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ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01
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ASC Research given at the PARC Forum on 2008-05-01

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This is the slide set for introducing ASC research given at the PARC forum on May 1, 2008.

This is the slide set for introducing ASC research given at the PARC forum on May 1, 2008.

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  • <number>PARC FORUM *this week*:Thursday May 1, 4:00 – 5:00 pm, George E. Pake Auditorium at Palo Alto Research Center (www.parc.com/directions) TITLE: \"Enhancing the Social Web through Augmented Social Cognition research\"SPEAKER: Ed Chi, PARC Augmented Social Cognition groupABSTRACT: We are experiencing the new Social Web, where people share, communicate, commiserate, and conflict with each other. As evidenced by Wikipedia and del.icio.us, Web 2.0 environments are turning people into social information foragers and sharers. Users interact to resolve conflicts and jointly make sense of topic areas from “Obama vs. Clinton” to “Islam.”PARC‘s Augmented Social Cognition researchers -- who come from cognitive psychology, computer science, HCI, sociology, and other disciplines -- focus on understanding how to “enhance a group of people’s ability to remember, think, and reason”. Through Web 2.0 systems like social tagging, blogs, Wikis, and more, we can finally study, in detail, these types of enhancements on a very large scale.In this Forum, we summarize recent PARC work and early findings on: (1) how conflict and coordination have played out in Wikipedia, and how social transparency might affect reader trust; (2) how decreasing interaction costs might change participation in social tagging systems; and (3) how computation can help organize user-generated content andmetadata.ABOUT THE SPEAKER: Ed H. Chi is a senior research scientist and area manager of PARC's Augmented Social Cognition group. His previous work includes understanding Information Scent (how users navigate and make sense of information environments like the Web), as well as developing information visualizations such as the \"Spreadsheet for Visualization\" (which allows users to explore data through a spreadsheet metaphor where each cell holds an entire data set with a full-fledged visualization). He has also worked on computational molecular biology, ubiquitous computing systems, and recommendation and personalized search engines. Ed has over 19 patents and has been conducting research on user interface software systems since 1993. He has been quoted in the Economist, Time Magazine, LA Times, Slate, and the Associated Press. Ed completed his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Minnesota between 1992 and 1999. In his spare time, he is an avid Taekwondo black belt, photographer, and snowboarder. ***************************************************This is the final talk in our \"Going Beyond Web 2.0\" speaker series. Previous talks in this series, as well as other recent Forum talks, are available online at www.parc.com/forums.**************************************************To subscribe to future PARC Forum announcements and/or our bimonthly e-newsletter, please visit: www.parc.com/subscriptions.To unsubscribe from Forum announcements, please send an e-mail to info@parc.com specifying the e-mail address you'd like to have removed.
  • Making sense of this area<number>
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  • Voting systems: faddishness of information, social dashboardsCol info. Structures: explicit social networksCollaborative Co-creation<number>
  • Voting systems: faddishness of information, social dashboardsCol info. Structures: explicit social networksCollaborative creation<number>
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  • This clip is from a comedy show, but it raises a serious question as well. What does happen when you have millions of people with different viewpoints all editing the same content? Well, you get a lot of conflict. I’m going to briefly go through an example of conflict that occurred on one of the most heavily edited pages in Wikipedia, which is, <pause>, you guessed it, about our own George W.<number>
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  • This main article page is all a casual browser would see when visiting the site. However, for each article in Wikipedia there is a corresponding talk page<number>
  • ...and it’s this talk page where much of the discussion and conflict occurs. For example, here’s a conflict started by user Duke53, who believes that the age at which George W received a DUI is an important fact that belongs in the main article. Meanwhile others argue that the information is unencyclopedic, and that Duke53’s continued re-adding of it constitutes vandalism. So even this seemingly small issue has sparked a major controversy, which continues well past what you see on this page. In fact, in Wikipedia each user has their own user page, and the argument spills over to Duke53’s user talk page <number>
  • here it turns into a discussion of the policies for conflict resolution and what is considered vandalism. Wikipedia has a large number of pages dedicated just to policies and procedures such as conflict resolution, <number>
  • which themselves are fluid and changing over time. In fact, some of the most heated debates take place on the talk pages<number>
  • for these policies. These policies and procedures are so important that an admin we surveyed said:
