“Ah yes, but that would never
work with my students….”
Simon Bates
CTLT Institute
May 2013
Overview
I. A framework for learning (and teaching)
II. One such framework: How Learning Works
III. Two principles, expand...
What is known about learning…
• is a process not a product
• involves change in
knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, or attitude...
What is known about learning…
Effective teaching has to be rooted
in what improves learning
The instructor can advance lea...
Implications for the new instructor
• Do NOT do what I did
• Seek out, learn from, incorporate teaching
strategies that ar...
Bridging
• What is needed is a framework that bridges
and
• Fortunately, such frameworks already exist.
“Ah yes, but that would never
work with my students….”
http://goo.gl/CzvyP
What HLW is about:
• A bridge between research about learning
research and implications for teaching practice
:
– Why cert...
About the 7 principles
• Research in brain
science, cognitive, developmental, and social
psychology, anthropology, educati...
7 Principles
1. Students prior knowledge can help or hinder
learning
2. How students organize knowledge influences
how the...
7 Principles
5. Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted
feedback enhances the quality of students’
learning
6. Studen...
Knowledge
Structure
Motivation
Mastery
Practice
Climate
Metacognition
Knowledge
Mastery
Practice
Climate
Metacognition
Principle 2:
Knowledge Structure and Organization
How students organize knowledge influences
how they learn and apply what...
Principle 2:
Knowledge Structure and Organization
How experts
and novices
structure and
organize
knowledge
Source HLW Fig ...
Principle 2:
Knowledge Structure and Organization
Consider the following
code key
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
Principle 2:
Knowledge Structure and Organization
Write down your phone number in
the symbolic code
Principle 2:
Knowledge Structure and Organization
Consider the following
code key
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1 2 3
64
98
5
7
What the research shows
• When S are provided with a structure for
organizing new info, they learn more and
better
• S sho...
Strategies
• Create a concept map to analyze your own knowledge
organization
• Provide S with the organizational structure...
Principle 3:
Motivation
Students’ motivation generates, directs and
sustains what they do to learn
Motivation determined by:
1. Subjective value of a goal
2. Expectancies or expectations for successful
attainment of that ...
Value of a goal
• Attainment value: satisfaction from mastery
and accomplishment
• Intrinsic value: satisfaction from simp...
Expectancies
• Positive outcome expectancies: People are
motivated to pursue goals and outcomes that
they believe they can...
Expectancies determined by
• Prior experience
• Attribution of success or failure to internal
/controllable causes (more l...
Strategies to establish value
• Connect the material to S interests
• Provide authentic, real-world tasks
• Share relevanc...
Strategies that help build positive
expectancies
• Ensure alignment of objectives, assessments and
instructional strategie...
A case study
PeerWise in PHAS 101
• Web-based Multiple Choice Question
repository built by students
• Students:
– develop new questions with
associated expl...
student contributors
unique questions
>10,000,000
answers
38
As a question author…..
39
40
43
As a question answerer …..
44
45
46
47
Timeline
2010-11: UoE pilot study
2011-12: Multi-institution, multi-course
2012-13: UBC PHYS 101
Coursera MOOC
48
Previous research
• Good engagement and participation beyond
the minimum requirements
• Correlation between use and end-of...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
1 2 3 4 5 6
Taxonomic Category
PercentageofSubmittedQuestions
Previous research
...
Implementation in PHAS 101
2012 W2 3 sections
N=791
51
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X 8 9 10 11 12 13
T 1 1 2 2 3 X 3 4 - 5 5
L 1 2 2 3 3...
Assessment requirements
As a minimum:
• Write one question
• Answer 5
• Comment on & rate 3
Contributed ~3% to course asse...
We were deliberately
hands off.
• No moderation
• No corrections
• No interventions at all
But we did observe…..
53
Scaffolding in tutorials
54
Scaffolding in tutorials
55
Engagement
First assessment exercise:
• 664 active students (out of 790!)
• 1340 Q, 11000 A, 5000 C
• x1.75, x17, x7 minim...
Engagement
Score
Examples
60
61
How this case study exemplifies HLW
Knowledge structures and organization
• S challenged to think about gaps / broken link...
How this case study exemplifies HLW
Motivation
• Diverse reasons for taking course
• Explicit mention of higher order skil...
Knowledge
Structure
Motivation
Mastery
Practice
Climate
Metacognition
Acknowledgements
• HLW slides - Naureen Madhani
• PHAS 101 – Georg Rieger, Firas Moosvi, Emily
Altiere
• UoE Physics Educa...
Resources - HLW
• http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/principles/ind
ex.html
• Brent, R. & Felder, R. (2011). Random
thoughts… how...
