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Guidebook to quality
 

Guidebook to quality

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This guidebook was made in the project Qualipaths. For more informations on this, see http://qualipaths.blogspot.fr

This guidebook was made in the project Qualipaths. For more informations on this, see http://qualipaths.blogspot.fr

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    Guidebook to quality Guidebook to quality Document Transcript

    • Guidebook to Quality in VET A contribution of Qualipaths partners
    • 2 CONTENTS:CONTENTS:CONTENTS:CONTENTS: 1) Introduction by Paul Quénet: Qualipaths and EQAVET. 2) European viewpoints over three Key questions. 3) Some good practices. 4) Conclusion by Professor Erwin Seyfried.
    • 3 1) Introduction by Paul Quénet: Qualipaths and EQAVET. Based on EQAVET the European quality in VET strategy, Qualipaths, was set up around the observation of several quality assurance implementations in VET systems. We always kept in mind that, in addition to the improvement of the service provided, EQAVET aims at developing transparency and trust within training systems and vocational certifications. Thus EQAVET is meant to facilitate the European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) which is the European instrument to promote mutual trust and mobility in VET. Our partnership consists in public institutions and training providers from various countries where quality assurance is seen from different angles. It has been a real asset of the project whose purpose was to place quality assurance approaches within a large scope describing the various situations we came across. Before we propose this description, let’s make it clear that quality assurance is not a goal in itself. This is why first and foremost it must address the needs of the beneficiary for which we shall see that there can be a range of definitions. Implementing such a process should provide an added value which should exceed the tangible and intangible investments required. Therefore we built our exchanges asking ourselves what we considered to be three key questions: What is the impact of quality assurance on the VET beneficiary? How can quality improve the management of a VET institution? How can a VET organisation choose standards or norms? If our reader notices that there are different answers, we have to keep in mind that our exchanges were meant to highlight our different approaches in order to better compare them and see how they address their contexts, thus enabling us to draw conclusions being beneficial to all. I would like to pay tribute to all partners for their outstanding participation to our seminars as well as their written contributions. Their open-mindedness, trust and courtesy have guaranteed the success of our project. Quality assurance approaches may emphasize some of the aspects of a concept which is multiple and multifactorial yet some invariable parts have been revealed and it is worth highlighting them: - It is necessary to have a beneficiary-focussed quality approach. The beneficiary can be seen at various levels. For the governing institutions, society is the beneficiary in itself through the improvement of the VET system. For training service providers the beneficiary is first and foremost the learner who can be empowered up to sharing responsibility in the setting up of her/his pathway including its assessment. The organization itself as well fund providers ordering the training service are also to be considered as well as the partnership with stakeholders from their environment. o Ongoing improvement strategy is also necessary – it has to be noticed that EQAVET is based on the typical PDCA. o Whatever the demands, the constraints in the implementations, there always exists a reference framework to compare the current situation of the training system and the ways it evolves. o Every quality assurance approach can be achieved successfully but with a strong commitment of the leaders o It only makes sense if all the staff embrace the issue o Benchmarking approaches facilitate and speed up quality assurance implementation o Whatever the reference framework chosen the implementation leads to the creation of a quality foundation framework which can be used for operating other standards
    • 4 The scope of quality assurance can be described through the following chart: INSTITUTIONAL VIEWPOINT TRAINING ORGANISATION VIEWPOINT QUALITY ASSURANCE SCOPE By placing the beneficiary at the center, we can consider a “quality planning” constituted by three axes. One of the axes (purple) is defined through the use (or not) of a standard. In addition to ISO norms, among the standards we find the Scottish, Italian, Turkish, French GRETA +. Off standards, we can place both the French ecocitizenship approach and the Label “lycée des métiers”.
    • 5 The other direction of quality planning is defined through the axis (green) going from self- evaluation to external audit. The award of a label associated to standards necessitates an external audit yet some institutions can choose to apply the standards without having external audits either for economic reasons or because the label is of no relevance in their context. It is the case of the Italian training center which applies ISO standards without audit. It is also the case of the “Leonardo Transfer of innovation” QALEP which facilitates a reflection on the evolution of the label “Lycée des Métiers”. Above the quality planning we can place the viewpoints of institutions which will give the impetus or impose the use of quality assurance (blue axis). By “imposing” we mean that the formal use of a norm with external audits is a compulsory marker for training organizations to benefit from funding, most of the time public in that particular case. It is the case in Scotland and Italy. Others choose an impulse which provides training institutions with a range of tools or criteria they are free to use. These tools can be more or less elaborate yet can provide a standard, external audit schemes or a label. Here we find several experiences: Turkey, Poland, and France with its wide range of approaches (GRETA +, Lycée des métiers, ecocitizenhip). It has to be noticed that EQAVET also belongs to this category. Let’s consider at the other end of the vertical axis the viewpoint of establishments confronted to the choice to implement (or not) quality assurance as well as their level of involvement in the process. Being in a context where quality assurance is imposed by the authorities does not necessarily prevent their freedom of choice for a norm. We had the opportunity to visit an Italian training center which chose ISO 9001 whose standards went beyond what their fund provider, the regional government, required As a conclusion EQAVET which places itself in a logic of impulse, is not a standard in itself: on the contrary it promotes the adaptation to the local contexts without being a meta- standard. We have to consider that starting from EQAVET, we have mainly observed implementations based on standards, external audits and labels. Our partnership cannot claim perfect statistical relevance for our observation; nevertheless we modestly feel that our outcome is obviously of interest. We also noticed that there is also a tendency to define one’s own standards and requirements which is in stark contrast with a normative approach which would avoid the multiplicity of reference frameworks for one single topic. As an example the GRETA network implements 3 approaches in parallel: GRETA+, ecocitizenship, “centres inter-institutionnels de bilan de competences” for specific services. If the quality foundation framework facilitates convergences, the multiplicity of standards may lead to spreading efforts too thinly. It would be a pity if the large freedom provided by EQAVET in its implementation led to more constraints and compliance to too many standards for training organizations. Beyond the standards, the norms and the audits we have to keep in mind that quality assurance is implemented by women and men in order to provide other women and men with the best possible service.
    • 6 2) European viewpoints over three Key questions. Question One: WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE ON THE VET BENEFICIARY? Scottish viewpoint Quality Assurance for a VET institution can be defined as checking that the standards and the quality of education provision meet agreed expectations. By having a robust Quality Assurance system employers, beneficiaries and awarding bodies can be confident that the level of education is delivered at an appropriate level. The beneficiary should be convinced that they have received the best learning experience available. They should also be convinced that the level of education is relevant to the sector in which they plan to be employed. The Quality Assurance system should confirm that the course the beneficiaries enrol in has clear and consistent objectives and that the assessment practices meet the necessary criteria and requirements. The Quality Assurance system should allow feedback from the beneficiaries in an attempt to improve the standard of delivery. The feedback may influence a decision to use more or less technology as an example. The feedback is an iterative process which feeds into the training provider’s continuous development objective. By including an awarding body into the Quality Assurance system, this reiterates that what is being delivered in the classroom or within a work placement is delivered consistently across all training providers. The use of verification systems (which usually means sampling assessment material) ensures that assessments are fair, current and valid. The external review system implemented by a number of national bodies usually score or rate an institution as part of its review. In Scotland, Education Scotland (formerly called HMIe…Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education) issue a number of “confidence” statements as part of its external review. These statements are issued on its website and a formal report is created. This allows the beneficiary to rate the VET institution against others and may influence his/her decision to enrol in the future. Recommendations - Inclusion of beneficiary in the Quality Assurance system is essential to give a balanced view of quality process - Use of external bodies gives quality assurance system credibility Bulgarian viewpoint The quality assurance in VET will lead to: - Improvement of the labor force quality; - Establishing a balance on the labor market between the need of qualified workers and their training/preparation; - Increasing the labor productivity; - Integrating of disadvantaged groups in the process of education and on the labor market; - Increasing the mobility; - Reaching higher level of education. Through the quality assurance information is provided to students and to all stakeholders to reassure them about the quality of provision, and to enable them to make informed choices about programs and institutions.