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  • So what we see is that the proportion of edits going to article pages is decreasing to around 70% of all edits, meaning there is less direct work being done.<number>
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  • But vandalism still only accounts for about 1% of all edits<number>
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  • Paste controversial tag picture hereFigure depicting CRC<number>
  • Selected a set of page metrics which we could scale to compute across large numbers of pages.<number>
  • This graph is just running the model on the list of controversial topics, it is not x-validation. It’s R-square is actually 0.897.<number>
  • This graph is just running the model on the list of controversial topics, it is not x-validation. It’s R-square is actually 0.897.<number>
  • Especially interesting: unique editors DECREASE conflict. Anonymous edits are bad when on the discussion page but not the article page.Change to 1,2,3,4... and up/down arrows<number>
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  • TALK ABOUT MODEL IMPLICATIONS FOR SEARCHHow do we evaluate a search engine?<number>
  • Add idea of black box and tell story from the side of the box getting tags<number>
  • 4 possibilities:<number>
  • Vocabulary saturation!shows a marked increase in the entropy of the tag distribution H(T) up until week 75 (mid-2005) at which point the entropy measure hits a plateau. Since the total number of tags keeps increasing, tag entropy can only stay constant in the plateau by having the tag probability distribution become less uniform. What this suggests is that users are having a hard time coming up with “unique” tags. That is to say, a user is more likely to add a tag to del.icio.us that is already popular in the system, than to add a tag that is relatively obscure.<number>
  • What’s perhaps the most telling data of all is the entropy of documents conditional on tags, H(D|T), which is increasing rapidly (see Figure 4). What this means is that, even after knowing completely the value of tags, the entropy of the document is still increasing. Conditional Entropy asks the question: “Given that I know a set of tags, how much uncertainty regarding the document set that I was referencing with those tags remains?” This measure gives us a method for analyzing how useful a set of tags is at describing a document set. The fact that this curve is strictly increasing suggests that the specificity of any given tag is decreasing. That is to say, as a navigation aid, tags are becoming harder and harder to use. We are moving closer and closer to the proverbial “needle in a haystack” where any single tag references too many documents to be considered useful.<number>
  • Figure 6 shows the number of tags per bookmark over time. The trend is clearly increasing, complementing the increase in navigation difficulty.<number>
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  • What is the valuable problem addressed by this research program? What is the target (user, company, application, market), what is our place in the value chain, and what is the business model to bring value to the target and PARC?<number>
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  • As you can tell from my demo, what is being tagged are paragraphs. This is based on our intuition that although there are cases where it makes sense to tag the whole document, there are many other cases where the interesting nuggets of information are at the sub-document level, for example, entities, facts, concepts, and paragraphs. Our implementation focuses on paragraphs for now. The key idea is that we compute a unique fingerprint for each paragraph that we encounter. Currently, we use Secure Hash Algorithm to compute the paragraph fingerprint. We are exploring other ways in the future. This simple idea of paragraph fingerprint has also been picked up by other projects in UbiDocs.<number>
  • Here is an example of duplicate content. Here we have a story at Forbes.com which is about the recent tragedy happening in Minnesota and I annotated part of the story. Here on a different web site, the same story appears and my annotations show up too.<number>
  • As I browse the web and annotate the pages, one of the things that SparTag.us automatically created for me is a notebook which contains all the paragraphs that I have annotated. Here it shows when I annotated this paragraph. Here is an option that allows me to make my annotations on this paragraph become private. Here are the URLs that I have visited and contain this paragraph. And I can search my notebook against the tags that I specified, the text that I highlighted, the text of the paragraphs that I annotated, or the URLs. By the way, this last one was suggested by Prateek who was a subject in our last user study. And here is a tag cloud which is really a representation of what kind of keywords I have using as tags.<number>
  • The way that we support social sharing is through a simple user interface like this. Here I designate myself as a fan of Ed, which means that I can see his annotations. When I go to this web page, I see that Ed has been here before and decided to leave some annotations. Of course, I can highlight or tag this paragraph too. Now, if I don’t want to be Ed’s fan anymore, I can remove his name from my friend list. And his annotations disappear too. And because this is done in AJAX, there is no need to reload the page.73
  • A nice thing about SparTag.us is that when you come to a web page, it sort of tells you what may be interesting to pay attention to. Here it reminds me that these are two paragraphs that I have annotated. Here I see that Ed has annotated this paragraph.
