Et0077 fabrication of solar operated pneumatic reciprocating water pumping system
FABRICATION OF SOLAR OPERATED
PNEUMATIC RECIPROCATING WATER
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
Award of Diploma in ----------------------------------------By the State Board of Technical Education Government of
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
This Report is certified to be the Bonafide work done by
Selvan/Selvi ---------------- Reg.No. ------------ Of VI
Semester class of this college.
Head of the Department
Submitter for the Practical Examinations of the board of
Examinations,State Board of Technical Education,Chennai,
TamilNadu.On --------------(date) held at the -----------(college name),Coimbatore
At this pleasing moment of having successfully completed
our project, we wish to convey our sincere thanks and gratitude
chairman------------------------.who provided all the facilities to us.
We would like to express our sincere thanks to our
principal ------------------for forwarding us to do our project and
offering adequate duration in completing our project.
We are also grateful to the Head of Department
&encouragement during our project.
With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our earnest
&sincere thanks to our guide --------------------, Department of
Mechanical for her/him kind guidance and encouragement
during this project we also express our indebt thanks to our
DEPARTMENT, ---------- (college Name).
FABRICATION OF SOLAR OPERATED
PNEUMATIC RECIPROCATING WATER
LIST OF FIGURES
Description of equipments
Non return valve
Design and drawing
General machine Specifications
Merits and demerits
List of materials
In this project we fabricate the solar operated reciprocating
water pump this is a new innovative concept. Reciprocating water
pump is most important in the agriculture field. In this project
electrical power is generated through the solar panel so this
equipment compensates the electrical power demand and very much
helpful to agricultural field. The main objective of this project is to
pump the water with very less electric power. The process is carried
out by the pneumatic cylinder and the compressed air. The model
consists of a tank, non return valve and a pneumatic cylinder. The
concept is pneumatic since it is easy to operate and also a quick
process. The concept can bring a drastic change in the field of
mechanical especially for lubrication purpose in the machining areas.
The main objective of our project is to perform various machine
operations using machine with the help of pneumatic sources. For a
developing industry the operation performed and the parts (or)
components produced should have it minimum possible production
cost, and then only industry runs profitability.
NEED FOR AUTOMATION:
Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics,
pneumatics, robotics, etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an
attractive medium for low cost automation.
The main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy
and simplicity. Automation plays an important role in mass
Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being
atomized in order to deliver the products at a faster rate. The
manufacturing operation is being atomized for the following reasons.
To achieve mass production
To reduce man power
To reduce the work load
To reduce the fatigue of workers
To achieve good product quality
The word ‘pneuma’ comes from Greek and means wind. The
word pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is
derived from the word pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly
understood to means the application of air as a working medium in
industry especially the driving and controlling of machines and
Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for
carrying out the simplest mechanical tasks in more recent times has
Played a more important role in the development of pneumatic
technology for automation.
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air
which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure
to suit the capacity of the system. When the pneumatic system is
being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary
to deal with the question of compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by
means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine
that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a
Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed
and delivered and the volume expressed is that of that of the air at
intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal
The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robot
Boyle in 1962 and that found that the product of pressure and
volumes of particular quantity of gas.
The usual written as
(or) PiVi =P2V2
In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which
for free is about 14.7Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a
column of mercury, nearly 30 inches high in an ordinary barometer.
Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the mostly used
system now a days.
SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS:
Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual
effort by mechanical power. Pneumatic is an attractive medium for
low Cost mechanization particularly for sequential (or) repetitive
operations. Many factories and plants already have a compressed air
system, which is capable of providing the power (or) energy
requirements and control system (although equally pneumatic control
systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to
other forms of power).
The main advantages of an all pneumatic system are usually
Economic and simplicity the latter reducing maintenance to a low
level. It can have out standing advantages in terms of safety.
Pneumatic systems use pressurized gases to transmit and
control power. Pneumatic systems typically use air as the fluid
medium because air is safe, low cost and readily available.