    • 7 Setting clear rules to decide who offers VET provision will help to increase the percentage of accredited VET providers respectively ensures that more candidates take programmes that lead to formal qualifications. Publicising those courses and qualifications that are approved encourages the take-up of formal qualifications. Using feedback helps training providers to improve provision which encourages greater participation. Working with external partners helps to ensure that programmes are fit for purpose and all stakeholders can be confident about encouraging candidates to study for formal qualifications. Recommendations: - Use trainees’ feedback and encourage participation - Develop external partnership to meet the needs of beneficiaries Polish viewpoint A vocational school is a school of positive choice because it does not limit the student from Further Education and development. Quality assurance makes the vocational school a reliable institution; which caters for accreditation and validation procedures and abides by the norms of standards of vocational education. It prepares the beneficiaries to do jobs which allow them to enter the labour market successfully and find employment in various sectors of industry. A good vocational school guarantees a good and interesting job, success and career-oriented future and enables young people to start and fully control their career development. Obtained knowledge, skills, qualifications and competences make them reliable, responsible employees, fully aware of their own value. In Lodz, Poland there are currently 35 technical secondary schools and 33 vocational secondary schools preparing graduates to work in more than 70 different professions. After passing a vocational examination in a given specialisation, the pupil or student receives a certificate. A diploma confirming vocational qualifications is awarded after passing all examinations required for a given profession and after finishing school. It will also be possible to take examinations without being enrolled in school if the pupil has completed lower secondary school education or an eight-year primary school and has worked or studied in a given profession for a minimum of two years. This will streamline the confirmation of competences gained through non-formal education or informal learning. Recommendations: - Facilitate the partnership between the stakeholders, policy makers and schools or organizations in order to perform needs analysis among VET beneficiaries; specifying their needs and expectations - Application of learner-centered approach compliant with the quality regulations and standards German viewpoint Given the difficulties with measuring impact and to provide valid information on the actual and effective impact of quality assurance, we would like to distinguish between the objectives of the quality assurance activities at HWR Berlin and some results, which can be observed. The general objective of quality assurance at HWR Berlin is to improve students’ performance and their chance for successful graduation, to facilitate the acquisition of
    • 8 knowledge, skills and competences, to contribute to better marks and to support their transfer into employment or further education. Following the higher education act of the state of Berlin, university education should provide professional competences but non-professional competences, like commitment for active citizenship, should be promoted as well. Primarily, quality assurance is focused on the interests of the students. In a more indirect way, quality assurance should also help to increase the reputation of HWR Berlin and in particular of the awarded academic degrees, thus making it easier for the graduates to find a job. Finally, by engaging in quality assurance HWR students should become more satisfied with the basic conditions and the environment in the university: library, cafeteria, administration and guidance should fulfil their expectations. It is rather difficult to measure if these objectives have been achieved but furthermore one should be aware, that results are influenced by factors which are hardly under control, like finances and available resources, or which can be changed only in the long run, like the didactical performance and behaviour of lecturers. Nevertheless, quality assurance of teaching and learning is integrated as a central element in the quality management system applied at HWR Berlin. Pedagogical, methodological and didactical issues are central parts of the quality process: students are regularly interviewed with questionnaires to give their feedback. Resulting from the efforts for better quality, the assessment of students’ performance has become more transparent, coordination of curricular content between lecturers has been enhanced and didactical training for lecturer has been strengthened. Furthermore, at HWR Berlin special emphasis has been put on the usage of a learning platform and blended learning concepts and the creation of appropriate infrastructure. Recommendations: - Coherent quality assurance in VET organisations should not be restricted to individual factors, like qualification of teachers, effective teaching methods, or efficient administrative procedures. - We recommend understanding quality in VET as being composed of mutually dependent building blocks: the quality of results, of products, of processes, and of input factors. Turkish viewpoint It is better to divide beneficiaries into 3 categories. First of them are individuals who take vocational education, the second ones are enterprises where vocational education students get employment and the third one is the public who these enterprises provide their services to A-)The impact of the Quality Assurance on Individuals who take vocational Education: 1- Individuals who are educated in a quality and efficient education process will feel at ease in the working world and will have a better evolution in their career. 2- Individuals who are educated in this way will develop their self- esteem. 3- Individuals who gain necessary vocational qualifications won’t have employment problems. 4- Individuals who are educated with professional ethics will take into account and be able to match the interests of the enterprises and expectations of the public as well as their own interests.
    • 9 B-) The impact of the Quality Assurance on enterprises where vocational education students work:. 1-Every enterprise always wants to raise its profitability ratio and market share. In that respect, it has to adapt itself to technology changes and employ a labour force able to produce technology and use it .For this reason quality in VET will increase the rate of finding well-trained staffs. 2-Enterprises which employ qualified individuals will always adapt themselves to technology and in this way they will develop easily. 3-The most important factor for enterprises is "customer satisfaction". Enterprises which employ qualified staffs will achieve it easily. C-) The impact of the Quality Assurance on public whom these enterprises give services to: 1-Customers want to buy products with the best value for money. And they expect the best after sale service connected to professional ethics. For this reason, quality in VET also directly affects cohesion, economy and wellbeing of the general public. 2-To be able to deliver suitable spare parts and frequent service after sales it is needed to have well-trained staff. French viewpoint – GIP- FCIP A training pathway addresses specific objectives which the beneficiary must be well aware of. Objectives as well as ways to assess the outcome must be formalized as called for in a typical quality assurance process. If not, remedial actions must be taken. They have an influence both on current and future trainees. Quality assurance calls for specific training provisions: • Trainers’ expertise, • adequate facilities and equipment, • various resources: printed, digital, online. More widely, quality assurance facilitates the beneficiaries’ involvement within the training process and his/her awareness of the various steps of the learning process. Recent scientific outcome showed the interest of the learners’ active behaviour in her/his pathways not to mention monitored self learning. Indeed quality assurance necessitates ongoing assessment of the beneficiary’s satisfaction. It enables her/him to express herself / himself and in addition it facilitates adjustments in the service provided to be made by the institution. Recommendations: - Consider a wider scope of beneficiaries: students, enterprises and customers in the quality assurance process - Consider that VET contributes to the adaptability of enterprises and the development of the economic environment
    • 10 With regards to Greta+ reference framework, “tailored training” as required, is personalized according to the trainee‘s biography and is made clear in an advisory discussion phase which is to have a strong impact on pathways. It has to be noticed that EQAVET proves relevant for beneficiaries themselves. The other consequence is the facilitation of ECVET implementation. Now access to qualification will depend on the range of ECVET available: the more numerous, the better for beneficiaries. Recommendations: - Any quality system must be learner-centered - Quality systems should be mainstreamed to facilitate active pedagogical approaches French viewpoint – CRBN In the quality approach being implemented by the Region to promote sustainable development within vocational training institutions, the beneficiaries must feel the effects of the process at 2 levels: - Professional skills they gain during their trainings must incorporate quality principles in terms of sustainable development. Thus, each training, whether it is specialized in the field of environment or not, should enable the trainees to know their territories and master green skills. The aim is to enable them to adapt their skills in an evolving economy with a structural trend towards a lower consumption of non-renewable energy and waste reduction. More generally, a quality vocational training is assessed as to enable the beneficiaries to be able to perceive social, economic and environmental issues, and to adapt in order to have the best chances to a successful and environment friendly integration in the labor market. - Beyond skills on the labour market, education and training centers are places of learning and socialization, in which beneficiaries should have the opportunity to develop independence, critical thinking, fairness, consciousness of personal responsibility and solidarity. Recipients must be able to engage themselves as contributors to the training course, which must be an opportunity for them to experience and exercise their role as citizens, actively participating in the smooth running of training and life in the institution they study in (eg Regional support to educational policy in the Apprenticeship Training Centers). “Eco-citizenship” covers both concepts and in the framework of its powers, the Region has implemented an incentive scheme to support training institutions in order to promote access for persons undergoing training to a sustainable development education, whatever kind of training they attend to (training through school or learning, vocational training), In addition, consideration is being given, involving the new possibilities offered by digital tools, including social networks, to organize a "trainee portal" that would empower the representatives of the beneficiaries to contribute and monitor the regional vocational training. Recommendations - Develop the autonomy of learners for them to become responsible and conscious professionals and citizens
    • 11 Italian viewpoint The constant attention to the beneficiary and to all stakeholders manifests itself in every business. Some evidence of this are: − systematic analysis of training needs and consulting; − establishment of a professional relationship, acquisition of service requirements for the conclusion; − customer communication clear and detailed information concerning activities to be performed, materials to be used, time of performance of the service; − training of its personnel to greater customer focus, from requirements implicit and explicit, to the care of the human relationship to the management of his property, and so on. − working environment and structure, cozy and pleasant; − working conditions that give guarantee to protect the safety and health of workers; − compliance with applicable legal requirements; − commitment to pollution prevention; − detection and analysis of the level of customer satisfaction; − constant research and development of new methods for providing training and consultancy services in order to maximize benefits for the individual and companies of the activities carried out; − regular communication via newsletter with training and information management, computer science, foreign languages, internet, but also trade, financing and training. Recommendations: -Analyze feedback for continuous improvement of the beneficiaries -Clearly communicate the results that are to be be obtained