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  • There are really two facets of tagging. The first is encoding: when you encounter a document, have read or skimmed it and have to generate a few words that describe it. The second side of tagging is retrieval: you find a new document that has several tags attached to it, and you read those tags and the document. The tags may give you an idea about what the document is about.I am going to come back to this distinction later.<number>
  • Posing the right questions is half of the work.<number><number>
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ed&#x2029;H.&#x2029;Chi&#x2029; Augmented&#x2029;Social&#x2029;Cognition&#x2029;Area&#x2029; Palo&#x2029;Alto&#x2029;Research&#x2029;Center&#x2029; Peter&#x2029;Pirolli,&#x2029;Lichan&#x2029;Hong,&#x2029;Bongwon&#x2029;Suh,&#x2029;Les&#x2029;Nelson,&#x2029;Rowan&#x2029;Nairn&#x2029; Alumni:&#x2029;Raluca&#x2029;Budiu,&#x2029;Bryan&#x2029;Pendleton,&#x2029;Niki&#x2029;Kittur,&#x2029;Todd&#x2029;Mytkowicz&#x2029; Image from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ourcommon/480538715/ 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 1
    • 2. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 2
    • 3. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 3
    • 4. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 4
    • 5. And&#x2029;how&#x2029;are&#x2029;they&#x2029;related?&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 5
    • 6. 12 years of work in foraging and sensemaking Information&#x2029;Scent&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; WUFIS&#x2029;/&#x2029;IUNIS&#x2029;(Basic&#x2029;scent&#x2029;modeling&#x2029;algorithms)&#x2029; [CHI2000,2001]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Bloodhound&#x2029;(Simulation&#x2029;of&#x2029;web&#x2029;navigation)&#x2029;[CHI2003]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; LumberJack&#x2029;(Log&#x2029;analysis&#x2029;of&#x2029;user&#x2029;needs)&#x2029;[CHI2002]&#x2029; Foraging&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; ScentTrails&#x2029;[TOCHI2003]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; ScentIndex&#x2029;[CHI2004]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; ScentHighlight&#x2029;[IUI2005]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Visual&#x2029;foraging&#x2029;of&#x2029;highlighted&#x2029;text&#x2029;[to&#x2029;appear,&#x2029;HCII]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Proximal&#x2029;Search&#x2029;[to&#x2029;be&#x2029;published]&#x2029; Sensemaking&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Visualization&#x2029;of&#x2029;Web&#x2029;Ecologies&#x2029;[CHI98]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Visualization&#x2029;Spreadsheets&#x2029;[Infovis97,&#x2029;Infovis99]&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 6
    • 7. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 7
    • 8. Source: Starship Exeter Lessig http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Trek_fan_productions 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 8
    • 9. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 9
    • 10. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 10
    • 11. Groups&#x2029;utilize&#x2029;systems&#x2029;to&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; make&#x2029;sense&#x2029;and&#x2029;share&#x2029; complex&#x2029;topics&#x2029;and&#x2029; materials.&#x2029; Wikipedia&#x2029;(social&#x2029;status)&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Slashdot&#x2029;(karma&#x2029;points)&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; WikiHow.com&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Lostpedia.com&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 11
    • 12. Systems&#x2029;that&#x2029;evolve&#x2029;structures&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; that&#x2029;can&#x2029;be&#x2029;used&#x2029;to&#x2029;organize&#x2029; information.&#x2029; Del.icio.us&#x2029;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Flickr&#x2029;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; YouTube&#x2029;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Friendster&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 12
    • 13. Counting&#x2029;votes&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; A&#x2029;way&#x2029;to&#x2029;increase&#x2029;signal&#x2010;to&#x2010;noise&#x2029;ratio&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Information&#x2029;faddishness&#x2029; Examples:&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Digg.com&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Most&#x2029;bookmarked&#x2029;items&#x2029;on&#x2029;del.icio.us&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Estimating&#x2029;the&#x2029;weight&#x2029;of&#x2029;an&#x2029;ox&#x2029;or&#x2029; temperature&#x2029;of&#x2029;a&#x2029;room&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; The&#x2029;true&#x2029;value&#x2029;of&#x2029;a&#x2029;stock&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; PageRank&#x2029;or&#x2029;Hub&#x2029;/&#x2029;Authority&#x2029;algorithms&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 13