THE ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS:
1. Air used in pneumatic systems can be directly exhausted back
In to the surrounding environment and hence the need of special
reservoirs and no-leak system designs are eliminated.
2. Pneumatic systems are simple and economical
3. Control of pneumatic systems is easier
THE DISADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS:
1. Pneumatic systems exhibit spongy characteristics due to
compressibility of air.
2. Pneumatic pressures are quite low due to compressor design
limitations(less that 250 psi).
PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSED AIR
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which
must be made available. In sufficient quantity and at a pressure to
suit the capacity of the system. When pneumatic system is being
adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to
deal with the question of compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means
using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that
takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high
pressure. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air
compressed and delivered and the volume expressed is that of the air
At intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal
Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors, which
decides the life of a compressor. Warm and moist suction air will
result increased precipitation of condense from the compressed air.
COMPRESSOR MAY BE CLASSIFIED IN TWO GENERAL TYPES.
1. Positive displacement compressor
2. Turbo compressor
Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for
Compressed air plant and have proved highly successful and supply
air for pneumatic control application.
The types of positive compressor
1. Reciprocating type compressor
2. Rotary type compressor
Turbo compressors are employed where large of air required at
low discharge pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for
pneumatic control application unless built in multistage designs and
are seldom encountered in pneumatic service.
Built for either stationary (or) portable service the reciprocating
compressor is by far the most common type. Reciprocating
compressors lap be had is sizes from the smallest capacities to
deliver more than 500m3/min.In single stage compressor, the air
pressure may be of 6 bar machines discharge of pressure is up to
15bars.Discharge pressure in the range of 250bars can be obtained
with high pressure reciprocating compressors that of three & four
stages. Single stage and 1200 stage models are particularly suitable
For applications, with preference going to the two stage design as
soon as the discharge pressure exceeds 6 bars, because it in
capable of matching the performance of single stage machine at
lower costs per driving powers in the range.
DESCRIPTION OF EQUAPMENTS
3.1 PNEUMATIC CONTROL COMPONENT
3.1.1 Pneumatic cylinder:
An air cylinder is an operative device in which the state input
energy of compressed air i.e.penuamtic power is converted into
mechanical Output power, by reducing the pressure of the air to that
of the atmosphere.
3.1.1a) single acting cylinder:
Single acting cylinder is only capable of performing an
operating medium in only one direction. Single acting cylinders
equipped with one inlet for the operating air pressure, can be
production in several fundamentally different designs. Single
cylinders Develop power in one direction only.
Therefore no heavy control equipment should be attached to
them, which requires to be moved on the piston return stroke single
action cylinder requires only about half the air volume consumed by a
double acting for one operating cycle.
3.1.1 B) Double acting Cylinders:
A double acting cylinder is employed in control systems with the
full pneumatic cushioning and it is essential when the cylinder itself is
required to retard heavy messes. This can only be done at the end
positions of the piston stroke. In all intermediate position a separate
externally mounted cushioning derive most be provided with the
The normal escape of air is out off by a cushioning piston
before the end of the stroke is required. As a result the sit in the
cushioning chamber is again compressed since it cannot escape but
slowly according to the setting made on reverses. The air freely
enters the cylinder and the piston strokes in the other direction at full
Force and velocity.
The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic
system. Commonly known as DCV; this valve is used to control the
direction of air flow in the pneumatic system. The directional valve
does this by changing the position of its internal movable parts.
This valve was selected for speedy operation and to reduce the
manual effort and also for the modification of the machine into
automatic machine by means of using a solenoid valve.
A solenoid is an electrical device that converts electrical energy
into straight line motion and force. These are also used to operate a
mechanical operation which in turn operates the valve mechanism.
Solenoid is one is which the plunger is pulled when the solenoid is
The name of the parts of the solenoid should be learned so that
they can be recognized when called upon to make repairs,to do
service work or to install them.