    • 12 Question two: HOW CAN QUALITY IMPROVE THE MANAGEMENT OF A VET INSTITUTION? Scottish viewpoint A Quality Assurance system can provide structure for the management of an institution. It means that the institution has to plan the areas of delivery, introduce target setting and, review and improve on them. Without quality indicators there is no way to measure the success or otherwise of an institution. An organization may be conducting its business in a proper and professional manner but without a quality system in place there is no evidence to back this up. Without evidence it is possible that the institution may lose business. Implementing a quality assurance system that encompasses self-evaluation allows staff and beneficiaries to take ownership of the process. Staff feel that their views are being heard in an open and professional manner. Recommendations - The Quality Assurance system has to be inclusive. All staff have to be involved and engaged in the process. This gives staff ownership of process. - Setting realistic targets and review them regularly with appropriate staff. - It should not be seen as a management tool, but one that belongs to and is used by the whole VET institution. Bulgarian viewpoint A crucial precondition for the successful implementation of a quality management system is to involve all stakeholders who should participate actively in the quality process - building a culture of quality. A culture of self-evaluation with constant improvement in order to enhance the quality of VET institutions’ processes and results should be created. Agreement regarding the future development and implementation of objectives should be reached by way of communication between the key actors on the respective levels, by setting clear roles and responsibilities for the quality management process. The quality reflects on the management of a VET institution via: - Improving market intelligence and information availability to potential clients and stakeholders; - Developing effective communication and information dissemination framework; - Continuously updating the occupational standards in line with the needs of employers; - Improving the quality of the content of the educational programs according to the demands of the employers; - Devising effective continuing VET programs to close the competency gap with EU; - Improvement of the functioning system for inner monitoring and control with a view to the inclusion of concrete indicators and criteria for evaluation of the quality of work in the VET institution; - Enriching of the system for observing the realization on the labor market of the graduates/and those who have acquired a degree for vocational qualification in the VET institution in interaction with the Employment Agency;
    • 13 - The availability of internal system for quality assurance is one of the criteria for the licensing of the VET institutions. Its components comply with the current requirements at European level. - Creating incentive mechanisms to motivate the employers and workers to appreciate the need for and effectively participate in continuing VET; - Mobilizing and coordinating the efforts of all social partners, local authorities, NGOs and other to actively participate in the process; - Improving the scope, content and volume of information to promote occupational training, thus increasing the accessibility to education and transparency of terms offered. Recommendations: - Involve all stakeholders to build a culture of quality through management processes - Develop cooperation with employers providing job offers Polish viewpoint Each VET institution should benefit from applying quality standards and norms with reference to management and administration of the company. This streamlines more transparent and clear management procedures which would be implemented by the internal quality control, external quality audits, external validation and accreditation systems. Applying quality assurance polices (e.g. ISO 9001 or language certification) ensures: - a positive image of the company as a stable enterprise on the educational market (trusted and reliable). Compliance with external norms generates positive feedback from the public - the appropriate level of quality of the company’s internal documentation (certifications, norms and standards). Unification and standardization of document templates result in more systematic and clear procedures (e.g. internal observation sheets, evaluation sheets, report templates etc.) which when followed create an objective overview of the company’s value on the market - improvement of the quality of work of the enterprise (both administrative and academic). academic staff have access to unified documentation compliant with educational standards focused on learning outcomes and administrative staff have more transparent, clear guidance procedures to implement quality control and provide high quality service to students - greater customer (student – teacher) satisfaction and reduction of the complaints from unsatisfied external customers - more prospects of employment for students gear employment for teachers. Better, motivated teachers shape a more professional profile of the prospective graduate on the labour market. - competitive educational offer on the labour market, compliant with the employers’ requirements and demands (commissioned courses adjusted to the labour market expectations – hands-on training reduces the number of graduates with ‘paper qualifications’ - the increase of the prestige of the company and its services on the educational market - greater access to domestic and foreign markets through wider mobility schemes - application of clear norms and standards gears international partnership opportunities for the educational institutions) - the increase of profit due to the improved and validated quality systems. For non-state owned institutions application of quality control procedures can directly results in higher student enrolment numbers
    • 14 Recommendations: The process of lifelong learning of personnel involved in VET management, both administrative and academic, is paramount. Those directly involved in teaching, should continue their professional development by defining, understanding and developing values of systems beneficial for individuals and groups of employees, and by implementing quality management systems. All the possible efforts should be taken to implement quality management systems in the units and institutions, dealing with training, which do not apply modern management methods, yet. German viewpoint As said above, the focus of quality assurance at HWR Berlin is on the (interests of) students. Following, it is obvious, that the management of the institution should be improved in order to serve better the needs of students and to support the achievement of their goals. On the other hand one should be aware that a formalised quality management system allows to monitor and to improve all processes and infra-structural elements in an organisation that are considered essential pre-conditions to achieve quality. Improving the effectiveness of the institutional processes quite often is in full accordance with the needs of students and lecturers as usually they benefit from transparent structures and processes that are running smoothly. Especially the teachers appreciate that the quality management system simplifies their daily work. Recommendations - We recommend to understand quality as being commonly (but not congruently) defined and produced by all stakeholders; i.e., clients (students, employers), teachers and other staff, and the social environment of the VET organisation. - Establishing effective and efficient quality assurance within a VET organisation should address in small steps all the building blocks and all the stakeholders simultaneously, instead of consecutively implementing big steps concerning single issues. Turkish viewpoint One of the most important issues for the enterprises is to be able to develop and consolidate current efficiency. To ensure this, they must have a very good management team. Right decisions are made by people whose competence perfectly fits in their positions. Institutions which present a quality vocational education must have a quality management staff, too. It is needed to have leaders who define workplans, take the right decisions and implement them, anticipate by evaluating the results of decisions in an ongoing process. On this basis, institutions which aim to quality should have a quality management staff. Recommendations: - Have management staff able to anticipate, evaluate results and take steps for improvement. - Have leaders able to use quality processes
    • 15 French viewpoint – GIP-FCIP By imposing: • processes clarifications • organizational chart clarifications, • management reviews, • quality monitoring of service provided, • financial follow-up, • approach to anticipation, quality assurance provides outstanding structuring components for a training organization. The necessary staff mobilization for the implementation of quality processes is widely compensated by advantages stemming from a more effective organizational structuration and the commitment of the teams working together and addressing shared goals. Moreover it requires the commitment of the whole staff and thus everyone feels involved in the process and more widely within the institution one works with. I t has to be noticed that we involved secretaries as internal auditors in Greta+ implementation. A training organization involved in quality assurance whose staff is truly a party to, provides a better service to the ultimate beneficiaries and is more robust and self adaptive to a changing environment Quality assurance process cannot be opposed to the ongoing daily adaptation of the institution and its stakeholders. On the contrary, in relying on the quality basis we can set up a “learning organization” process (in the sense that the institution learns from its ongoing interaction with its environment and adapts to it in a better way) French viewpoint – CRBN Quality approach issued in Lower-Normandy through the ecocitizenship approach was aimed to – and resulted in – a fundamental change in the relationships between the Region and the training institutions. In a context of deployment since 2001 of calls for tenders applied to vocational training for jobseekers, the political impulse given in 2004 by the new regional majority (coalition socialists and ecologists) aimed to promote a best-bidder logic rather than a lowest bidder logic. To establish and develop new criteria for funding continuing vocational training, the regional departments did not work alone. It was decided since the beginning to set up working groups with representatives of various networks of training institutions, to interview trainers and linked actors (especially employment agencies and youth network), in order to integrate their issues and ensure the quality of vocational training financed by the Region. The same kind of approach has been implemented for apprenticeship policy. Management talks are organized to exchange and share on Regional financing arrangements. Recommendations: - Involve all the staff to participate to the quality assurance process, encompassing their empowerment for specific missions. - Move forward up to becoming a “learning organization” relying on its quality assurance basis framework
    • 16 Have been highlighted in particular: - the importance of prolonged relationships between the Region and the training organizations, which lead the Region to propose contracts for 3 or 4 years instead of 1, - the role of needs analysis made for each territory to ensure the attractiveness of training for both the public and the enterprises, - the importance of coherence and coordination between the different funders of vocational training, - and the need to implement security devices during training pathways in order to avoid the resignation of people in great difficulty. - Furthermore, to develop some approaches, the Region sets up or contributes to programs of support and advice for training organizations to help them meet the needs of the Region. This is the case of the sustainable development approach, but other examples exist such as the use of digital tools for training, and perhaps in the future a new strengthened support for people accumulating serious personal and social difficulties. Now, the culture of sharing decision is widely integrated in the operating mode of the Region: it is no more possible to design a device or a policy without including in its planning the organizations which will benefit from it. Similarly, the logic which aims to analyze needs by territory is widespread and is now fully integrated in management practices. Progress remains to be done in terms of coordination and consistency between the various funders of vocational training, and becomes a priority at a time that the Region, due to the 2013 decentralization law, should be empowered with more responsibilities related to the vocational training policy. Recommendations - Develop a culture of decision sharing - Empower stakeholders with responsibilities Italian viewpoint To implement the Integrated Management System, ARCADIA CONSULTING SRL: − prepared a Manual Integrated Management System for Quality, Safety and Environment, calling procedures of the System; − identified the processes needed for the Integrated Management System; − established sequences and interactions between the processes, policies and methods to ensure the effectiveness of these operations; − identified aspects / significant environmental impacts associated with the activities, facilities and products / services arising from business processes; − identified hazards / significant risks associated with the activities, facilities and products / services arising from business processes; − established criteria and methods to be adopted to ensure effective operational control and effective monitoring of environmental aspects / impacts and dangers / risks significant for the company; − implemented the Integrated Management System following the procedures documented; − defined and documented how they will meet the requirements of the system, through the Corporate Policy, objectives, programs and activities related to monitoring of the Integrated Management System (through meetings, audit and management review); − prepared a schedule consistent with the specific requirements of the Integrated Management System, according to an annual plan issued earlier this year by the General
