &quot;se&quot; tales como: &quot;se dice, se habla, etc. ; se expresan en inglés con la voz pasiva así: It is said, It is spoken, etc. </li></ul>
  18. 18. · La diferencia que se puede observar con el castellano es que, mientras en éste el participio concuerda en género y número con el sujeto, en inglés, al ser la forma del participio única, no se produce dicha concordancia: IMPORTANTE Los niños son peinados 3. The childrens´ hair is combed. La niña es peinada 2. The girl´s hair is combed. El niño es peinado 1. The boy´s hair is combed.
  19. 19. 1- Tom writes a letter 2- Tom is writing a letter 3- Tom was writing a letter 4- Tom wrote a letter 5- Tom has written a letter 6- Tom had written a letter 7- Tom will write a letter 8- Tom is going to write a letter 9- Tom can write a letter 10- Tom could write a letter 11- Tom must write a letter 12- Tom may write a letter 13- Tom might write a letter PRACTICE EXERCISES Active Voice
  20. 20. Keep having fun... <ul><li>Julia rescued three cats. </li></ul><ul><li>The students handed in the reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary crashed into the blue car. </li></ul><ul><li>Aleax learned the poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Steven has forgotten the book. </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanic has not repaired the DVD recorder. </li></ul><ul><li>They play handball. </li></ul><ul><li>Sue puts the rucksack on the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>The girls had lost the match. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is not going to open the window. </li></ul>