Resources - PeerWise
Community: http://www.PeerWise-Community.org
JISC-funded multi institution
study:https://www.wiki.ed....
Image / Icon credits
• Figures from How Learning Works, Ambrose et al. Chaps 2
and 3
• Icons:
– Stack of Books designed by...
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
Ah yes, but that would never work with my students
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Ah yes, but that would never work with my students

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Keynote lecture for the start of the CTLT Institute at UBC Vancouver

Video capture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_4fr6mE98g

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  • The teacher can advance learning only by influencing what the student does to learn.
  • The teacher can advance learning only by influencing what the student does to learn.
  • Have a basis in a theory of learningHave been trailled and shown to be effective at the coalface (ie the classroom).
  • Have a basis in a theory of learningHave been trailled and shown to be effective at the coalface (ie the classroom).
  • Domain-independent: apply equally well across all subject areasExperience-independent: Apply to all educational levels and pedagogical situationsCross-culturally relevant: Yes but remember that culture can and does influence how principles should be applied
  • Students are not blank slates. As they bring prior knowledge to bear it influences how they filter and learnIf robust, accurate and activated, it provides a strong foundation. If inert, insufficient or innacurate it can hinder learning2. We naturally make connections between pieces. Accurate and appopriated organized, can held with retrieval and application. Conversely, innaccurate or filed randomly, students can fail to retrieve and or apply it. 3. Uni life gives greater autonomy. What, where, when and how to studeny. Motivation plays a guiding rtole in determining intensity, persistence and quality of learning behaviours. When students find value in a learning task, and expect to achieve it, and perceive a supportive environment, they are liely to be strongly motivated to learn4. Not just component skills, but practice putting them together for fluency. Know when and hopw to apply these skills.
  • Learning fostered when students practice towards a goal, with an appropriate level of challenge and oftenenough and ogften. Practice with feedback towards target. Time and frequency that make it useful. Intellectual plus social and emotional dimensions. Climate we create has far reeaching implications for all students. Learn to monitor, error-check and control their learning, evaluate strengths and weaknesses. Monitoring progress. Doesn’t come naturally but are habits of experts.
  • Experts create and maintain a network of facts, concepts,procedurres and relationships. Often do it subconsciously. Organize knowledge aroind meaningful features and principlesNovices oftem lack a significantly coherent organized representation of material and their learning is impeded as a result of it. What and WHY – how to get at knowledge organizations.
  • Experts create and maintain a network of facts, concepts,procedurres and relationships. Often do it subconsciously. Organize knowledge aroind meaningful features and principlesNovices oftem lack a significantly coherent organized representation of material and their learning is impeded as a result of it. What and WHY – how to get at knowledge organizations.
  • Experts create and maintain a network of facts, concepts,procedurres and relationships. Often do it subconsciously. Organize knowledge aroind meaningful features and principlesNovices oftem lack a significantly coherent organized representation of material and their learning is impeded as a result of it. What and WHY – how to get at knowledge organizations.
  • Experts create and maintain a network of facts, concepts,procedurres and relationships. Often do it subconsciously. Organize knowledge aroind meaningful features and principlesNovices oftem lack a significantly coherent organized representation of material and their learning is impeded as a result of it. What and WHY – how to get at knowledge organizations.
  • Performance approach goals: focus on attaining competence by meeting normative standards=>better for learningPerformance avoidanec goals: avoiding incompetence by meeting standards
  • Can follow the author
  • Scaffolding provided in terms of how to come up with material for good questions. The above handout (a blank version was also provided) encourages students to choose topics within their Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky), identify misconceptions or things they don’t understand and devise questions with a realistic context. Students got around 45 mins for this activity
  • Scaffolding provided in terms of how to come up with material for good questions. The above handout (a blank version was also provided) encourages students to choose topics within their Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky), identify misconceptions or things they don’t understand and devise questions with a realistic context. Students got around 45 mins for this activity
  • We provided screencasts online to cover details of signing up, logging in, creating questions, finding questions to answer These are now hosted on the PW site.Creating most popular, viewed 170 times (not necessarily all from the 1A course) Assessment set due 9 days later
  • We provided screencasts online to cover details of signing up, logging in, creating questions, finding questions to answer These are now hosted on the PW site.Creating most popular, viewed 170 times (not necessarily all from the 1A course) Assessment set due 9 days later
  • Scaffolding provided in terms of how to come up with material for good questions. The above handout (a blank version was also provided) encourages students to choose topics within their Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky), identify misconceptions or things they don’t understand and devise questions with a realistic context. Students got around 45 mins for this activity
  • Scaffolding provided in terms of how to come up with material for good questions. The above handout (a blank version was also provided) encourages students to choose topics within their Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky), identify misconceptions or things they don’t understand and devise questions with a realistic context. Students got around 45 mins for this activity
  • Aside from this being a very creative question, with a great diagram, and a good spread of answers it is also a nice example of peer-tutoringThe author wrote the question and got the calculation wrong in the first version of the questionThis was picked up on, and corrected by, another student the same evening, and the version of the question replaced with the peer’s correct explanation We also placed one of the student generated questions on the exam (not this one).