    • 17 Directorate and constantly updated; − defined and specified equipment and equipment resources; − documented the activities of the Integrated Management System, according to the specifications given in the management process documents for registration; − ensured the availability of information required to support the actions and monitoring processes; − measured, monitored, analyzed the processes and implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and continual improvement through the use of non-compliance and indicators of the integrated management system. Recommendations: - Build a management system clear and reported to the objectives to be pursued - Avoid bureaucratic systems
    • 18 Question three: HOW CAN A VET ORGANISATION CHOOSE STANDARDS OR NORMS? Scottish viewpoint Definition from QUALISTAT Sub-Group (Quality of Norms Final Report July1998) • Norm - A standard, pattern or type • Standard - A measure established as a criterion, any type, fact, thing, etc. serving as a criterion. For the purposes of our work we agreed to use the words 'norm' and 'standard' as synonyms, and define a norm as 'an agreed or recognised convention which contributes towards a framework for collecting, processing or disseminating coherent statistical data'. The VET organisation has to choose the standards that are relevant to them. Governmental (local and/or national) organisations may force VET organisations to adhere to quality standards as part of their condition of business (ie to gain Government contracts there may be a Quality Assurance condition in place). Part of the usual accreditation process for an institution is the implementation of additional quality assurance systems. An institution has to decide whether the inclusion of these additional criteria outweighs the adjustment to the institution’s existing systems. An example is: To achieve the Customer Service Excellence Quality standard the institution has to set targets relating to communication (telephone and mail) response times. Setting those targets and then recording and reviewing them may have too much of an impact on existing resources for the organisation to undertake. Recommendations: - VET organisation has to choose which standard or norm is available and appropriate to itself and its beneficiaries - VET organisations need to balance benefit of norm or standard against possible additional cost or resource Bulgarian viewpoint Building on existing internal arrangements can encourage training providers to develop their own quality assurance systems. Setting clear roles and responsibilities offers the option of requiring training providers to use the EQAVET principles. Using pilot initiatives will encourage training providers to set up their own internal quality assurance system. The main documents regulating vocational training in Bulgaria, including learning outside the formal education system (schools engaged in vocational education and training) - vocational training centers - VTC is the Law on Vocational Education and Training. It includes a regulation as to the status of institutions providing vocational training and the enumeration of types Framework training programs. The Vocational Training Centers most frequently work according to the Framework Programs A, B, D, E and F (Art. 12). The VET organizations in Bulgaria should predict and develop their activities according to the approved government standards. The organizational form for the A, B, D, E and F programs for persons aged 16 years is a training course. The forms of education, the teaching time and
    • 19 the number of students in the course is determined by the educational institution. They can be coordinated with the applicant for vocational training. The vocational Training Centre develops its own curricula and educational programs consistent with current national standards. If there is no state standard the program is developed in accordance with the existing in the current educational system programs, approved by the Minister of Education, Youth and Science. The National Agency for Vocational Education and Training (NAVET) in Bulgaria is the government institution licensing the VET organizations. There are approved by the BG MEYS syllabuses (training programs). It is appropriate the VET organizations to comply with the approved state educational standards. In case the VET provider is not a licensed one, the standards/norms/ are chosen by the VET organization on the basis of a subjective assessment/evaluation/.It is possible and recommended the VET organization to consult the corresponding professional organizations when choosing its standards/norms. When choosing its standards/norms/ a VET institution’s aim should be to gauge employers’ satisfaction with skills of their employees, to synchronize the skills of the graduates and the needs of the employers. The VET organizations are allowed to give only a certificate of attendance to the trainees, indicating the subject of the training in cases when the last is not included in the regulated list of professions. The curriculum (the specification of what was taught in vocational schools) was the main standard in the past for VET, which has changed.Nowadays more attention should be paid to the identification and specification of the employment requirements. The prime instrument to ensure relevance, transparency and quality of the outcomes of the education and training process are the standards (both economically and educationally important). More emphasis should be put on the link between education and the world of work. The qualification standard has been introduced, stressing the importance that vocational education and training policy should be led by the labour market. Qualification standards are either job based, occupational, vocational or general, depending on the degree that they are adapted to the specific demands of employers or to the requirements of the education system in general. The VET standard should be based on three main requirements, which are the essential ones for any VET standard: - The employment requirements - What does the student need to be able to do in Employment; - The learning requirements - what students in VET must learn in order to meet these requirements/expectations, what does the student need to learn to be effective in employment; - The assessment requirements - how the competence of students will be judged, how will we know what the student has learned and is able to do in employment. A VET organization needs to be quite clear about what it is trying to achieve with the VET standards. National standards may have more components, but these are the essential ones for any vocational education and training standard. A VET organization can choose standards related to technical activities, management/coordination, increased technical specialization, etc. Modern vocational education standards need to be led by the labour market and to be flexible in order to be adaptable to rapidly changing circumstances. When evaluating the VET standards, three sets of evaluation criteria should be taken into account:
    • 20 - what the standards are intended to achieve economically and socially (policy criteria:commonality and coherence - the whole system needs to be coherent, integrated and should identify links between similar standards; breadth of competence and transferability . standards should be broad in scope and should incorporate outcomes which encourage people to transfer to different work activities and meet the challenges of new work activities; strategic and forward looking . standards should be based on current best practice and anticipated future requirements; access and equality of opportunity - participation in learning and the recognition of achievement has become a democratic right for all citizens); - what the standards should be like (technical criteria - the functional map which describes the content of the standard; the structure of the modules within the standard); - how the standards will be used in practice (implementation criteria - the structure and format of the standards; the language used to describe the standards). These points can be used to develop clear criteria for standards and provide a complete framework for evaluation. Polish viewpoint A VET organizations in Poland can apply and implement both internal and external quality schemes. They are very much related and dependable on each other. High quality of internal evaluation and quality assurance procedures trigger faster external validation. For example ISO can be applied only if the internal organization polices of the company are approved and validated by the external audits according to specific norms and standards. Furthermore, contemporary educational and employment markets enforce compliance with certain educational standards. National Quality Framework for the Higher Education standards are applied for each higher education institution. KRK norms are focused on the learning outcomes and define knowledge, skills and social competences of each graduate. What is more internal documentation is created to ensure quality of offered services, e.g. academic teacher observation and evaluation sheets and reports to standardize assessment of their classes or lectures. Each department of VET organization has its own specified regulations compliant with the external, objective educational contracts, rules or organization statues. An institution can appoint different staff member to cater for quality scheme implementation. For example to establish the flow of graduates to the labour market, training supervisors, who closely cooperate with the career office can be appointed by the deans or directors of individual faculties. Their duty is to supervise students’ traineeship and give them credits on completion of the programme by signing up their student record book. Students are provided with documents which are essential for accomplishing of their training programmes: - Traineeship contract (internal document) - Traineeship Record Book (unified ministerial requirements) - Proper certificates which are required for specific fields of study (internal documents compliant with external requirements with reference to learning outcomes ) Apart from that, in order to express their opinion on the course of the training programme, both students and graduates are asked to fill in evaluation forms. Employers are also asked to complete the questionnaires in which they can evaluate students’ preparation for the traineeship. It results in gathering information on the level of students’ preparation to enter Recommendations: - connect VET to labour market issues - be clear with what you have to achieve
    • 21 the labour market. A thorough analysis and comparison of these two opinions gives grounds for further discussion and is guidance on how to improve methods, forms and activities in this field of quality assurance. Another form of applying quality standards for the VET Institution is also e.g. the external certification with reference to languages. An institution becomes an authorized training and examination centre for foreign languages only when it agrees to introduce specific standards in terms of curricula and syllabus development, focus on the learning outcomes of the specific courses, administrative documentation clearly and thoroughly completed and of course proper training of the staff both centred on development of skills and professional development, as well as training on examination requirements and procedures. Recommendations: - Engage all Institutions in the quality schemes implementation, especially those directly Involved in educational matters, - Encourage access to clear and transparent norms and standards widely available for the company’s decision makers and beneficiaries German viewpoint Basically there are two different options to choose standards or norms. One option is to introduce a standardised system from outside, for example the ISO-standards. The other option is opposite to this top-down approach: Standards or norms are self-created by the staff of the organisation in a bottom-up process and due to the active involvement they are commonly shared. In reality, a mixture of both approaches is most appropriate. It needs a top-down engagement to arrive at common standards and in parallel it needs intensive, well-structured and moderated discursive processes with all stakeholder groups. In educational institutions, involvement of stakeholders is particularly important because it is part of the organisational culture to express and to exchange personal views and to give explanations and justifications. Standards that are implemented just top-down will be ignored; because of the basic autonomy of teachers and trainers - especially in the classroom – one has to ensure consensus, agreement and ownership when developing quality standards. Recommendations - Quality assurance includes lobbying and marketing, safeguarding the input factors, recruitment and development of appropriate personal, design of effective administrative and management processes, customisation of teaching, assessments, exams, and study conditions, as well as communication and discussion of results. - In addition, it is highly recommendable to develop and to support the creation of an internal quality culture--a common understanding, communication, and appreciation of quality in VET.