PARTS OF A SOLENOID VALVE
The solenoid coil is made of copper wire. The layers of wire are
separated by insulating layer. The entire solenoid coil is covered with
a varnish that is not affected by solvents, moisture, cutting oil or often
fluids. Coils are rated in various voltages such as 115 volts
AC,230volts AC,460volts Ac,575 Volts AC.6Volts DC,12Volts DC,
24 Volts DC,115 Volts DC &230Volts DC.they are designed for such
Frequencies as 50Hz to 60Hz.
The solenoid frame serves several purposes. Since it is made
of laminated sheets, it is magnetized when the current passes
through the coil. The magnetized coils attract the metal plunger to
move. The frame has provisions for attaching the mounting. They are
usually bolted or welded to the frame. The frame has provisions for
receivers, the plunger. The wear strips are mounted to the solenoid
frame, and are made of materials such as metal or impregnated less
3. Solenoid plunger
The solenoid plunger is the mover mechanism of the solenoid. The
plunger is made of steel laminations which are riveted together
under high pressure, so that there will be no movement of the
lamination with respect to one another. At the top of the plunger a
pin hole is placed for making a connection to some device. The
solenoid plunger is moved by a magnetic force in one direction
and is usually returned by spring action.
Solenoid operated valves are usually provided with cover either
the solenoid or the entire valve. This protects the solenoid from dirt
and other foreign matter, and protects the actuator. In many
applications it is necessary to use explosion proof solenoids.
WORKING OF SOLENOID VALVE:
The solenoid valve has 5 openings. These ensure easy exhausting of
5/4Valve.the spool of the 5/4 valve slide inside the main bore
The working principle is as follows.
When the spool is actuated towards outer direction port ‘P’ gets
Connected to ‘B’ and ‘S’ remains closed while ‘A’gets connected to
When the spool is pushed in the inner direction port ‘P’ and ‘A’
Gets connected to each other and ‘B’ to ‘S’ while port ‘R’remains
SOLINOID VALVE (OR) CUT OFF VALVE:
The control valve is used to control the flow direction is called cut off
valve or solenoid valve. This solenoid cutoff valve is controlled by the
electronic control unit.
In our project separate solenoid valve is used for flow direction
of vice cylinder. It is used to flow the air from compressor to the single
Flow control valve:
In any fluid power circuit, flow control valve is used to control
the speed of actuator. The flow control can be achieved by varying
the area of flow through which the air in passing.
When area is increased, more quantity of air will be sent to
actuator as a result its speed will increase. If the quantity of air
entering into the actuator is reduced, the speed of the actuator is
Pressure control valve:
The main function of the pressure control valve is to limit (or)
Control the pressure required in a pneumatic circuit.
Depending upon the method of controlling they are classified as
1. Pressure relief valve
2. Pressure reducing valve
Hoses used in this pneumatic system are made up of
polyurethane. These hose can with stand at a maximum pressure
level of 10 x105N/m2.
In our system there are two type of connectors used. One is the
Hose connector and the other is the reducer. Hose connectors
normally comprise an adopt hose nipple and cap nut. These types of
connectors are made up of brass (or) aluminum (or) hardened
3.3 AIR COMPRESSOR:
Compressor is the air producing machine. They collect the airs
from the atmosphere are in the running of machine are engine. Air
compressors are utilized to raise the pressure of a volume of air. Air
compressors are available in many configurations and will operate
over a very wide range of flow rates and pressures. Compressed air
was expelled by primitive man to give glowing embers sufficient
oxygen to allow them to flare up into a fire. During the compression
process, the temperature increases as the pressure increases. This is
known as polytypic compression. The amount of compression power
also increases as the temperature increases. Compressors are
staged thereby reducing the temperature rise and improving the
compression efficiency. The temperature of the air leaving each stage
is cooled prior to entering the next stage. This cooling process is
called intercooling. Volumetric efficiency also increases with multi-
stage compression since the pressure ratio over the first stage will be
Selection of the air compressor is only the first step in designing
an efficient and reliable compressed air system. The air exiting the
compressor is saturated with moisture and will have compressor
lubricants (lubricated compressors only). Other chemicals that may
have been drawn into the compressor intake may also be present.
