Introduction to Creative Commons for collecting institutions   Jessica Coates Creative Commons Clinic September 2009 CRICO...
Digital technologies have revolutionised   how creative works are made, distributed, and used. CRICOS No. 00213J   From ‘C...
AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J   " Copyright ", Randall Munro...
<ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>aims to make creative material more useable by providing free licences that cre...
CC is designed to… <ul><li>provide standardised licences </li></ul><ul><li>that facilitate sharing </li></ul><ul><li>are f...
CC Myths <ul><li>CC is not: </li></ul><ul><li>anti-copyright  – just another rights management tool </li></ul><ul><li>the ...
Licence Elements <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution – attribute the author </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonco...
<ul><li>Attribution </li></ul>Attribution-ShareAlike AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICO...
Each licence has AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J   deed button legal cod...
Licence Use <ul><li>In the first year 1 million works, now 180 million </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 million images on Flickr...
CC and cultural institutions CRICOS No. 00213J   Carpeted commons by Glutnix, http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/2079709...
CC is useful … <ul><ul><li>As a resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a donor option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a lice...
CC as a resource <ul><li>Find material to use </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify copyright decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify leg...
Finding CC material AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J   http://creativecom...
Australian newspapers online <ul><li>Launched by the NLA, with partners, Aug 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>547,430 pages and 6M a...
Australian newspapers online AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
Before using CC material <ul><li>Check that you’re following the licence (ask for extra permission if you need it)‏ </li><...
CC as a donor option <ul><li>Internal rights management </li></ul><ul><li>Legal certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisatio...
Click and Flick  <ul><li>individuals to contribute to PictureAustralia by adding to Flickr groups </li></ul><ul><li>encour...
Model <ul><li>Dual licensing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one licence for institution (standard agreement) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Before accepting CC material <ul><li>Check you have all the rights you need </li></ul><ul><li>Check users have all the rig...
CC as a licensing tool <ul><li>Facilitate sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Community engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Increase reach ...
Licences AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative
Licences AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative
<ul><li>You can apply to anything - short works, long works, previews/excerpts, data, drafts, source material, catalogue i...
Powerhouse Museum CRICOS No. 00213J   <ul><li>released 1500 public domain photographs to Flickr Commons </li></ul><ul><li>...
PHM benefits CRICOS No. 00213J   Powerhouse Museum collection record  http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/dmsblog/index.php/20...
Before using CC licences <ul><li>Who do you want to use the material, and when? eg global </li></ul><ul><li>Are you choosi...
Thanks <ul><li>creativecommons.org </li></ul><ul><li>wiki.creativecommons.org/casestudies </li></ul><ul><li>creativecommon...
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Creative Commons for Collecting Institutions

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Jessica Coates, Creative Commons Clinic, looks at ways cultural institutions can use creative commons to license online resources.

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  • Some just say ignore copyright law – rip, mix, burn This is ok if you’re an private user, or an obscure artist – can choose to take risk But doesn’t work for schools, libraries, museums, charities, academics, short film makers entering into competitions, DJs releasing a commercial CD etc Plus, the music labels and hollywood are suing people now – and in the UK they’re threatening to cut off people’s internet connections.