    • 22 Turkish viewpoint The Turkish system provides a “total quality” scheme whose impetus is given by the national government which provides a framework in which every school and particularly vocational highschool has the opportunity to define its own objectives and criteria to reach its goals. Every institution should have different objectives and criteria as they have different product and give different services. This is how every school has the opportunity to make strategic choices within a national framework While choosing objectives and criteria, they must take into account the economic and geographical environment as well as the expectations of the public. The standards chosen by the institution are made to provide internal and external customers’ satisfaction, develop growing trust from their environment to address their needs. The basic standards and norms must be ‘customer satisfaction’ and ‘trust’ in each institution. Other standards should be developed according to the specificity of each enterprise. It has to be noticed that proficiency competitions among the vet schools are organized and are typical of Turkish education. Students in every branch of vet schools attend these competitions where they have the opportunity to display their production.These competitions encourage them to try to be best in their works. During vet education the students take work experience placements for practical training. Through the feedback of the performance of their students VET institutions have a chance to see their weaknesses and strengths in the training delivery French viewpoint – GIP- FCIP A training organization can decide to choose within a wide range of possibilities starting with the implementation of basic quality assurance principles up to more complex compliance to a norm controlled through external audits. The closer to the latter, greater the impact will be on staff mobilization, on the overall organization as well as on the beneficiaries. In addition, the decision to choose a specific quality standard for a training organization relies on its “core business” consisting in pedagogical practices and the tailored pathways of beneficiaries. Nevertheless, such an objective can be reached but through the development of a quality culture shared at all levels of the institution. Gaining this culture is a long term process and it may appear to be more relevant to start with implementing ongoing improvement processes with simple actions in which everyone will invest. Thus for the GRETA network of Lower Normandy, the informal process leading to the award of Greta+ label by external audits to the whole network took over five years. It has to be noticed that a training organization can be subjected to several norms and standards according to the nature of the service provided, the various requirements of fund providers or the necessary commitment, more or less formalized, to sustainability. If the requirement for a “quality assurance basis” is at the root of efficiency, such demands from the environment are not easy to satisfy and may give good reasons to people who believe that quality assurance entails expensive investments (particularly with regards to staff cost), which are ultimately disproportionate to the results obtained. This reasoning led to quality Recommendations: - Enable every institution to define its own objectives and criteria. - Make choices in keeping with the requirements and expectations of its environments
    • 23 assurance processes being given up by numerous French networks. This is why Greta+ strives to cover some major requirements, without listing too wide a range of them which would be difficult to address. By promoting quality asssurance without imposing it, nor imposing standards, EQAVET creates a freedom area for decisions makers and training institutions. This area opens to a large spectrum of norms which requires the commitment of VET institutions. In that respect the awarding of greta+ to our network in Lower Normandy is not sufficient with regards to the “bilan de competences” (assessment scheme for competence formally and informally gained in working life by employees) which requires another standard which is only partially covered by Greta+ Recommendations: - Choose a standard with external audit providing that enough time is allowed for that in the institution. - Encourage institutions to have as few numbers of labels as possible. French viewpoint – CRBN Due to regulations, the Region does not have the authority to impose a single quality standard, eg ISO, to training institutions: it can only mention a wish, allowing equivalencies. It does not even want to. In line with its policy to expand access to better qualification for the whole population of Lower-Normandy, the Region has chosen not to favor a training organization rather than another, but instead to promote multiple ways of access to qualifications, with the aim that the training scheme should respond to the needs of as many people and profiles as possible. Thus, the Region wants the vocational training organizations to be part of the process that aims to make them progress towards the quality level it wants, regardless of their starting level (eg all Apprenticeship Training Centers signed in 2012 “progress contracts”). In the thematic priorities it wishes, this process consists of three elements: - Consultation with representatives of training institutions for the implementation of a new policy - Deployment of a support and advice platform. Eg. for the sustainable development approach, training organizations are being offered a diagnosis, and for those who wish to engage in the process, the implementation of an action plan is supported by an independent agency, paid by the Region. - Gradual integration into the funding criteria of the Region (elements of the calls for tenders for jobseekers’ training, extra funding to specific projects in educational training) - Planning of continuous training for trainers, staff and guidance counselors Recommendations - There are various ways leading to qualification: each organisation has to organise its own quality assurance processes according to its own culture and values Italian viewpoint ARCADIA CONSULTING LTD is a company recognized by the Regione Veneto and certified
    • 24 ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and 18001:2007 HOSAS with a business idea to design and deliver training and counseling in the key areas of management, especially quality management. The project has been designed by Arcadia Consulting with Management to CPIPE to connect the accreditation system of the Veneto Region with a complete quality system. Article. 1 of the Decree of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security no. 166 of 25 May 2001 defines accreditation as an act by which the competent Public Administration (in this case the Veneto Region) recognizes the ability of a Training Organization to propose and implement training programs and orientation financed with public resources. The D.M. adopted the model that forms the basis for all regional systems of accreditation. The Training Organisations seeking accreditation must comply with the minimum standards of quantity and quality through the following requirements: • Structural • economic and financial; • organization and management; • endowment of human resources; • efficacy and efficiency in previous activities and relationships with the territory. At the same time you have defined the document system: Manual, Procedures, Work Instructions and Forms. This phase has built what has already been in use, with what is already provided by the accreditation system of the Veneto Region and the requirements of the ISO 9001 standards. The rules are complementary but mandatory (Veneto Region) and one optional (ISO 9001). The combination of the full definition of the organization and evaluation of results, in particular on the beneficiaries. Recommendations: - ISO 9001 is very useful to clearly define the responsibilities and ways of working if properly interpreted. - Accreditation to the Veneto Region stimulates the achievement of results but does not define how to achieve them - The implementation of both rules leads to genuine continuous improvement.
    • 25 3) Some good practices. GRETA Plus Eco citizenship in training, Lower Normandy Total Quality in Turkey, the interview of the head of Besni directorate Quality and the learner at the centre of the process, a Scottish approach The Bulgarian approach to quality in VET
    • 26 GRETA Plus GretaPlus is the label awarded by the French ministry of education to its departments which meet the criteria of the AFNOR BP X50-762 good-practice reference framework “tailored training and service for adults” This reference framework is intended for adult training institutions or providers of service in favour of adults beyond the strict scope of training. This is defined under French law. Among these services one can mention individual competence assessment or support of organisations confronted with change. The framework AFNOR BP X50-762 is built around 15 commitments to customers and a quality assurance basis with 6 requirements. The 15 commitments regard the various steps of the implementation process of training services from the analysis of needs up to the supply of the certification of the competence gained through training. The course design and training are necessarily tailored and the pathways are constantly adapted according to intermediary evaluations. Staff competence, suitable facilities and equipment are of course part of the requirements. Four requirements of the quality assurance basis are connected to management (policy, evaluation…), the two others regard monitoring, anticipation and capitalisation. It is up to an entity to ask for label award: it defines its scope provided it is compatible with the specific object: “training and service for adults”. It has to be noted that part of these commitments are also valid for initial vocational training. Some structures are also seeking to obtain the label for their overall activity whereas others for one sector exclusively. It has also to be noted that the GRETA network of “l’ Académie de Caen” (5 training organisations and their head office under the ministry’s scope) asked for the whole organisation to be validated. The entity sets up its quality assurance system to bring it into line with the Greta Plus requirements which have all to be met. For example a process-oriented approach is not compulsory, nevertheless if chosen it must be operative. The delivery of the label comes within the scope of an audit approach inspired from the ISO norm. Internal audits are planned and external audits are implemented by auditors appointed by the French ministry of education. These audits highlight strong points and improvement areas and above all issue ISO-like comments and non conformities. Obtaining the label presupposes a successful external audit leading to a positive decision made by the label authorities ('comité du label'). The label is awarded for three years subjected however to annual audit outcomes. After three years the labelisation process is resumed.