This contamination is harmful to many processes, pneumatic tools,
instruments and equipment. Air purification equipment, filters, air
dryers, breathing air purifiers, monitoring equipment, used alone or in
combination will remove these contaminants. Selection and purchase
of the compressor and necessary purification equipment can be
easily done on the Compressed air site. Our application engineers
are ready to answer all of your questions and to assist you in placing
your order. And it work in the process of rotating the fan and the
piston movement with the help of current supply.
3.4 NON-RETURN VALVE
A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve
is a mechanical device, a valve, which normally allows fluid (liquid or
gas) to flow through it in only one direction.
Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have two
openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to
leave. There are various types of check valves used in a wide variety
of applications. Check valves are often part of common household
items. Although they are available in a wide range of sizes and costs,
check valves generally are very small, simple, and/or cheap. Check
valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or
any external control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle
or stem. The bodies (external shells) of most check valves are made
of plastic or metal.
An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure
which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will
operate. Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore
be specified for a specific cracking pressure.
3.5 POT (POTENTIOMETER)
A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding
contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals
are used (one side and the wiper), it acts as a variable resistor or
Rheostat. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical
devices such as a volume control of a radio. Potentiometers operated
by a mechanism can be used as position transducers, for example, in
Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant
power (more than a watt). Instead they are used to adjust the level of
analog signals (e.g. volume controls on audio equipment), and as
control inputs for electronic circuits. For example, a light dimmer uses
a potentiometer to control the switching of a TRIAC and so indirectly
control the brightness of lamps.
Potentiometers are sometimes provided with one or more
switches mounted on the same shaft. For instance, when attached to
a volume control, the knob can also function as an on/off switch at the
APPLICATIONS OF POTENTIOMETERS
Potentiometers are widely used as user controls, and may
control a very wide variety of equipment functions. The widespread
use of potentiometers in consumer electronics has declined in the
1990s, with digital controls now more common. However they remain
in many applications, such as volume controls and as position
One of the most common uses for modern low-power
potentiometers is as audio control devices. Both linear pots (also
known as "faders") and rotary potentiometers (commonly called
knobs) are regularly used to adjust loudness, frequency attenuation
and other characteristics of audio signals.
The 'log pot' is used as the volume control in audio amplifiers,
where it is also called an "audio taper pot", because the amplitude
response of the human ear is also logarithmic. It ensures that, on a
volume control marked 0 to 10, for example, a setting of 5 sounds
half as loud as a setting of 10. There is also an anti-log pot or reverse
audio taper which is simply the reverse of a log pot. It is almost
always used in a ganged configuration with a log pot, for instance, in
an audio balance control.Potentiometers used in combination with
filter networks act as tone controls or equalizers.
brightness, contrast, and color response. A potentiometer was often
used to adjust "vertical hold", which affected the synchronization
between the receiver's internal sweep circuit (sometimes a
multivibrator) and the received picture signal.
Potentiometers are also very widely used as a part of
displacement transducers because of the simplicity of construction
and because they can give a large output signal.
In analog computers, high precision potentiometers are used to
scale intermediate results by desired constant factors, or to set initial
conditions for a calculation. A motor-driven potentiometer may be
used as a function generator, using a non-linear resistance card to
supply approximations to trigonometric functions. For example, the
shaft rotation might represent an angle, and the voltage division ratio
can be made proportional to the cosine of the angle.
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing
through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a
lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or
off. So relays have two switch positions and they are double throw
(changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second
circuit which can be completely separate from the first. The link is
magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively
large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as
100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs
(chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to
amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay
coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is
200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without
Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many
more sets of switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of
changeover contacts are readily available. Most relays are designed
for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins
providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay.
The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch
contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by
magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch
contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and
another behind them, making the relay DPDT.
