Health Literacy June 10

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Health Literacy June 10

  1. 1. Health Literacy:<br />Costs, Consequences, <br />and Clinical Implications<br />Peggy Sissel-Phelan, Ed.D.<br />Community Health Centers of Arkansas <br />Annual Conference<br />June 14 – 15, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Defining Literacy<br />An individual’s ability to read, write, and speak English, and compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job and in society, to achieve one’s goals, and develop one’s knowledge and potential.<br />Workforce Investment Act (1998) <br /> <br />The ability to use printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential.<br /> National Assessment of Adult Literacy (2003)<br />
  3. 3. Literacy Needs in Context<br />Historic Perspectives<br />Multiple meanings<br />Changing measures<br />20th Century Changes<br />1900 – 1950’s . . . . . . . . Industrialization <br />1960’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Space race<br />1970’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International development<br />1980’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technological advancement<br />1990’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Globalization<br />
  4. 4. Assessing Literacy <br />2003<br />National Assessment of Adult Literacy<br />(NAAL)<br />19,000 adults ages 16+<br />107 incarcerated <br />1992<br />National Adult Literacy Survey<br /> (NALS) <br />16,000 adults ages 16+<br />1,000 incarcerated<br />
  5. 5. Methodology<br />NAAL<br />Tested literacy tasks<br />Prose, Document, and Quantitative <br />5 reading skill levels<br />Below Basic<br />Basic<br />Intermediate<br />Proficient<br />Not literate in English<br />Health Literacy Component <br />NALS<br />Tested literacy tasks<br />Prose, Document, and Quantitative <br />5 reading skill levels<br />Level 1 – approx. 1st grade<br />Level 2 – approx. 4th grade<br />Level 3 – approx. 8th grade<br />Level 4 – approx 12th grade <br />Level 5 - College<br />
  6. 6. Results <br />2003 NAAL <br />14% Below Basic<br />29% Basic<br />43% at Basic or Below<br />plus<br />5% not literate in English<br /> =<br />97 million U.S. adults<br />1992 NALS <br />23% Level 1<br />28% Level 2 <br />51% at Level 1 or 2 <br />=<br />90 million U.S. adults<br />
  7. 7. NALS and Communities<br />State by State Extrapolation<br />1992 NALS results synthesized with 1990 census data<br />Late 90’s Findings Released<br />State<br />Congressional District<br />County <br />City<br />Arkansas<br />
  8. 8. Note: <br />Level 1 equates to about 1st grade reading skills<br />
  9. 9. Estimated Adults at Level 2 Literacy Skills or Below<br />Number of Counties<br />Note: <br />Level 2 equates to about 4th grade reading skills<br />n = 3<br />n = 8<br />n = 19<br />n = 29<br />n = 12<br />n = 3<br /> <br /> <br /> 43-45% 46-51% 52-59% 60-69% 70-79% 80-89%<br />
  10. 10. Percentage of Adults in Arkansas Towns at Level 2 or Below<br />Fayetteville<br />Sherwood<br />Arkadelphia <br />Bentonville <br />Conway <br />Fort Smith<br />Jacksonville <br />Jonesboro <br /> <br />Benton <br />Magnolia<br />N. Little Rock<br />Paragould<br />Van Buren<br /> <br />Blytheville<br />Camden<br />El Dorado<br />Hot Springs <br /> <br />Forrest City<br />Pine Bluff<br />30-39%<br /> 40-49%<br /> 50-59%<br /> 60-69%<br />70-79% <br />Little Rock <br />Rogers Russellville<br />Searcy<br />Springdale<br /> <br /> <br />Stuttgart<br />Texarkana<br />W. Memphis<br /> <br />
  11. 11. Literacy Across Generations: Arkansas<br />Below or Below Basic Literacy Skills<br />Percent<br />100<br />90<br />80<br />70<br />60<br />50<br />40<br />30<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />Children<br />Parents/Adults<br />Children whose parents have low literacy skills are more likely to become adults with low literacy skills than children whose parents are good readers. Thomas Sticht, 2002<br />
  12. 12. Literacy Across Generations: Arkansas<br /> Basic or Below Basic<br />Parents/Adults 8th Graders City<br /> 32% 34% Fayetteville<br /> 44% 37% Bentonville <br /> 48% 40% Springdale <br /> 42% 46% Conway<br /> 44% 50% Jonesboro<br /> 42% 57% Rogers <br /> 46 % 55% Searcy<br /> 50 % 58% Benton<br /> 49 % 61% Arkadelphia<br />Note: Parents data derived from National Adult Literacy Survey, 1992<br />Students data derived from National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2002<br />
  13. 13. Basic or Below Basic <br />Parents/Adults 8th Graders City<br /> 46 % 70% Little Rock<br /> 59% 58% Magnolia<br /> 58% 68% Paragould<br /> 54% 77% North Little Rock<br /> 63% 69% El Dorado <br /> 64% 70% Blytheville<br /> 62% 83% Texarkana<br /> 71% 92% Pine Bluff<br /> 78% 90% Forrest City<br />Literacy Across Generations: Arkansas<br />