    • 27 Eco-citizenship in training, Lower Normandy VET centres are places where citizens improve their skills and learn to socialize. They are key-structures to disseminate knowledge and good practices on eco-citizenship : the trainee should be aware of the stakes of sustainable and local development, be able to analyze his/her behaviour as a consumer, an economic agent and a citizen, adopt eco-citizen habits, and spread sustainable development principles. The quality approach developed by the Region aims to implement these principles by supporting the VET centres in getting skills and being able to spread them inside their organization and towards the pupils and trainees. The sustainable development is a voluntary process that meets the needs and aspirations of the structure and all those who compose it. The Region supports the process through a methodology that provides benchmarks for action and offers advice to optimize results. The help of an independent expert may be applied for, and training for trainers are being set up. STEPS : 0. Making the decision to engage in the process: approval by the Board administration and registration of establishment or project contract progress 1. Stimulate the process 2. Establish a steering committee to coordinate the process 3. Perform diagnosis, current state of affairs 4. Identify areas of possible progress in the short, medium and long term 5. Define and adopt a first action plan, over a defined period, to provide operational responses to identified areas for improvement 6. Seeking recognition of its approach 7. Implement the actions and follow 8. Evaluate the results of the first action plan all in a permanent process of mobilizing the entire community educational, actors of the structure and its partners, information, consultation and continuous improvement. On the long run, the Region wants that the more VET centres as possible engage in the process, and put it as an objective in the regional Agenda 21.
    • 28 Total Quality in Turkey, the interview of the head of Besni directorate AN INTERVIEW ABOUT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT WITH THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL EDUCATION IN BESNI, Hüseyin TURAÇ 1-Is there a quality management which is used in education institutions and schools to raise the quality in Turkey? Yes, there is. It is called Total Quality Management and it has been used since 1999 within the scope of a project. The main aim of TQM is to raise the qulity in schools and classes. To be able to use the project in all educational fields, Provincial Organisation Total Quality Management Implementation Project was promulgated by National Education Ministry. Within this project TQM Province Formatters have been educated and inform works have begun and continued in province organisations. Quality can be defined as ‘Suits to needs and provide satisfaction. Quality is an essential element for productions and services nowadays. The way to achieve quality is to have educated and qualified people. In this sense, perfection has been the background of quality (for people and institutions).The first step is to measure the performance objectively, both individual and institutional, in view of raising quality up to perfection. 2-Could you give a short information about the implementation of TQM? TQM has started on 19th October 1999.The project has been started to implement on 1st November 1999 in 12 central organisations in 1st stage, on 1st March 2000 in 12 organisations in 2nd stage and on 1st June 2000 in 19 organisations in 3rd stage. Our National Education Ministry has signed ‘Good Intent Declaration’ with Quality Association and by joining ‘National Quality Process’ which is started by QA,Ministry has aimed to generalize the Quality awareness to all country. TQM implementations in our Ministry has been continued by basing on EFQM(European Quality Management Foundation).By getting support of QA, first institution directors and at least 2 or 3 people from each institutions have been informed about Perfection Model. Besides , the units and Criteria Quality Improvement team members are given training in TQM and EFQM’s Perfection Model.So 2177 staffs in central Ministry were informed about TQM and 996 staffs were informed about EFQM’s Perfection Model between November 1999 and November 2000.On 31st December 2000 most units of Ministry have finished self- evaluation as Perfection Model and began to develop planning for specific areas of improvement. 3-What is the aim in TQM implementation? The aim is to raise quality in schools and classes. 4-What is the performance measurement tool in TQM studies? One of the tools is Perfection Model which is developed by EFQM. This model has been used in our Ministry. Self-evaluation is at the basis of it and the process of using the model have shown the institutions’ perfection level. As a result from self-assessment, areas for improvement are therefore identified as well as their level, which is to lead to a better situation. 5-What are the main principles of TQM ? Here are the main principles of TQM:
    • 29 a) Total Quality Management practices are carried out with a plan and project. b) Educational measures shall be taken to ensure satisfaction of the beneficiaries of the services. c) At each stage team work is prioritized and is provided, pooling brain and heart power of staff. d) Resources are used effectively and efficently. e)The level of achivement target is always measured. f) System is always improved by questioning and is reformed. g) Staff’s qualificitaion is always raised and attempts to reach perfection are undertaken. H) An operating environment for staff is provided so that they are able to use all their potential ı) Consedering permanent changes in shedule and environment, a learning organisation approach is institutionalized by a plan. j) Instead of being part of problems , being part of solutions is taught to staff. k)Improving the quality is a duty for all staff. l) Improving is possible with changes. m) Ensuring a balance between corporate and individual objectives are taken into account for employees’ job satisfaction. 6-Can you give some information about the process of TQM’s implementation? TQM IMPLEMANTATION ACTION STEPS 1.Organising Quality Council, Quality Improvement Team and School Development Management Team 2. Determining School/Institution Representative(Director) 3. Education of School/Institution Representative 4. Preparing School/Institution‘s Strategic Plan and Determination of Development Goals 5. Making Self-evaluation A) Informing the school staff B) Establishing Criteria Teams C) Education of Criteria Teams D) Adaptation of Perfection Model’s Criteria’ s sub-areas to the ınstitution E) Creating Data Collection Methods(Question,Observation,Document Review,etc) F) Collecting data G) Evaluating data; 1)Determination of Strengths 2)Identifying areas for improvement H) Having Convention Meeting (Determination of topics in improvement plan) and Submission to Quality Council 6. Creating Improvement Team (Working Group) and prioritisation areas for improvement according to self-evaluation 7. Preparation of school/institution Improvement Plans 8. Preparation annual school/institution development plans in accordance with improvement plans 9. Implementation annual school/institution development plans 10. Review(Formative Assessment)
    • 30 11. Implementation annual school/institution development plan 12. Final Evaluation and report writing * every month (June/December)TQM Monitoring and Evaluation Form is filled by schools and sent to Province/District National Education Directorate **School development management team carries out Quality Council’s and Quality improvement team’s tasks. 7-You have said that TQM has started in 1999. Were there any works or comprehension about quality in your culture? Sure we had • Stick the needle into yourself (to see how it hurts) before you thrust the packing- needle into others. • A beauty which you want for yourself unless you do not want for others, you cannot be a nature man. • Ahi Culture(Customer focus) • The person whose two days are equal is in loss(Continuous Improvement KAİZEN) • Many hands make light work. (Full Participation, Teamwork, Team Spirit) • The spirit of us instead of me.(Corporate Culture) • Love was created because of Creator. • Make it be easy,do not make it be difficult ,make it be loved ,do not make it be hated. • Turkish History from 19th May 1919 to 29thOctober 1923 = (Process Management) • Alparslan in Malzgirt Battle,Yavuz in Egypt ,Fatih the conqueror in İstanbul , Atatürk in Dardanelles and Independece War (Leadership)
    • 31 Quality and the learner at the centre of the process, a Scottish approach. Education Scotland and the Vocational Education and Training (Further Education College) Institution Scottish Vocational Education and Training (VET) institutions have to undergo external reviews by Education Scotland formerly called Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education (HMIE). The aims of such external reviews is to evaluate colleges against the three key principles of High Quality Learning, Learner Engagement and Quality Culture; Three key principles Education Scotland makes use of information that already exists in the public domain as well as that submitted to the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) to assess any areas at risk and maintain regular contact with VET institution. QualitQualitQualitQuality Culturey Culturey Culturey Culture High QualityHigh QualityHigh QualityHigh Quality LearningLearningLearningLearning LearnerLearnerLearnerLearner EngagementEngagementEngagementEngagement
    • 32 Three major evaluative activities A formal meeting called “Annual Engagement” takes place every year between Education Scotland and the VET institution. Annual engagement is a tool for dissemination of information from Education Scotland to the VET institution and for the VET institution to highlight sector-leading areas of excellence. Periodically “Subject-based Aspect Reports” are undertaken by Education Scotland in conjunction with the Scottish Funding Council (SFC). The Scottish Funding Council is the main funding body for Scottish Further and Higher Education (Colleges and Universities). An aspect report is used to highlight good practice and explore areas where further development or action is needed in a particular subject area, for example hairdressing or land-based industries. The main quality process for the VET institution from Education Scotland is the “External Reviews of Colleges”. The external review takes place within a 4 year review cycle and the outcome is a formal report that is published on the Education Scotland website. The external review team is normally made up of one Managing Inspector (Senior Inspector), two Education Scotland Inspectors, two Associate Assessors and one Student Team Member. Associate Assessors are managers from the College sector who have been trained by Education Scotland to assist in the review. The Student Team Member is a former President of the Students’ Association who is tasked with gathering the views of the College students in the review. The review schedules are announced eight weeks in advance and are carried out in three days during which Education Scotland will engage with learners, observe learning and teaching sessions, hold professional dialogue with teaching staff members on strengths and areas for development, conduct interviews and undertake any activity needed to evaluate evidence against the 17 reference quality indicators and identify key strengths and areas for development. More information on the Education Scotland principles and frameworks can be found at http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/inspectionandreview/about/principles/index.asp The report has 4 statements determining the level of confidence Education Scotland has with the institution. The following four high level questions are used to determine the level of confidence reported: SubjectSubjectSubjectSubject----basedbasedbasedbased Aspect ReportsAspect ReportsAspect ReportsAspect Reports External ReviewsExternal ReviewsExternal ReviewsExternal Reviews of Collegesof Collegesof Collegesof Colleges Annual EngagementAnnual EngagementAnnual EngagementAnnual Engagement