3.7 SOLAR PANEL
A solar panel is a device that collects and converts solar energy
into electricity or heat. It known as Photovoltaic panels, used to
generate electricity directly from sunlight Solar thermal energy
collection systems, used to generate electricity through a system of
mirrors and fluid-filled tubes solar thermal collector, used to generate
heat solar hot water panel, used to heat water. It is energy portal. A
solar power technology uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to
convert light from the sun directly into electricity.Photovoltaics, is in
which light is converted into electrical power. It is best known as a
method for generating solar power by using solar cells packaged in
photovoltaic modules, often electrically connected in multiples as
solar photovoltaic arrays to convert energy from the sun into
electricity. The photovoltaic solar panel is photons from sunlight
knock electrons into a higher state of energy, creating electricity.
Solar cells produce direct current electricity from light, which
can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. A less
common form of the technologies is thermophotovoltaics, in which the
thermal radiation from some hot body other than the sun is utilized.
Photovoltaic devices are also used to produce electricity in optical
wireless power transmission.
In our project we are using secondary type battery. It is
rechargeable type. A battery is one or more electrochemical cells,
which store chemical energy and make it available as electric current.
There are two types of batteries, primary (disposable) and secondary
(rechargeable), both of which convert chemical energy to electrical
energy. Primary batteries can only be used once because they use
up their chemicals in an irreversible reaction. Secondary batteries can
be recharged because the chemical reactions they use are reversible;
they are recharged by running a charging current through the battery,
but in the opposite direction of the discharge current. Secondary, also
called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged many
times before wearing out. After wearing out some batteries can be
Batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and
useful for many purposes. The use of batteries has created many
environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. A battery is a
device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy it
consists of one or more voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two
half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte.
One half-cell is the positive electrode, and the other is the
negative electrode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are
electrically connected by the electrolyte, which can be either solid or
liquid. A battery can be simply modeled as a perfect voltage source
which has its own resistance, the resulting voltage across the load
depends on the ratio of the battery's internal resistance to the
resistance of the load.
When the battery is fresh, its internal resistance is low, so the
voltage across the load is almost equal to that of the battery's internal
voltage source. As the battery runs down and its internal resistance
increases, the voltage drop across its internal resistance increases,
so the voltage at its terminals decreases, and the battery's ability to
deliver power to the load decreases.
3.9 CONTROL UNIT:
Microcontrollers are destined to play an increasingly important
role in revolutionizing various industries and influencing our day to
day life more strongly than one can imagine. Since its emergence in
the early 1980's the microcontroller has been recognized as a
general purpose building block for intelligent digital systems. It is
finding using diverse area, starting from simple children's toys to
highly complex spacecraft. Because of its versatility and many
advantages, the application domain has spread in all conceivable
directions, making it ubiquitous. As a consequence, it has generate a
great deal of interest and enthusiasm among students, teachers and
practicing engineers, creating an acute education need for imparting
the knowledge of microcontroller based system design and
development. It identifies the vital features responsible for their
tremendous impact, the acute educational need created by them and
provides a glimpse of the major application area.
A microcontroller is a complete microprocessor system built on
a single IC. Microcontrollers were developed to meet a need for
microprocessors to be put into low cost products. Building a complete
microprocessor system on a single chip substantially reduces the
cost of building simple products, which use the microprocessor's
power to implement their function, because the microprocessor is a
natural way to implement many products. This means the idea of
using a microprocessor for low cost products comes up often. But the
typical 8-bit microprocessor based system, such as one using a Z80
and 8085 is expensive. Both 8085 and Z80 system need some
additional circuits to make a microprocessor system. Each part
carries costs of money. Even though a product design may requires
only very simple system, the parts needed to make this system as a
low cost product.
To solve this problem microprocessor system is implemented
microcomputer, as all the major parts are in the IC. Most frequently
they are called microcontroller because they are used they are used
to perform control functions.