  • This is typical of questions submitted by the highest performing students Focussed on quantitative problemsolving* Amusing context * Great care and attention with diags and maths The 4 images show question solutions sketch Solution maths Comment and author’s response.
  • Ah yes, but that would never work with my students

    1. 1. “Ah yes, but that would never work with my students….” Simon Bates CTLT Institute May 2013
    2. 2. Overview I. A framework for learning (and teaching) II. One such framework: How Learning Works III. Two principles, expanded IV. Case study: PHYS101 at UBC
    3. 3. What is known about learning… • is a process not a product • involves change in knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, or attitudes • is not something done to students, but rather something students themselves do
    4. 4. What is known about learning… Effective teaching has to be rooted in what improves learning The instructor can advance learning only by influencing what the student does to learn
    5. 5. Implications for the new instructor • Do NOT do what I did • Seek out, learn from, incorporate teaching strategies that are: – Theory-grounded – Evidence-based Finding these in your ‘Goldilocks Zone’ is not always easy
    6. 6. Bridging • What is needed is a framework that bridges and • Fortunately, such frameworks already exist.
    7. 7. “Ah yes, but that would never work with my students….”
    8. 8. http://goo.gl/CzvyP
    9. 9. What HLW is about: • A bridge between research about learning research and implications for teaching practice : – Why certain teaching approaches are or are not supporting students’ learning – Teaching approaches that effectively foster student learning in specific contexts – Transferring and applying these principles
    10. 10. About the 7 principles • Research in brain science, cognitive, developmental, and social psychology, anthropology, education, and diversity studies • K-12 and higher education • Domain-independent • Experience-independent • Cross-culturally relevant
    11. 11. 7 Principles 1. Students prior knowledge can help or hinder learning 2. How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know 3. Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn 4. To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned
    12. 12. 7 Principles 5. Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning 6. Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning 7. To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning
    13. 13. Knowledge Structure Motivation Mastery Practice Climate Metacognition
    14. 14. Knowledge Mastery Practice Climate Metacognition
    15. 15. Principle 2: Knowledge Structure and Organization How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know
    16. 16. Principle 2: Knowledge Structure and Organization How experts and novices structure and organize knowledge Source HLW Fig 2.1
    17. 17. Principle 2: Knowledge Structure and Organization Consider the following code key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
    18. 18. Principle 2: Knowledge Structure and Organization Write down your phone number in the symbolic code
    19. 19. Principle 2: Knowledge Structure and Organization Consider the following code key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
    20. 20. 1 2 3 64 98 5 7
    21. 21. What the research shows • When S are provided with a structure for organizing new info, they learn more and better • S show better learning gains when given an advance organizer i.e. a set of principles that provide a cognitive structure to guide incorporation of new knowledge
    22. 22. Strategies • Create a concept map to analyze your own knowledge organization • Provide S with the organizational structure of the course • Explicitly share the organization of each lecture, lab or discussion • Explicitly highlight deep features • Make connections among concepts explicit • Ask S to draw a concept map to expose their knowledge organizations • Monitor S work for problems in their knowledge organizations
    23. 23. Principle 3: Motivation Students’ motivation generates, directs and sustains what they do to learn
    24. 24. Motivation determined by: 1. Subjective value of a goal 2. Expectancies or expectations for successful attainment of that goal Source HLW Fig 3.1
    25. 25. Value of a goal • Attainment value: satisfaction from mastery and accomplishment • Intrinsic value: satisfaction from simply doing the task • Instrumental value: degree to which an activity or goal helps to achieve another (e.g. praise, financial reward)
    26. 26. Expectancies • Positive outcome expectancies: People are motivated to pursue goals and outcomes that they believe they can successfully achieve • Efficacy expectancies: belief that one is capable of identifying, organizing, initiating and executing a course of action that will bring about a desired outcome
    27. 27. Expectancies determined by • Prior experience • Attribution of success or failure to internal /controllable causes (more likely to expect future success) • Attribution of success or failure to external/uncontrollable causes (less likely to expect future success) • Supportive environment
    28. 28. Strategies to establish value • Connect the material to S interests • Provide authentic, real-world tasks • Share relevance to S current academic lives • Demonstrate the relevance of higher-level skills to S future professional lives • Identify and reward what you value • Show your own passion and enthusiasm for the discipline
    29. 29. Strategies that help build positive expectancies • Ensure alignment of objectives, assessments and instructional strategies • Create assignments that provide the approp. level of challenge • Provide early success opportunities • Articulate your expectations • Provide rubrics • Provide targeted feedback • Describe effective study strategies
    30. 30. A case study PeerWise in PHAS 101
    31. 31. • Web-based Multiple Choice Question repository built by students • Students: – develop new questions with associated explanations – answer existing questions and rate them for quality and difficulty – take part in discussions – can follow other authors peerwise.cs.auckland.ac.nz
    32. 32. student contributors unique questions >10,000,000 answers
    33. 33. 38 As a question author…..