    • 33 The last external review for Anniesland College by HMIE (prior to their name change to Education Scotland) took place in March 2011. HMIE observed learning and teaching and had talks with over 250 students and staff. They also contacted employers, partner organisations and community groups. The report produced by the review identified a large number of strengths, four examples of sector-leading and excellent practise and some points for action. A student reviewer gave a very good report of her discussions with individual students confirming that the learning experience at Anniesland was at a very high standard. Anniesland College received the following confidence statements from HMIE (the best possible): HMIE is confident that: • Learners are progressing well and achieving relevant, high quality outcomes • The college has in place high quality learning and teaching processes • Learners are actively engaged in enhancing their own learning and the work and life of the college • The College is led well and is enhancing the quality of its services for learners and other stakeholders. Each of the confidence statements can have a condition added if the inspectors feel it is appropriate (Anniesland College had no conditions associated with the confidence statement). Anniesland College put processes in place to deal with the points for action identified which become a main topic for discussion in the “Annual engagement” (closing the circle). Quality culture How well are the learners progressing and achieving relevant high quality outcomes? How effective are the college’s learning and teaching processes? How well are learners enhancing their own learning and the work and life of the college? How well is the college led and how well is it enhancing the quality of its services for learners and other stakeholders? Four high level questions High Quality Learning Learner Engagement
    • 34 The College also has the opportunity to respond or update Education Scotland on the progress of the main points for action. This response is published on the Education Scotland website and is called the “Response to the Outcome of Education Scotland Review”. From a quality perspective, the use of an external body conducting reviews gives credibility to the quality processes. This external body reviews institutions in the same sector and publishes the outcome so benchmarking can be undertaken. The review identifies strengths as well as areas of concern, includes staff at all levels from support and teaching areas making staff feel involved. A recent introduction to the Education Scotland process has been the inclusion of a student (beneficiary) member. This means that the student voice is now being heard in a formal process rather than in an anecdotal manner that was used in the past. Staff in the Quality Department look forward to the Education Scotland external review as a good review reassures the Quality staff that their internal processes and audits are working. Recommendations 1. Institution sets realistic targets Targets are reviewed and reflected upon regularly 2. Quality standards are reviewed by external organisation External organisations give credibility to process Allows benchmarking with similar institutions 3. All staff and beneficiaries evaluate and are engaged in process Staff at all levels are involved so process is not seen as a management tool Views of beneficiaries are as important as staff and should be treated as such
    • 35 A Bulgarian approach to quality in VET The crisis and layoffs motivated many people to study again in order to enhance their educational attainment, improve their qualification. On the other hand, some companies introduced, based on an effective social dialogue, flexible working hour schemes, which enable workers to work and study. The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science supported this process, opening up wider opportunities for acquiring of vocational qualification through increased number of classes and groups of vocational subjects to be studied in evening and part-time forms of study The highest number of students in vocational schools and high schools study professions in the group “Technical sciences and technical professions” - 33,76 % of all students, followed by “Economic sciences and administrations” – 17,74 %,” and “Services for the individual” - 11,71 %. The smallest number of students study professions in the group “Security and safety” – 0,02 %. Provisional broad-based commissions involving representatives of the stakeholders and the social partners are set up for the development of strategic and other VET documents, thus ensuring the quality of VET and its impact on the VET beneficiaries. An important role in encouraging participation in different lifelong learning forms plays validation (assessment and verification) of knowledge and skills acquired in non-formal and informal learning. In November 2009, opportunities for career development of teachers and educators were introduced as a key element of the activities for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of the teaching and education process. Five horizontal development teacher positions have been introduced: junior teacher, teacher, senior teacher, head teacher, teacher – methodologist, respectively educator positions: junior educator, educator, senior educator, head educator, educator - methodologist. NAVET (National Agency for Vocational Education and Training, established in 2000 with VET Law) is a specialized body to the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria for licensing of activities and coordination of the institutions related to vocational guidance, training and education..The activities of NAVET are organized in the following main directions: Participation in the development of policy documents in the field of VET and their implementation Development and updating of the basic documents for regulation of vocational education and training system in the country – List of Professions for Vocational Education and Training and State Vocational Standards for acquiring qualification in professions Licensing and control of Centers for Vocational Training of adults (employed and unemployed persons) Licensing and control of Centers for Information and Vocational Guidance Modernising the educational process; Innovative methods; Realising the stage for quality management: planning, implementation, evaluation, review http://www.navet.government.bg/en Since 2012 the ECVET could be implemented step by step for the qualifications at all levels of the EQF in accordance with the national law and on the basis of testing. http://www.minedu.government.bg/opencms/export/sites/mon/left_menu/strategies/document s/NQF_bg.pdf
    • 36 In Bulgaria was made an analysis (2011) of the system for QA in VET in order to study and analyze it in accordance with the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council/2009/ to establish a European reference framework for quality assurance in VET, to identify the strengths and gaps in the system of QA in VET. The development of VET in Bulgaria is important for the creation of skilled workforce and competitive economy, knowledge - based. The National VET system has 4 levels which are compatible to the EQF-levels. National approach to quality in VET should: - be aimed at ensuring the quality of VET; - be implemented in stages - preparation, implementation, development; - decide questions of conceptual and normative; - specify and personifies the roles of institutions of systemic level; - provide methodological application cycle for quality of VET in system level and in provider level; - adapt the criteria and indicators for quality assurance in VET; - build tools for internal and external evaluation of the quality of VET; - develop a glossary of quality assurance in VET; - include training programs for experts for the implementation of various elements of the system of quality assurance in VET; - to stimulate and integrate the efforts of all social partners, including representatives of VET; - to form a culture of quality assurance in VET. Building the National approach to quality in VET can be consolidated in a national project within the Operational Programme "Human Resources Development". Implementation: Vocational schools provide initial vocational education and training for acquiring first and second degree of vocational qualification and qualification in a section of a profession. They accept students who have completed at least 6th grade. Vocational high schools provide vocational education with acquiring of second and third degree of vocational qualification. Vocational high schools may provide also vocational training with acquiring of first, second and third degree of vocational qualification and qualification in a section of a profession. They accept students who have completed their lower secondary education. Schools of arts provide vocational education with acquiring of third degree of vocational qualification with up to four years course of study after completed lower secondary education. Vocational colleges provide vocational education and training with acquiring fourth degree of vocational qualification to individuals who have completed their upper secondary education. Vocational training centers provide vocational training to individuals who have come 16 years of age. Information and vocational guidance centers provide vocational guidance of students and other individuals. In Bulgaria, continuing vocational training (CVET) is provided by institutions operating within the system of formal education and training and by institutions providing non-formal training. Vocational high schools, vocational colleges and vocational training centers are the main institutions providing CVET. Universities, special higher institutes and colleges within the system of tertiary education provide CVET trough special units within their structure. The social partners, according to the VET Act are involved in the external assessment process during state examinations for acquiring qualification in a profession. Notwithstanding the opportunity provided by Act many vocational schools and training centers have difficulties