The microcontroller contains full implementation of a standard
MICROPROCESSOR, ROM, RAM, I/0, CLOCK, TIMERS, and also
SERIAL PORTS. Microcontroller also called "system on a chip" or
"single chip microprocessor system" or "computer on a chip".
A microcontroller is a Computer-On-A-Chip, or, if you prefer, a
single-chip computer. Micro suggests that the device is small, and
controller tells you that the device' might be used to control objects,
processes, or events. Another term to describe a microcontroller is
embedded controller, because the microcontroller and its support
circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control.
Today microcontrollers are very commonly used in wide variety
of intelligent products. For example most personal computers
keyboards and implemented with a microcontroller. It replaces
Scanning, Debounce, Matrix Decoding, and Serial transmission
circuits. Many low cost products, such as Toys, Electric Drills,
Microwave Ovens, VCR and a host of other consumer and industrial
products are based on microcontrollers.
DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT AND DRAWING
4.1 PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS AND ITS SPECIFICATION
The design and fabrication of pneumatic reciprocating water
pumping system is consists of the following components to full fill the
requirements of complete operation of the machine.
1. Double acting pneumatic cylinder
2. Solenoid vale
3. Air compressor
4. Non return valve
7. Control unit
This project is designed with control unit, pneumatic cylinder,
solenoid valve and a water tank. The unit is timing operated
according to our necessity the pneumatic cylinder can be operated.
The pneumatic cylinder is connected to the empty cylinder for
pumping the water from the tank. The relay output is directly
connected to the solenoid valve. Now the pump is operated and
lubricant is provided on the machines in order to reduce the heat.
Once the solenoid valve is actuated through the control circuit, the
pneumatic cylinder connected with it will be extended and retracted
respectively. This results in the pumping cylinder to extend and
retract, as the piston rods of both the cylinders are coupled with each
other. Once the pumping cylinder is retracted the water in the tank
will be sucked and it will be delivered as the cylinder is extended. The
continuous operation will deliver the water as per the requirement.
The process is controlled by the control unit.
In this concept we are using is the solar panel. A solar cell or
photovoltaic cell is a device that converts solar energy into electricity
by the photovoltaic effect. This plays the major role to convert the
solar energy to electrical energy by photovoltaic process. Solar panel
consists of number of solar cells which converts the solar energy to
electric power. The output power supply from the solar panel is given
to the battery. The battery stores the power given by the solar panel.
Then the stored energy is given to the solenoid valve to operate the
MERITS AND DEMERITS
• Requirement of man power is not necessary
• Electric power required is minimum
• Quick process
• Easy to handle
• Free of energy
• It is costlier than the other types of pumps
• Leakage of air affects the working unit.
• Needs separate air compressor
• Solar power is only available at day time.
It is applicable in all small scale and large scale industries for
• Higher efficiency.
• It does not require any prime mover like electric motor.
• As the air is freely available.
LIST OF MATERIALS
FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS
The various factors which determine the choice of material are
The material selected must posses the necessary properties for
the proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied
Can be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand
environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc.
The following four types of principle properties of materials
decisively affect their selection
c. From manufacturing point of view
The various physical properties concerned are melting point, thermal
Conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific
gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic purposes etc.
The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile,
Compressive shear, bending, torsional and buckling load, fatigue
resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit, endurance limit, and
modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding
The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point
of view are,
Deep drawing etc.
2. Manufacturing case:
Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or
surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating
substances may demand the use of special materials.
3. Quality Required:
This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately
the material. For example, it would never be desirable to go casting of
a less number of components which can be fabricated much more
economically by welding or hand forging the steel.
4. Availability of Material:
Some materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then
becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which
though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. the
delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be
kept in mind.
5. Space consideration:
Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the
forces involved are high and space limitations are there.
As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of
material plays an important part and should not be ignored.
Some times factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and nonmaintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of
The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the
field of medical department for water purifier.
This project will reduce the cost involved in the concern. Project
has been designed to perform the entire requirement task at the
shortest time available.