  • Non-profit Founded in 2001 These academics became concerned that the default copyright laws that applied in most countries were restricting creativity in the digital environment by preventing people from being able to access, remix and distribute copyright material online Taking inspiration from the open source movement, they decided to develop a set of licences that creators could use to make their material more freely available without giving up their copyright They wanted to replace the standard “all rights reserved” model with a new, more flexible, “some rights reserved”
  • In writing the licences, the main goal was to ensure that the licences are: Voluntary – contrary to some claims, CC isn’t anti-copyright. It just aims to provide options for those copyright owners who do want to make their material more freely available Flexible – unlike other parts of the open access movement, CC licences are specifically designed to provide a range of options for licensors, so that they can choose exactly how they want their material to be used Easy to understand – the academics designing the licences felt that one of the biggest problems with default copyright law is that its so hard for both copyright owners and users to understand. So the licences are specifically designed to be as simple as possible. And, of course, freely available for everyone to use
  • Non-profit Founded in 2001 These academics became concerned that the default copyright laws that applied in most countries were restricting creativity in the digital environment by preventing people from being able to access, remix and distribute copyright material online For instances – most people know that it’s currently illegal under Australian law to record a television show to watch later – but did you also know that, in the absence of any licence, it’s also arguably illegal to print off a webpage for personal use, or to use a song in the background of a home video, or a student film Even those people who want to make their material more freely available can’t do so without hiring lawyers Taking inspiration from the open source movement, they decided to develop a set of licences that creators could use to make their material more freely available without giving up their copyright They wanted to replace the standard “all rights reserved” model with a new, more flexible, “some rights reserved”
  • The first CC licences were released in 2002 The central to each of the CC licences are the four licence elements – Attribution, noncommercial, no derivative and sharealike These represent restrictions that copyright owners may want to put on how people can use their material. As you can see, each of the elements has a symbol that can be used to ‘represent’ each of these elements this makes the licences easier understand – in theory, once a person is familiar with the CC licences, they should be able to recognise what uses are allowed simply by looking at the symbols
  • Users can mix and match these elements to set the conditions of use for their material So, for example, an author may be happy to allow private uses of their work, but may want to limit how it can be used commercially. They may also want people to remix their work, but only so long as that person attributes them and makes the new work available for others to remix So they can choose the Attribution-noncommercial-sharealike licence
  • CC also has a number of tailored licences, for example: the Sampling Licences – allow portions of a work, but not the whole, to be remixed into new works, even commercially; the Public Domain Dedication – lets creators revoke their copyright rights entirely, and donate their work to the public domain;
  • So – looking at how the CC licences are being used According to the latest statistics from the CC website, there are currently about 140million webpages that use a CC licence As you can see, almost all of them contain the BY element – that’s because it was made compulsory for all the licences except the public domain licences after the first year, because pretty much everybody was using it anyway The majority also, unsurprisingly, choose the non-commercial element Interestingly, next most popular is ShareAlike, not noderivatives – this shows that there is still a strong focus on fostering creativity among CC community, and that, rather than trying to lock their material up, people are happy for it to be remixed, as long as the new work is also sharedEven more interesting is how these statistics are changing over time Even more interestingly – if you look at how the licences is being used over time, people are gradually moving towards more liberal licences with less restrictions on them This movement seems to indicate that as people become more familiar with the licences, they are more comfortable allowing greater use This is supported by anecdotal evidence from CC users who, after initially publishing their material under restrictive licences that don’t allow derivatives, often ‘re-release’ their material to allow new works
  • So – looking at how the CC licences are being used According to the latest statistics from the CC website, there are currently about 140million webpages that use a CC licence As you can see, almost all of them contain the BY element – that’s because it was made compulsory for all the licences except the public domain licences after the first year, because pretty much everybody was using it anyway The majority also, unsurprisingly, choose the non-commercial element Interestingly, next most popular is ShareAlike, not noderivatives – this shows that there is still a strong focus on fostering creativity among CC community, and that, rather than trying to lock their material up, people are happy for it to be remixed, as long as the new work is also sharedEven more interesting is how these statistics are changing over time Even more interestingly – if you look at how the licences is being used over time, people are gradually moving towards more liberal licences with less restrictions on them This movement seems to indicate that as people become more familiar with the licences, they are more comfortable allowing greater use This is supported by anecdotal evidence from CC users who, after initially publishing their material under restrictive licences that don’t allow derivatives, often ‘re-release’ their material to allow new works
  • In writing the licences, the main goal was to ensure that the licences are: Voluntary – contrary to some claims, CC isn’t anti-copyright. It just aims to provide options for those copyright owners who do want to make their material more freely available Flexible – unlike other parts of the open access movement, CC licences are specifically designed to provide a range of options for licensors, so that they can choose exactly how they want their material to be used Easy to understand – the academics designing the licences felt that one of the biggest problems with default copyright law is that its so hard for both copyright owners and users to understand. So the licences are specifically designed to be as simple as possible. And, of course, freely available for everyone to use
  • In writing the licences, the main goal was to ensure that the licences are: Voluntary – contrary to some claims, CC isn’t anti-copyright. It just aims to provide options for those copyright owners who do want to make their material more freely available Flexible – unlike other parts of the open access movement, CC licences are specifically designed to provide a range of options for licensors, so that they can choose exactly how they want their material to be used Easy to understand – the academics designing the licences felt that one of the biggest problems with default copyright law is that its so hard for both copyright owners and users to understand. So the licences are specifically designed to be as simple as possible. And, of course, freely available for everyone to use
  • Click and flick has turned out to be highly successful, with over 9,000 photos uploaded since January This may not seem like much on internet scale, but it’s a huge number for a library collection It’s also significantly raised the profile of the PictureAustralia collection, with the NLA reporting much higher usage, even during traditionally slow periods The NLA doesn’t have any statistics on how many people are using CC licences, but they say anecdotally that they think it is a large portion, or even the majority.