  14. 14. Almost half of U.S. adults lack the basic skills needed to function successfully in society.<br />These Adults Can Not:<br /><ul><li>Find which foods contain a specific vitamin
  15. 15. Identify a specific location on a map
  16. 16. Use fractions
  17. 17. Interpret a growth chart or table</li></ul>Functional illiteracy impedes health and <br /> economic well-being. <br />Practical Implications<br />
  18. 18. Perspectives ofHealth Literacy <br />Levels of Literacy Skills & Health?<br />Levels of Understanding & Health? <br />Chronic<br />Acute<br /><ul><li>Systemic
  19. 19. Preventative</li></li></ul><li>Perspectives ofHealth Literacy <br />Levels of Literacy Skills & Health?<br />Chronic – persistent in daily living<br />Systemic – resistance and culture of medical settings<br />Levels of Understanding & Health? <br />Acute – situational<br />Preventative - cultural<br />
  20. 20. Defining Health Literacy<br />ROLE<br />LEVEL<br />ACTION<br />EXPECTATION<br />The ability to read and comprehend prescription bottles, appointment slips, and the other essential health-related materials required to successfully function as a patient. <br />(AMA Council of Scientific Affairs, 2000)<br /> The degree to which individualshave the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. <br />(Ratzan and Parker, 2000)<br />
  21. 21. Defining Health Literacy<br />ROLE <br />LEVEL<br />ACTION<br />EXPECTATION<br />The ability to read, understand, and act on health care information. <br />(Healthy People 2010, US Department of Health and Human Services, <br />Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2000, )<br />The ability to use printed and written information associated <br />with a broad range of health-related tasks to accomplishone’s<br />goals at home, in the workplace, and in the community (including<br />health care settings). <br />(NAAL, 2003)<br />
  22. 22. Defining Health Literacy<br />ROLE ROLE<br />LEVEL<br />ACTION<br />EXPECTATION<br />Health literacy allows the public andpersonnel working in all health-related contextsto find, understand, evaluate, communicate, and use information. Health literacy is the use of a wide range of skills that improvethe ability of people to act on informationin order tolive healthier lives. These skills include reading, writing, listening, speaking, numeracy, and critical analysis, as well as communication and interaction skills. <br />(Calgary Charter on Health Literacy, 2008)<br />
  23. 23. Defining Health Literacy<br />ROLE ROLE<br />LEVEL<br />ACTION<br />EXPECTATION<br />Health literacy allows the public andpersonnel working in all health-related contextsto find, understand, evaluate, communicate, and use information. Health literacy is the use of a wide range of skills that improvethe ability of peopleto act on informationin order to live healthier lives. These skills include reading, writing, listening, speaking, numeracy, and critical analysis, as well as communication and interaction skills. <br />(Calgary Charter on Health Literacy, 2008)<br />* The interconnected expectation of improving ability to act as a result of being health literate does not address key resource and access issues (distance, price, cultural norms, living conditions, personal constraints)<br />
  24. 24. Defining Health Literacy<br />ROLE ROLE<br />LEVEL<br />ACTION<br />EXPECTATION<br />Health literacy allows the public andpersonnel working in all health-related contextsto find, understand, evaluate, communicate, and use information. Health literacy is the use of a wide range of skills that improvethe ability of peopleto act on information in order to live healthier lives. These skills include reading, writing, listening, speaking, numeracy, and critical analysis, as well as communication and interaction skills. <br />(Calgary Charter on Health Literacy, 2008)<br />* Not simply being acted upon as the subject of care, but empowering individuals to address their own, and others’ health as a “partner” with health care providers and systems.<br />
  25. 25. Health Literacy Needs <br />in Context<br /> Changes in Care35 yrs. ago Today<br /> Treatment of Acute 4 - 6 weeks bed 2-4days Myocardial Infarction rest in hospital in hospital <br /> # Prescription Drugs 650 10,000 +<br />on the market<br /> Treatment of new 3 weeks +/- outpatient <br />onset Diabetes in hospital classes 0-3 hrs. <br />2 hours a day of<br /> diabetic classes<br />Source: Balydon, Glusman, and Sharkey-Asner, 2009<br />For Reach Out and Read Illinois<br />
  26. 26. NAAL Health Literacy Component <br />Health literacy and relationship to prose, document, and quantitative skill.<br />Address deficiencies in health literacy skills<br />Policies<br />Programs<br />Development of appropriate health information <br />Health Literacy Component<br />