    • 14. Col. Information Collaborative Voting systems Structures Co-Creation Digg.com eHow.com Wikipedia IBM dogear PageRank Slashdot Naver Del.icio.us Flickr Heavier collaboration 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 14
    • 15. Col. Information Collaborative Voting systems Structures Co-Creation Digg.com eHow.com Understanding of Understanding of info Understanding of Wikipedia micro-economics and social networks conflicts and IBM dogear PageRank coordination Slashdot Naver Del.icio.us Flickr &#x2022;&#x202F; of foraging [PARC] &#x2022;&#x202F; Tag network analysis [PARC, &#x2022;&#x202F; Wikipedia coordination Golder, Yahoo] costs [PARC] &#x2022;&#x202F; Personal vs. group &#x2022;&#x202F; Structural holes (info brokerage) Heavier [Huberman, Adamic] &#x2022;&#x202F; Invisible Colleges [Sandstrom] &#x2022;&#x202F; Wisdom of Crowd [Burt] collaboration effects [Pirolli] &#x2022;&#x202F; Interference &#x2022;&#x202F; Co-laboratories [Olson and [Surowieki] &#x2022;&#x202F; Network constraints and Olson] &#x2022;&#x202F; Information cascades structure [various] &#x2022;&#x202F; Community networks / Col. [Anderson and Holt] &#x2022;&#x202F; Semantic of semiotic structures / Problem solving [Carroll] words [IR, LSA] 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 15
    • 16. Cognition:&#x2029;the&#x2029;ability&#x2029;to&#x2029;remember,&#x2029;think,&#x2029;and&#x2029;reason;&#x2029;the&#x2029;faculty&#x2029;of&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; knowing.&#x2029; Social&#x2029;Cognition:&#x2029;the&#x2029;ability&#x2029;of&#x2029;a&#x2029;group&#x2029;to&#x2029;remember,&#x2029;think,&#x2029;and&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; reason;&#x2029;the&#x2029;construction&#x2029;of&#x2029;knowledge&#x2029;structures&#x2029;by&#x2029;a&#x2029;group.&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; (not&#x2029;quite&#x2029;the&#x2029;same&#x2029;as&#x2029;in&#x2029;the&#x2029;branch&#x2029;of&#x2029;psychology&#x2029;that&#x2029;studies&#x2029;the&#x2029; cognitive&#x2029;processes&#x2029;involved&#x2029;in&#x2029;social&#x2029;interaction,&#x2029;though&#x2029;included)&#x2029; Augmented&#x2029;Social&#x2029;Cognition:&#x2029;Supported&#x2029;by&#x2029;systems,&#x2029;the&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; enhancement&#x2029;&#x2029;of&#x2029;the&#x2029;ability&#x2029;of&#x2029;a&#x2029;group&#x2029;to&#x2029;remember,&#x2029;think,&#x2029;and&#x2029; reason;&#x2029;the&#x2029;system&#x2010;supported&#x2029;construction&#x2029;of&#x2029;knowledge&#x2029; structures&#x2029;by&#x2029;a&#x2029;group.&#x2029;&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 16
    • 17. Characteriza*on&#x2029; Models&#x2029; Evalua*ons&#x2029; Prototypes&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 17
    • 18. Characteriza*on&#x2029; Models&#x2029; Evalua*ons&#x2029; Prototypes&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 18
    • 19. John&#x2029;Tukey&#x2029;&#x2029; (not&#x2029;a&#x2029;direct&#x2029;quote)&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 19
    • 20. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 20
    • 21. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 21
    • 22. (joint&#x2029;work&#x2029;with&#x2029;Niki&#x2029;Kittur,&#x2029;Bongwon&#x2029;Suh,&#x2029; Bryan&#x2029;Pendleton)&#x2029; Aniket&#x2029;Kittur,&#x2029;Bongwon&#x2029;Suh,&#x2029;Bryan&#x2029;Pendleton,&#x2029;Ed&#x2029;H.&#x2029;Chi.&#x2029;He&#x2029;Says,&#x2029;She&#x2029; Says:&#x2029;Con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029;and&#x2029;Coordination&#x2029;in&#x2029;Wikipedia.&#x2029;In&#x2029;Proc.&#x2029;of&#x2029;ACM&#x2029;Conference&#x2029; on&#x2029;Human&#x2029;Factors&#x2029;in&#x2029;Computing&#x2029;Systems&#x2029;(CHI2007),&#x2029;pp.&#x2029;453&#x2010;&#x2010;462,&#x2029;April&#x2029; 2007.&#x2029;ACM&#x2029;Press.&#x2029;San&#x2029;Jose,&#x2029;CA.&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 22
    • 23. Wikipedia is the best thing ever. Anyone in the world can write anything they want about any subject, so you know you&#x2019;re getting the best possible information.&#x201D; &#x2013; Steve Carell, The Office 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 23
    • 24. Understanding&#x2029;coordination&#x2029;costs&#x2029;is&#x2029;vital&#x2029;for&#x2029;long&#x2010;term&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; viability&#x2029;of&#x2029;collaborative&#x2029;information&#x2029;environment&#x2029; Data:&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Entire&#x2029;dump&#x2029;on&#x2029;July&#x2029;2,&#x2029;2006&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; 58&#x2029;million&#x2029;revisions&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; 4.7&#x2029;million&#x2029;wiki&#x2029;pages&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; 2.4&#x2029;million&#x2029;article&#x2029;pages&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; 800&#x2029;gigabytes&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 24
    • 25. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 25
    • 26. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 26
    • 27. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 27