  • In writing the licences, the main goal was to ensure that the licences are: Voluntary – contrary to some claims, CC isn’t anti-copyright. It just aims to provide options for those copyright owners who do want to make their material more freely available Flexible – unlike other parts of the open access movement, CC licences are specifically designed to provide a range of options for licensors, so that they can choose exactly how they want their material to be used Easy to understand – the academics designing the licences felt that one of the biggest problems with default copyright law is that its so hard for both copyright owners and users to understand. So the licences are specifically designed to be as simple as possible. And, of course, freely available for everyone to use
  • Selecting a licence takes you through to a page that provides you with some XHTML text that you can copy onto you website This basically ‘embeds’ the cc licence into your work, and displays the ‘licence button’ on your site By clicking on the button, you’re taken through. . .
  • The open access movement is in a better place than its ever been before, as far as gaining ‘mainstream’ acceptance and being adopted by large players There have, of late, been lots of official statements endorsing open access – from the OECD, from Venturous Australia etc
  • The open access movement is in a better place than its ever been before, as far as gaining ‘mainstream’ acceptance and being adopted by large players There have, of late, been lots of official statements endorsing open access – from the OECD, from Venturous Australia etc
  • Creative Commons for Collecting Institutions

    1. 1. Introduction to Creative Commons for collecting institutions Jessica Coates Creative Commons Clinic September 2009 CRICOS No. 00213J Carpeted commons by Glutnix, http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/2079709803/in/pool-ccswagcontest07 available under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 licence, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
    2. 2. Digital technologies have revolutionised how creative works are made, distributed, and used. CRICOS No. 00213J From ‘Creative Commons in Our Schools’ by markwooley available at http://www.slideshare.net/markwoolley/creative-commons-in-our-schools/ under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 2.5 licence.
    3. 3. AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J &quot; Copyright &quot;, Randall Munroe, http://xkcd.org/14/ , Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 2.5 license
    4. 4. <ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>aims to make creative material more useable by providing free licences that creators can use to give certain permissions in advance </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    5. 5. CC is designed to… <ul><li>provide standardised licences </li></ul><ul><li>that facilitate sharing </li></ul><ul><li>are flexible </li></ul><ul><li>are easy to use and understand (for people and machines) and </li></ul><ul><li>that apply in the same way anywhere in the world. </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    6. 6. CC Myths <ul><li>CC is not: </li></ul><ul><li>anti-copyright – just another rights management tool </li></ul><ul><li>the public domain – just giving certain permission in advance </li></ul><ul><li>anti-commercial – can charge for first use, commercial uses, “premium” service, or embed advertising </li></ul><ul><li>right for every situation – entirely voluntary, and won’t be best solution for all creators </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J Free, as in beer by Unhindered by Talent available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/2345633527/ under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 licence
    7. 7. Licence Elements <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution – attribute the author </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noncommercial – no commercial use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Derivative Works – no remixing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ShareAlike – remix only if you let others remix </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    8. 8. <ul><li>Attribution </li></ul>Attribution-ShareAlike AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J Attribution-Noncommercial Attribution-NoDerivatives Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives
    9. 9. Each licence has AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J deed button legal code metadata
    10. 10. Licence Use <ul><li>In the first year 1 million works, now 180 million </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 million images on Flickr alone </li></ul><ul><li>Most have Noncommercial limitation – won't usually be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Moving towards more liberal licences </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative Use of licence elements – June 2006 CRICOS No. 00213J
    11. 11. CC and cultural institutions CRICOS No. 00213J Carpeted commons by Glutnix, http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/2079709803/in/pool-ccswagcontest07 available under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 licence, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
    12. 12. CC is useful … <ul><ul><li>As a resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a donor option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a licensing tool </li></ul></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    13. 13. CC as a resource <ul><li>Find material to use </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify copyright decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify legal rights and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce costs </li></ul><ul><li>Streamline processes </li></ul><ul><li>Access new/innovative material </li></ul><ul><li>More legal re-use allowed than library exceptions </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    14. 14. Finding CC material AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J http://creativecommons.org.au/infopacks/findingmaterial
    15. 15. Australian newspapers online <ul><li>Launched by the NLA, with partners, Aug 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>547,430 pages and 6M articles available for full-text search </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J Crowd-sourcing text corrections – 1,300 volunteers have corrected 3.4 million lines from 160,000 pages