  27. 27. Health Literacy Component<br />NAAL<br />Data on target audiences <br />Relationship between health literacy and <br />educational attainment<br />age<br />race/ethnicity <br />where adults get information about health issues, and <br />health insurance coverage<br />
  28. 28. Health Literacy Component<br />Question types<br />Clinical<br />Navigation<br />Preventive<br />Assessment Methods<br />Perform a task (circle word)<br />Decode words (read instructions)<br />Locate words or section (review and respond)<br />Interpret (infer applicability)<br />
  29. 29. Elements of Health Literacy<br />Accessing health care system<br />Levels of existing health information<br />Locating information <br />Understanding rights/responsibilities<br />Decoding information <br />Making inferences about care needs<br />Carrying out directives <br />Formulating questions<br />Interpreting Oral information<br />
  30. 30. NAAL Results <br />Low Health Literacy: Social Characteristics<br />Reports poor health<br />1 or more disabilities<br />No health insurance or Medicaid<br />Fewer preventive health measures<br />Lower Educational Achievement<br />Gets no health information from the Internet<br />
  31. 31. NAAL Results <br />Low Health Literacy: Social Characteristics<br />Poverty<br />Racial and ethnic minorities<br />English as a Second Language<br />Single Parent Families<br />Older adults <br />Prison inmates <br />
  32. 32. Consequences of Low Literacy<br />Access<br />Misunderstanding Diagnosis<br />Unable to Read Patient Education Materials<br />Understanding and Following Health Related Instructions, compliance issues<br />
  33. 33. Low Literacy Affects Access<br />Locating, obtaining, navigating<br />ie: 84% of Medicaid patients do not understand rules and regulations of the application form<br />Adhering to and accepting care<br />While still in the clinic 26% did not understand when return appointment was scheduled<br />Cultural and beliefs stress no need for care<br />Feelings of rejection, abuse, by health care staff<br />
  34. 34. Consequences of Low Literacy<br />Medication Errors<br />Poor Outcomes<br />2 x more likely to be hospitalized <br />Higher rates of medication and treatment errors<br />Link: Low literacy, poor health, and early death<br />Related factors: housing, diet, addiction, violence <br />
  35. 35. Costs<br />$38 -53 billion in unnecessary costs annually (Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc, 2001)<br />$73 billion (Friedland, Georgetown University, 2003)<br />$106-$236 billion (Vernon, University of Connecticut, 2007)<br />Medical costs for adults with low literacy skills are four times the national average - $21,760.<br />
  36. 36. You Can’t Always Tell<br />In the Below Basic Literacy Group<br />37% have a HS or some college education<br />52% speak only English<br />54% have no physical or mental disabilities<br />Kutner M et al, Nat Center for Educ Statistics 2005<br />
  37. 37. The Stigma<br /> Patients who have never told:<br /> %<br />Supervisor 91%<br />Spouse 68%<br />Children 53%<br />Anyone 19%<br />Parikh N, et al., Patient EducCouns, 1996.<br />
  38. 38. How Does It Feel?<br />The following passage simulates what a reader with below basic general literacy sees on the printed page.<br />Read the entire passage out loud.<br />You have 1 minute to read.<br />Hint: The words are written backwards and the first word is “cleaning”<br />
  39. 39. How Does It Feel?<br />GNINAELC – Oterussahgihecnamrofrep, yllacidoirepnaelcehtepatsdaehdnanatspacrevenehwuoyecitonnanoitalumuccafotsuddnanworb-red edixoselcitrap. Esu a nottocbawsdenetsiomhtiwlyporposilohocla. Eberus on lohoclasehcuotehtrebbur strap, satisdnetotyrddnayllautnevekcarcehtrebbur. Esu a pmadtholcroegnopsotnaelcehttenibac. A dlimpaos, ekilgnihsawhsidtnegreted, lliwplehevomeresaergrolio. <br />
  40. 40. How Does It Feel?<br />How do you clean the capstan?<br />
  41. 41. Red Flags: What to Look for<br />Unable to name medications, or explain purpose or timing of administration<br />Difficulty explaining medical concerns<br />Detour, letting doctor miss the concern<br />Have no questions<br />Incomplete registration forms<br />Frequently missed appointments<br />Skipped tests and referrals<br />Non-compliant with meds<br />
  42. 42. Red Flags: What to Look for<br />Seeking help only when illness is advanced <br />Walking out of the waiting room<br />Becoming angry, demanding<br />Clowning around, using humor<br />Being quiet, passive<br />Making excuses<br />Pretending they can read<br />
  43. 43. Or . . <br />“I forgot my glasses. I’ll read this when I get home.”<br />“Let me bring this home so I can discuss it with my husband.”<br />