    • 28. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 28
    • 29. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 29
    • 30. source: xkcd 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 30
    • 31. Decrease&#x2029;in&#x2029;proportion&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits&#x2029;to&#x2029;article&#x2029;page&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 1 0.95 0.9 70% 0.85 Edit proportion 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 31
    • 32. Increase&#x2029;in&#x2029;proportion&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits&#x2029;to&#x2029;user&#x2029;talk&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 0.2 8% 0.18 0.16 0.14 Edit Proportion 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 32
    • 33. Increase&#x2029;in&#x2029;proportion&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits&#x2029;to&#x2029;user&#x2029;talk&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Increase&#x2029;in&#x2029;proportion&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits&#x2029;to&#x2029;procedure&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 0.2 11% 0.18 0.16 0.14 Edit proportion 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 33
    • 34. Increase&#x2029;in&#x2029;proportion&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits&#x2029;that&#x2029;are&#x2029;reverts&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 0.2 7% 0.18 0.16 Edit proportion 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 34
    • 35. Increase&#x2029;in&#x2029;proportion&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits&#x2029;that&#x2029;are&#x2029;reverts&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Increase&#x2029;in&#x2029;proportion&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits&#x2029;reverting&#x2029;vandalism&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; % Edits (marked Vandalism) 0.03 1-2% 0.025 Edit proportion 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 35
    • 36. Con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029;and&#x2029;coordination&#x2029;costs&#x2029;are&#x2029;growing&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Less&#x2029;direct&#x2029;work&#x2029;(articles)&#x2029; +&#x202F; More&#x2029;indirect&#x2029;work&#x2029;(article&#x2029;talk,&#x2029;user,&#x2029;procedure)&#x2029; +&#x202F; More&#x2029;maintenance&#x2029;work&#x2029;(reverts,&#x2029;vandalism)&#x2029; 100% Maintenance 95% 90% Percentage of total edits Other 85% 80% User Talk 75% User 70% Article Talk 65% Article 60% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 36
    • 37. Characteriza*on&#x2029; Models&#x2029; Evalua*ons&#x2029; Prototypes&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 37
    • 38. Con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029;is&#x2029;growing&#x2029;at&#x2029;the&#x2029;global&#x2029;level,&#x2029;and&#x2029;we&#x2029;have&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; some&#x2029;idea&#x2029;about&#x2029;where&#x2029;it&#x2029;is.&#x2029; But&#x2029;what&#x2029;de&#xFB01;nes&#x2029;con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029;inside&#x2029;Wikipedia?&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Build&#x2029;a&#x2029;characterization&#x2029;model&#x2029;of&#x2029;article&#x2029;con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Identify&#x2029;metrics&#x2029;relevant&#x2029;to&#x2029;con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Automatically&#x2029;identify&#x2029;high&#x2010;con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029;articles&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 38
    • 39. Controversial&#x201D;&#x2029;tag&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Use&#x2029;#&#x2029;revisions&#x2029;tagged&#x2029;controversial&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 39
    • 40. Possible&#x2029;metrics&#x2029;for&#x2029;identifying&#x2029;con&#xFB02;ict&#x2029;in&#x2029;articles&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Metric type Page Type Revisions (#) Article, talk, article/talk Page length Article, talk, article/talk Unique editors Article, talk, article/talk Unique editors / revisions Article, talk Links from other articles Article, talk Links to other articles Article, talk Anonymous edits (#, %) Article, talk Administrator edits (#, %) Article, talk Minor edits (#, %) Article, talk Reverts (#, by unique Article editors) 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 40
    • 41. 5x&#x2029;cross&#x2010;validation,&#x2029;R2&#x2029;=&#x2029;0.897&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 10000 9000 Actual controversial revisions 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Predicted controversial revisions 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 41
    • 42. 5x&#x2029;cross&#x2010;validation,&#x2029;R2&#x2029;=&#x2029;0.897&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 10000 9000 Actual controversial revisions 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Predicted controversial revisions 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 42