    16. 16. Australian newspapers online AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    17. 17. Before using CC material <ul><li>Check that you’re following the licence (ask for extra permission if you need it)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your use isn’t ‘derogatory’ </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any other rights you need? </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to attribute </li></ul><ul><li>Use common sense </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    18. 18. CC as a donor option <ul><li>Internal rights management </li></ul><ul><li>Legal certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility for donor </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility for library </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility for users </li></ul><ul><li>Buy in for donors </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    19. 19. Click and Flick <ul><li>individuals to contribute to PictureAustralia by adding to Flickr groups </li></ul><ul><li>encourages CC licensing </li></ul><ul><li>55,000 photos contributed since 2006 </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative :/ - http://www.flickr.com/photos/angelltsang/30211494/ Antzpantz - http://www.flickr.com/photos/antzpantz/177067581/in/pool-69431001@N00/ Broken Simulacra -http://www.flickr.com/photos/broken_simulacra/91355505/ Creative Commons licensing “encourages content contributors to think in terms of a librarian keeping in mind the public benefit of providing maximum access to content as part of Australia’s national collection.” – Fiona Hooton, Picture Australia
    20. 20. Model <ul><li>Dual licensing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one licence for institution (standard agreement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one licence determining how material can be made available to public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can make CC licensing optional or compulsory, all licences or only some, with public domain or all rights reserved. </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    21. 21. Before accepting CC material <ul><li>Check you have all the rights you need </li></ul><ul><li>Check users have all the rights you intend them to have </li></ul><ul><li>Check donors understand the licence </li></ul><ul><li>Check other rights are being respected (indigenous etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Set attribution standards </li></ul><ul><li>Use common sense </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    22. 22. CC as a licensing tool <ul><li>Facilitate sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Community engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Increase reach and reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Access new business models </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage collaboration and innovation </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    23. 23. Licences AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative
    24. 24. Licences AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative
    25. 25. <ul><li>You can apply to anything - short works, long works, previews/excerpts, data, drafts, source material, catalogue info, ‘junk’ </li></ul><ul><li>You can publish anywhere – online, offline, own site, popular services, blogs, wikis, remix communities, businesses, peer-to-peer, bittorrent </li></ul><ul><li>Look for 'low hanging fruit' – material you created, new collections, collections with single owner, public domain material (don't use CC)‏ </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J Doesn’t have to be all or nothing
    26. 26. Powerhouse Museum CRICOS No. 00213J <ul><li>released 1500 public domain photographs to Flickr Commons </li></ul><ul><li>‘Play’ worksheets available under CC BY-NC </li></ul><ul><li>encouraged CC for ‘photo of the day’ </li></ul><ul><li>collection descriptions and data under CC </li></ul>Woman holding decorated bicycle, Phillips Glass Plate Negative Collection, Powerhouse Museum, www.powerhousemuseum.com/ collection/database/collection=Phillips_Glass_Plate_Negative <ul><li>20x increased visitation </li></ul><ul><li>crowd-sourced metadata </li></ul><ul><li>unexpected discoveries (eg locations)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>partnerships (eg ABC)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>reduced costs for Australian community (eg </li></ul><ul><li>schools) </li></ul><ul><li>didn’t hurt sales </li></ul>promotional + other benefits = net +ve $
    27. 27. PHM benefits CRICOS No. 00213J Powerhouse Museum collection record http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/dmsblog/index.php/2009/04/27/another-opac-discovery-the-gambey-dip-circle-and-the-value-of-minimal-tombstone-data/ “ If your organisation is still having doubts about the value of making available un-edited, un-verified, ageing tombstone data then it is worth showing examples like these.” - Seb Chan
    28. 28. Before using CC licences <ul><li>Who do you want to use the material, and when? eg global </li></ul><ul><li>Are you choosing the right licence? eg do you want them to be able to change your material? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have the rights to license the material? are you using anyone else’s material? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you sure? can't change your mind </li></ul>AUSTRALIA part of the Creative Commons international initiative CRICOS No. 00213J
    29. 29. Thanks <ul><li>creativecommons.org </li></ul><ul><li>wiki.creativecommons.org/casestudies </li></ul><ul><li>creativecommons.org.au </li></ul><ul><li>info@creativecommons.org.au </li></ul>CRICOS No. 00213J This slide show is licensed under a Creative Commons Australia Attribution licence. For more information see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/au/. Images in the slideshow are licensed as marked. Carpeted commons by Glutnix, http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/2079709803/in/pool-ccswagcontest07 available under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 licence, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en

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