  44. 44. Strategies: Make Changes<br />Lessen stigma: Approach all patients the same way<br />Be non-judgmental.<br />There is no one correct way to ask<br />There are natural times in the history during which you can bring this up<br />Never ask “do you have questions”<br />Use, what kind of questions do you have?<br />
  45. 45. Strategies: Enhance Communication<br />Attitude of helpfulness, caring and respect by all staff<br />Conduct patient-centered visits<br />Explain things clearly in plain language<br />Focus on key messages and repeat<br />Use a “teach back” or “show me” technique to check for understanding<br />Use patient-friendly educational <br /> materials to enhance interaction<br />
  46. 46. Strategies: Use Plain Language: <br />Examples<br />Stops Swelling<br />Not Cancer<br />Birth Control<br />High BP<br />By Mouth<br />Picture of the heart<br />Anti-inflammatory<br />Benign <br />Contraception <br />Hypertension <br />Oral <br />Echocardiogram <br />
  47. 47. Plain Language: It’s not just medical terms!<br />We are disseminating information about….<br />We are giving outinformation about…<br />How do you administer the medication?<br />How do you givethe medicine?<br />Have you ever purchased generic medications?<br />Do you ever buystore brand medicine?<br />This product has an extensive list of symptoms that it treats…<br />Thismedicinecan help with many thingslike fever, or pain, etc….<br />
  48. 48. Strategies: Use Patients’ Social History<br />How far did you go in school?<br />Did you ever have any difficulty in school? <br />Has reading ever been a problem for you?<br />Other possible ways to ask:<br />Have you ever had difficulty reading materials the doctor gave you?<br />Has a doctor ever been unclear when they explained things to you? <br />
  49. 49. D.I.R.E.C.T.<br />D- Do you have any Difficulty reading<br />I- Are you interested in Improving<br />R-We have Referrals/resources available<br />E- Ask Everyone<br />C- This is a Common problem<br />T- Take down the barriers to obtaining the resources and take down current barriers to providing effective care<br />Source: Balydon, Glusman, and Sharkey-Asner, 2009<br />For Reach Out and Read Illinois<br />
  50. 50. Strategies: Written materials<br />Simple words (1-2 syllables)<br />Short sentences (4-6 words)<br />Short paragraphs (2-3 sentences)<br />No medical jargon<br />Headings and bullets<br />Lots of white space<br />
  51. 51. Strategies: Teach Back<br />Ask patient to demonstrate understanding<br />“What will you tell your spouse about your child’s condition?”<br />“I want to be sure I explained everything clearly, so can you please explain it back to me so I can be sure I did.”<br />Academic settings can use the resident or student/attending interaction to do this<br />Do not ask, <br />“Do you understand?” <br />
  52. 52. Strategies: Use Visuals<br />Show or draw simple pictures<br />Focus only on key points<br />Emphasize what the patient should do <br />Minimize information about anatomy and physiology<br />Be sensitive to cultural preferences<br />Visual aids can include handouts, pictures, models etc.<br />
  53. 53. System Change<br />Identify patients<br />Identify the barriers faced by both patients and clinicians<br />Identify and implement strategies to enhance health literacy<br />Advocate for system change<br />
  54. 54. Resources<br />Pfizer Clear Health Communication Initiative http://www.pfizerhealthliteracy.com<br />NYU Patient and Family <br /> Resource Center<br /> http://www.nyupatientlibrary.org/medcenter/build-skills<br />Center for Health Care Strategies <br /> Health Literacy Fact Sheets<br />http://www.chcs.org/publications3960/publications_show.htm?doc_id=291711<br />
  55. 55. Resources<br />Institute for Healthcare Advancement<br />www.iha4health.org<br />Michael Villaire, MSLM<br />Director, Programs and Operations<br />mvillaire@iha4health.org<br />(800) 434-4633 x202<br />American Medical Association<br /> Health Literacy Program and Kit<br />www. ama-assn.org<br />
  56. 56. Resources<br />Communicating Health Information. Editorial. <br />Critical Care Nurse. 2004;24: 8-13<br />http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/cgi/content/full/24/4/8<br />Assessing the Nation’s Health Literacy:<br />Key Concepts and Findings of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL)<br />Sheida White, PhD<br />National Center for Education Statistics<br />A Publication of the American Medical Association Foundation <br />“Help Your Patients Understand.” <br />Video Available from AMA Foundation <br />http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/8035.html<br />

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