    • 43. Highly weighted features of conflict model: &#xF06E;&#x202F; Revisions&#x2029;(talk)&#x2029; &#xF0E9; Minor&#x2029;edits&#x2029;(talk)&#x2029; &#xF0E9; Unique&#x2029;editors&#x2029;(talk)&#x2029; &#xF0EA; Revisions&#x2029;(article)&#x2029; &#xF0E9; Unique&#x2029;editors&#x2029;(article)&#x2029; &#xF0EA; Anonymous&#x2029;edits&#x2029;(talk)&#x2029; &#xF0E9; Anonymous&#x2029;edits&#x2029;(article)&#x2029; &#xF0EA; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 43
    • 44. (joint&#x2029;work&#x2029;with&#x2029;Todd&#x2029;Mytkowicz)&#x2029; Ed&#x2029;H.&#x2029;Chi,&#x2029;Todd&#x2029;Mytkowicz.&#x2029;Understanding&#x2029;the&#x2029;E&#xFB03;ciency&#x2029;of&#x2029;Social&#x2029; Tagging&#x2029;Systems&#x2029;using&#x2029;Information&#x2029;Theory.&#x2029;In&#x2029;Proc.&#x2029;of&#x2029;ACM&#x2029;Conference&#x2029; on&#x2029;Hypertext&#x2029;2008.&#x2029;(to&#x2029;appear).&#x2029;ACM&#x2029;Press,&#x2029;2008.&#x2029;Pittsburgh,&#x2029;PA.&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 44
    • 45. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 45
    • 46. Topics&#x2029; Concepts&#x2029; Documents&#x2029; Users&#x2029; Noise&#x2029; Tags&#x2029; Decoding&#x2029; Encoding&#x2029; T1&#x2026;Tn&#x2029; 46 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview
    • 47. How&#x2029;do&#x2029;we&#x2029;evaluate&#x2029;a&#x2029;tagging&#x2029;system?&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Given&#x2029;a&#x2029;tag&#x2029;vocabulary,&#x2029;how&#x2029;e&#xFB00;ective&#x2029;is&#x2029;it&#x2029;in&#x2029;describing&#x2029;a&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; set&#x2029;of&#x2029;URLs?&#x2029;&#x2029; Approach:&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Crawled&#x2029;the&#x2029;del.icio.us&#x2029;bookmark&#x2029;set&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Information&#x2029;theory&#x2029;provides&#x2029;a&#x2029;nice&#x2029;framework&#x2029;for&#x2029;analysis&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 47
    • 48. Measures&#x2029;the&#x2029;uncertainty&#x2029;about&#x2029;a&#x2029;particular&#x2029;event&#x2029;associated&#x2029;with&#x2029;a&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; probability&#x2029;distribution&#x2029; Thought&#x2029;experiment:&#x2029;drawing&#x2029;colored&#x2029;balls&#x2029;out&#x2029;of&#x2029;a&#x2029;box&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Maximum&#x2029;when&#x2029;p&#x2029;is&#x2029;uniform,&#x2029;no&#x2029;single&#x2029;color&#x2029;predominates&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Minimum&#x2029;when&#x2029;p&#x2029;is&#x2029;1,&#x2029;only&#x2029;one&#x2029;color&#x2029; Entropy&#x2029;measure&#x2029;the&#x2029;amount&#x2029;of&#x2029;information&#x2029;associated&#x2029;with&#x2029;a&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; drawn&#x2029;ball.&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 48
    • 49. Entropy&#x2029;increases&#x2029;when&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; (a)&#x2029;total&#x2029;number&#x2029;of&#x2029;events&#x2029;x&#x2029;increases&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; (b)&#x2029;distribution&#x2029;on&#x2029;X&#x2029;becomes&#x2029;more&#x2029;uniform&#x2029; Conditional&#x2029;Entropy,&#x2029;H(Y|X)&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Measures&#x2029;how&#x2029;much&#x2029;entropy&#x2029;a&#x2029;random&#x2029;variable&#x2029;Y&#x2029;has&#x2029; remaining&#x2029;if&#x2029;we&#x2029;have&#x2029;already&#x2029;learned&#x2029;completely&#x2029;the&#x2029;value&#x2029; of&#x2029;a&#x2029;second&#x2029;variable&#x2029;X.&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Can&#x2029;be&#x2029;understood&#x2029;by&#x2029;thinking&#x2029;about&#x2029;the&#x2029;joint&#x2029;entropy&#x2029; H(Y|X)&#x2029;=&#x2029;H(X,Y)&#x2029;&#x2013;&#x2029;H(X)&#x2029; 2008-03-28 ICWSM Poster 49
    • 50. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 50
    • 51. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 51
    • 52. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 52
    • 53. Source: Hypertext 2008 study on del.icio.us (Chi &amp; Mytkowicz) 2008-03-26 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 53
    • 54. Entropy&#x2029;can&#x2029;be&#x2029;used&#x2029;e&#xFB00;ectively&#x2029;as&#x2029;a&#x2029;measure&#x2029;for&#x2029;social&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; tagging&#x2029;systems.&#x2029; As&#x2029;a&#x2029;map,&#x2029;over&#x2029;time,&#x2029;social&#x2029;tagging&#x2029;systems&#x2029;seems&#x2029;to&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; lose&#x2029;their&#x2029;ability&#x2029;to&#x2029;guide&#x2029;users&#x2029;e&#xFB03;ciently.&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; However,&#x2029;there&#x2029;are&#x2029;ways&#x2029;to&#x2029;deal&#x2029;with&#x2029;this&#x2029;pressure.&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 54
    • 55. Characteriza*on&#x2029; Models&#x2029; Evalua*ons&#x2029; Prototypes&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 55
    • 56. Create&#x2029;a&#x2029;Living&#x2029;Laboratory&#x2029;as&#x2029;a&#x2029;platform&#x2029;to&#x2029; develop,&#x2029;test,&#x2029;and&#x2029;market&#x2029;innovations&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 56