    34. 34. 39
    35. 35. 40
    36. 36. 43 As a question answerer …..
    37. 37. 44
    38. 38. 45
    39. 39. 46
    40. 40. 47
    41. 41. Timeline 2010-11: UoE pilot study 2011-12: Multi-institution, multi-course 2012-13: UBC PHYS 101 Coursera MOOC 48
    42. 42. Previous research • Good engagement and participation beyond the minimum requirements • Correlation between use and end-of-course outcome • Replication study in 3 institutions, 5 courses, 3 disciplines 1st year Physics N=172 University of Edinburgh
    43. 43. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 1 2 3 4 5 6 Taxonomic Category PercentageofSubmittedQuestions Previous research • Question quality: mapped onto levels in cognitive domain of Bloom’s taxonomy • Surprisingly high overall quality, even from ‘novices’ First semester N = 350 Second semester N = 252
    44. 44. Implementation in PHAS 101 2012 W2 3 sections N=791 51 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X 8 9 10 11 12 13 T 1 1 2 2 3 X 3 4 - 5 5 L 1 2 2 3 3 4 X 4 - ex 5 5 M M PW @ @ ! @ !
    45. 45. Assessment requirements As a minimum: • Write one question • Answer 5 • Comment on & rate 3 Contributed ~3% to course assessment (mostly participation, small bonus for performance) 52
    46. 46. We were deliberately hands off. • No moderation • No corrections • No interventions at all But we did observe….. 53
    47. 47. Scaffolding in tutorials 54
    48. 48. Scaffolding in tutorials 55
    49. 49. Engagement First assessment exercise: • 664 active students (out of 790!) • 1340 Q, 11000 A, 5000 C • x1.75, x17, x7 minimum requirements
    50. 50. Engagement Score
    51. 51. Examples 60
    52. 52. 61
    53. 53. How this case study exemplifies HLW Knowledge structures and organization • S challenged to think about gaps / broken links • Explicit opportunity to build better / repair structures • Taps into ‘What?’ and ‘Why?’ • Scaffolded to combine multiple concepts / ideas / topic areas
    54. 54. How this case study exemplifies HLW Motivation • Diverse reasons for taking course • Explicit mention of higher order skills development • Low floor / high ceiling • Their space: control and flexibility • Rewarding what you value: participation credit • Community: peer interaction, scores, badging
    55. 55. Knowledge Structure Motivation Mastery Practice Climate Metacognition
    56. 56. Acknowledgements • HLW slides - Naureen Madhani • PHAS 101 – Georg Rieger, Firas Moosvi, Emily Altiere • UoE Physics Education Research Group • Universities of Glasgow, Nottingham, Auckland
    57. 57. Resources - HLW • http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/principles/ind ex.html • Brent, R. & Felder, R. (2011). Random thoughts… how learning works. Chemical Engineering Education 45(4). 257-8. Available at: http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/f elder/public/Columns/Ambrose.pdf • Coming soon – 5 page summary of HLW
    58. 58. Resources - PeerWise Community: http://www.PeerWise-Community.org JISC-funded multi institution study:https://www.wiki.ed.ac.uk/display/SGC4L/Hom e UoE Physics Pilot Study: AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 359 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3680069 RSC overview article http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2013January/s tudent-generated-assessment.asp UoE Physics scaffolding resources http://www2.ph.ed.ac.uk/elearning/projects/peerwise /
    59. 59. Image / Icon credits • Figures from How Learning Works, Ambrose et al. Chaps 2 and 3 • Icons: – Stack of Books designed by Jeremy J Bristol from The Noun Project – Mesh Network designed by Lance Weisser from The Noun Project – Excited designed by Austin Condiff from The Noun Project – Components designed by Iris Q. Li from The Noun Project – Group designed by Alexandra Coscovelnita from The Noun Project – Brain designed by Martha Ormiston from The Noun Project
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