    • 57. Joint&#x2029;work&#x2029;with&#x2029;&#x2029; Rowan&#x2029;Nairn,&#x2029;Peter&#x2029;Lai,&#x2029;Lichan&#x2029;Hong,&#x2029;Lawrence&#x2029;Lee&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 57
    • 58. &#xFB01;tness&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Java,&#x2029;AJAX&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Ireland&#x2029;travel&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Web2.0&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Social&#x2029;search&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Second&#x2029;Life&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Su&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 58
    • 59. Joint&#x2029;work&#x2029;with&#x2029;&#x2029; Bongwon&#x2029;Suh,&#x2029;Aniket&#x2029;Kittur,&#x2029;Bryan&#x2029;Pendleton&#x2029; Bongwon&#x2029;Suh,&#x2029;Ed&#x2029;H.&#x2029;Chi,&#x2029;Aniket&#x2029;Kittur,&#x2029;Bryan&#x2029;A.&#x2029;Pendleton.&#x2029;Lifting&#x2029;the&#x2029; Veil:&#x2029;Improving&#x2029;Accountability&#x2029;and&#x2029;Social&#x2029;Transparency&#x2029;in&#x2029;Wikipedia&#x2029;with&#x2029; WikiDashboard.&#x2029;In&#x2029;Proceedings&#x2029;of&#x2029;the&#x2029;ACM&#x2029;Conference&#x2029;on&#x2029;Human&#x2010;factors&#x2029; in&#x2029;Computing&#x2029;Systems&#x2029;(CHI2008).&#x2029;ACM&#x2029;Press,&#x2029;2008.&#x2029;Florence,&#x2029;Italy.&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 59
    • 60. Factual&#x2029;accuracy&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Motives&#x2029;of&#x2029;editors&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Uncertain&#x2029;expertise&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Volatility&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Spotty&#x2029;coverage&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Unproven/non&#x2010;independent&#x2029;source&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 60
    • 61. Social&#x2029;translucent&#x2029;for&#x2029;e&#xFB00;ective&#x2029;communication&#x2029;and&#x2029;collaboration&#x2029;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; [Erickson&#x2029;and&#x2029;Kellogg&#x2029;2002]&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Make&#x2029;socially&#x2029;signi&#xFB01;cant&#x2029;information&#x2029;visible&#x2029;and&#x2029;salient&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Support&#x2029;awareness&#x2029;of&#x2029;the&#x2029;rules&#x2029;and&#x2029;constraints&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Accountability&#x2029;for&#x2029;actions&#x2029; Wikis&#x2029;can&#x2029;be&#x2029;a&#x2029;prime&#x2029;candidate&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Every&#x2029;edit&#x2029;is&#x2029;logged&#x2029;and&#x2029;retrievable&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; WikiScanner.com:&#x2029;analyze&#x2029;anonymous&#x2029;IP&#x2029;edits&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; WikiRage.com:&#x2029;top&#x2029;edits&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 61
    • 62. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 62
    • 63. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 63
    • 64. List&#x2029;of&#x2029;every&#x2029;edits&#x2029;that&#x2029;a&#x2029;user&#x2029;made&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Let&#x2029;readers&#x2029;examine&#x2029;each&#x2029;individual&#x2029;revision&#x2029;for&#x2029;validity,&#x2029;which&#x2029;is&#x2029;hard&#x2029;to&#x2029;accomplish&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; when&#x2029;only&#x2029;provided&#x2029;with&#x2029;aggregate&#x2029;visual&#x2029;summaries.&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 64
    • 65. Surfacing&#x2029;hidden&#x2029;social&#x2029;context&#x2029;to&#x2029;users&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; For&#x2029;readers&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Any&#x2029;incidents&#x2029;in&#x2029;the&#x2029;past&#x2029;e.g.&#x2029;A&#x2029;sudden&#x2029;burst&#x2029;of&#x2029;edits?&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Who&#x2029;are&#x2029;the&#x2029;editors?&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; What&#x2029;is&#x2029;their&#x2029;motivation&#x2029;/&#x2029;point&#x2029;of&#x2029;views&#x2029;/&#x2029;expertise&#x2029;/&#x2029;topics&#x2029;of&#x2029; interest&#x2029;&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Help&#x2029;them&#x2029;judging&#x2029;the&#x2029;quality/trustworthiness/usefulness&#x2029;of&#x2029;an&#x2029; article&#x2029; For&#x2029;writers&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Measure&#x2029;expertise&#x2029;/&#x2029;contribution&#x2029;/&#x2029;reputation&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Motivate&#x2029;them&#x2029;to&#x2029;be&#x2029;more&#x2029;active&#x2029;/&#x2029;responsible&#x2029;(?)&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 65
    • 66. Joint&#x2029;work&#x2029;with&#x2029; Lichan&#x2029;Hong,&#x2029;Raluca&#x2029;Budiu,&#x2029;Les&#x2029;Nelson,&#x2029;Peter&#x2029;Pirolli&#x2029;&#x2029; Lichan&#x2029;Hong,&#x2029;Ed&#x2029;H.&#x2029;Chi,&#x2029;Raluca&#x2029;Budiu,&#x2029;Peter&#x2029;Pirolli,&#x2029;and&#x2029;Les&#x2029;Nelson.&#x2029;SparTag.us:&#x2029;A&#x2029;Low&#x2029; Cost&#x2029;Tagging&#x2029;System&#x2029;for&#x2029;Foraging&#x2029;of&#x2029;Web&#x2029;Content.&#x2029;In&#x2029;Proceedings&#x2029;of&#x2029;the&#x2029;Advanced&#x2029; Visual&#x2029;Interface&#x2029;(AVI2008),&#x2029;(to&#x2029;appear).&#x2029;ACM&#x2029;Press,&#x2029;2008.&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 66
    • 67. Interaction&#x2029;costs&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; # People willing to produce for &#x201C;free&#x201D; determine&#x2029;number&#x2029;of&#x2029; people&#x2029;who&#x2029;participate&#x2029; Surplus&#x2029;of&#x2029;attention&#x2029;&amp;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; motivation&#x2029;at&#x2029;small&#x2029; transaction&#x2029;costs&#x2029; Therefore&#x2026;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Important&#x2029;to&#x2029;keep&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; interaction&#x2029;costs&#x2029;low&#x2029; Cost of participation 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 67
    • 68. In situ tagging while reading &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; No new window &#x2013;&#x202F; Clicking vs typing Tagging + highlighting &#xF06E;&#x202F; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 68
    • 69. Intuition:&#x2029;sub&#x2010;doc&#x2029;nuggets&#x2029;useful&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Entities,&#x2029;facts,&#x2029;concepts,&#x2029;paragraphs&#x2029; Annotations&#x2029;attached&#x2029;to&#x2029;&#x2029;paragraphs&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Portable&#x2029;across&#x2029;pages&#x2029;and&#x2029;other&#x2029;contents&#x2029;(e.g.&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Word&#x2029;documents)&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Dynamic&#x2029;pages&#x2029; &#x2013;&#x202F; Duplicate&#x2029;content&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 69
    • 70. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 70
    • 71. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 71
    • 72. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 72
    • 73. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 73
    • 74. Characteriza*on&#x2029; Models&#x2029; Evalua*ons&#x2029; Prototypes&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 74
    • 75. Encoding&#x2029; Retrieval &#x2029; &#x201C;video&#x2029;&#x2029;people&#x2029;&#x2029;talks&#x2029;technology&#x201D;&#x2029;&#x2029; h?p://www.ted.com/index.php/speakers&#x2029; h?p://edge.org&#x2029; &#x201C;science&#x2029;&#x2029;research&#x2029;cogni*on&#x201D;&#x2029; 75&#x2029;
    • 76. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 76
    • 77. 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 77
    • 78. Crowdsourcing&#x2029;[collaborative&#x2029;co&#x2010;creation]&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Is&#x2029;there&#x2029;a&#x2029;wisdom&#x2029;of&#x2029;the&#x2029;crowd&#x2029;in&#x2029;Wikipedia?&#x2029; Collective&#x2029;Intelligence&#x2029;[folksonomy]&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Are&#x2029;social&#x2029;tags&#x2029;collectively&#x2029;gathered&#x2029;useful&#x2029;for&#x2029;organization&#x2029;of&#x2029;a&#x2029;large&#x2029; document&#x2029;collection?&#x2029; Collective&#x2029;Averaging&#x2029;[social&#x2029;attention]&#x2029;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Does&#x2029;voting&#x2029;systems&#x2029;identify&#x2029;the&#x2029;best&#x2029;quality&#x2029;and&#x2029;most&#x2029;interesting&#x2029; information&#x2029;for&#x2029;that&#x2029;community?&#x2029; Participation&#x2029;Architecture&#x2029;[AJAX]&#x2029;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Does&#x2029;lowering&#x2029;the&#x2029;interaction&#x2029;cost&#x2029;barrier&#x2029;increase&#x2029;participation&#x2029; productively?&#x2029; Expertise&#x2029;&#xFB01;nding&#x2029;[social&#x2029;networking]&#x2029;&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; &#x2013;&#x202F; Does&#x2029;getting&#x2029;experts&#x2029;through&#x2029;social&#x2029;network&#x2029;gets&#x2029;you&#x2029;to&#x2029;better&#x2029;quality&#x2029; information&#x2029;sooner?&#x2029; 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 78
    • 79. Research&#x2029;Vision:&#x2029;Understand&#x2029;how&#x2029;social&#x2029;computing&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; systems&#x2029;can&#x2029;enhance&#x2029;the&#x2029;ability&#x2029;of&#x2029;a&#x2029;group&#x2029;of&#x2029; people&#x2029;to&#x2029;remember,&#x2029;think,&#x2029;and&#x2029;reason.&#x2029; Living&#x2029;Laboratory:&#x2029;Create&#x2029;applications&#x2029;that&#x2029;harness&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; collective&#x2029;intelligence&#x2029;to&#x2029;improve&#x2029;knowledge&#x2029; capture,&#x2029;transfer,&#x2029;and&#x2029;discovery.&#x2029; http://asc&#x2010;parc.blogspot.com&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; http://www.edchi.net&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; echi@parc.com&#x2029; &#xF06E;&#x202F; Image from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ourcommon/480538715/ 2008-05-01 Ed H. Chi ASC Overview 79

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