    • 37 with including in the commissions representatives of branch employers and trade unions. The problem consists in lack of preparedness and sometimes of competence for real participation in the assessment of vocational competences at exit of education and in the absence of a real mechanism and internal regulatory basis for obligatoriness in ensuring the participation in commissions. The system of initial vocational education and training (IVET) is part of the national education system and offers opportunities for acquiring vocational qualification and for its continuous improvement. State Educational Requirement (SER) for acquiring qualification in the profession is developed in cooperation with employers for every profession placed on the List of Professions for Vocational Education and Training. The State Educational Requirement includes: requirements for the minimum entry qualification and education level; description of work activities, responsibilities, personal qualities, working conditions specifics, equipment and tools; opportunities to continue the vocational training; opportunities for vocational fulfillment according to Bulgarian law; objectives of training; learning outcomes – competences, knowledge, skills; requirements to the material resources for theoretical and practical training; requirements to learners. Since 2007, SERs for acquiring qualification in a profession include as a major structural element a Learning Outcomes section. Learning outcomes are defined by means of knowledge, skills and personal qualities, which are acquired in the course of vocational education, vocational training or through professional experience and can be demonstrated. The development of SER for acquiring qualification in a profession is organized for every profession by the NAVET and is approved by the Minister of Education, Youth and Science. Vocational education for all, regardless of their age, as well as vocational training for acquiring first degree of vocational education by students in the compulsory school age group is provided on basis of curricula approved by the Minister of Education, Youth and Science (MEYS). They cover three types of training – compulsory training which is general and vocational, compulsory selective training and optional selective training. General compulsory vocational training includes training in health and safety at work, economics, entrepreneurship and business communications. It builds key competences for lifelong learning and focuses mainly on building and developing entrepreneurial skills. Branch compulsory training is unified for all professions in a professional branch placed on the LPVET, while taking into account the specifics of every profession. Compulsory branch training provides broad profile knowledge of professions and creates conditions for flexibility in mastering professions in the same branch. The profession-specific vocational training builds the specific competences required for practicing the particular specialties in a profession. The curricula and training programs for compulsory vocational training for the attainment of vocational education by students and individuals aged 16+ are developed by the MEYS and are approved by the Minister. The curricula and training programs for the vocational training of individuals aged 16+, regardless of the institution providing such training, are developed by the institution which provides the training or by the entity that has ordered the training. Assessment of outcomes and organization of examinations are specified in accordance with the State Educational Requirement for the assessment system. For the organization of state examinations for acquiring a degree of vocational qualification, the Minister of Education approves national examination programs which regulate the criteria for assessment of outcomes. The SER for the assessment system introduces a model of external and internal assessment, and an order of the Minister of Education, Youth and Science introduces, from June 2009, criteria and indicators for assessment of the outcomes of the vocational preparation in school-based vocational education and training. The problem concerning the
    • 38 recognition of competences, acquired outside of the training institutions from the formal education and training system is still not entirely resolved in Bulgaria. The same order introduces also a model of self-assessment in vocational high schools and schools. Analysis of the results in the first year of implementation of the quality assurance system elements introduced in VET is pending. Vocational training centers build their own quality systems in accordance with the licensing procedure. Different adult training opportunities are provided within the active labor market policy: vocational training of employed and unemployed persons for mastering vocational knowledge and skills meeting labor market needs; literacy training for unemployed persons having no education and qualification towards their subsequent inclusion in vocational training; acquiring practical experience through apprenticeship in enterprises – for unemployed persons who have acquired vocational qualification in a profession but do not have service record in it; workplace training in the form of apprenticeship under the guidance of a tutor; training for acquiring key competences; motivation training for job interview and presentation skills, drafting a CV and a motivation letter, etc.; vocational guidance of unemployed and employed persons for choosing appropriate training, appropriate work, preserving employment, career development. The scheme “Qualification Services and Trainings for Employed Persons” is implemented in 2009. It is focused on training employed persons for acquiring or enhancing their vocational qualification or on training for key competences. Four new training schemes for employed and unemployed persons have been launched: The “I Can” scheme focuses on training for vocational qualification and/or key competences for persons employed on employment contracts. The “Adaptability” scheme targets workers and employees from enterprises which for economic reasons have shifted to part-time work. For the period of effect of the scheme it is intended to cover in training not less than 42 000 employed persons who have shifted to part-time work. The “Development” scheme targets -persons who are laid off because of restructuring or closing of the enterprise, reduced volume of work or closing of a section of the production in consequence of the economic and financial crisis. For the period of effect of the scheme until 2012, it is intended to cover in training more than 40 000 unemployed persons. The “Back to Work” scheme focuses on training of unemployed persons for child minders and their subsequent hiring to care for children aged 1 – 3 in families where both parents are employed on employment contracts. For the period of effect of the scheme until 2012 it is intended to cover in training and employment not less than 8 000 unemployed persons. Towards development of vocational education and training (VET), in March 2009, the three major institutions in the VET sector – the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science, the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, the National Agency for VET and the nationally representative employer organizations entered into a Framework Agreement for cooperation in VET. The objective is to pool the efforts of the responsible institutions for concerted actions to modernize vocational education and training. In the period until 2015 employer representative at all levels on regional and sectoral basis and in accordance with national economic development priorities and labor force dynamics with a view to provide quality VET in line with European processes and tends, including vocational and career guidance. The paths for acquiring vocational education and training include: • within the basic education, parallel with attaining basic education level; • within the upper secondary education system, parallel with attaining secondary education level; • within the tertiary education system • Acquiring a certificate for vocational qualification, without attainment of a level of education within the system of formal and non-formal education.
    • 39 4) Conclusion by Professor Erwin Seyfried. From the beginning of their cooperation, the partners in the Qualipaths-project have shared the common concern to assure and to improve the quality of their services. In fact, this has been the triggering point to submit an application to the European Commission to get financial support for their ambitions towards quality by means of the Leonardo-da-Vinci programme. The forthcoming end of the funded Qualipaths-project, celebrated in a European wide conference in the Normandy region, will not mean the end of cooperation between the partners, instead it is taken as an occasion to look back and draw some conclusions from the mutual exchange of experiences and ideas about quality in vocational training and education. In cooperating two years on quality issues, it has clearly been shown, that although operating in quite different national contexts, the approach to quality management of the Qualipaths- partners has nevertheless a number of characteristics in common. To identify those widely shared challenges in tackling with quality has been a first effort and one of the main results from European cooperation within the Qualipaths-project, while at the same time it was particularly interesting to learn about the particular characteristics of each quality approach and the fine distinctions between them. As suggested by the EQAVET-recommendation, Qualipaths-partners mostly refer to the principles of the PDCA-cycle (plan, do, check, act), although with slight individual modifications and adaptations, but all intending to adapt and improve continuously the quality of their services. Cooperation in the Qualipaths-procect contributed substantially to raise awareness on the background and approach of EQAVET, as well as on the quality indicators and quality criteria proposed by this European quality framework. It should be added, that awareness-raising on the EQAVET framework was not only achieved amongst Qualipaths- partners but also amongst several stakeholders operating in the local and regional environment of the partners. Qualipaths-partners are rather successful in linking requirements for external accreditation with internal quality management. Apart from fulfilling the quality standards required by national, regional or sectoral frameworks, several partners have sought for conferment of additional quality labels, thus strengthening their specific profile in providing customised training and education. Whereas compliance with legal requirements guarantees, for example, appropriate facilities and equipment, as well as working conditions that protect the safety and health of staff and trainees, the adoption of additional quality standards (some stemming from industry) seem to impact more strongly on both the reputation of the VET organization and on its core processes of teaching and learning. Their positive response to apply external quality standards within their organisations has triggered and supported additional efforts for continuous improvement of quality, and several Qualipaths-partners are going beyond the pure fulfilment of external requirements and towards achieving excellence. Although slightly different in their main focus, the Qualipaths-partners are sharing three key quality priorities. (see illustration below). First, they concentrate on achieving good learning outcomes and positive employment prospects for their trainees, by taking into account the demand in local and regional labor markets. Strengthening relationships with companies and having a good reputation in the world of work are of central importance: Promoting quality of VET means inclusion of work-based learning in training programs and provision of internships at potential employers
    • 40 Key Quality Priorities of Qualipaths Partners The main activites supporting this quality priority are frequent and intense contacts with employers and communication with representatives of business organisations, adaptation of professional profiles to the changing needs in the world of work, bridging those with the individual starting points of the trainees thus offering customised services. Quality in this respect is more than responding mechanically to the actual needs of employers in the local environment: Qualipaths partners intend to anticipate new professional trends in the labour market, adapt the content of their training programs accordingly and introduce innovation in the curricula. In relation to the world of work, the Qualipaths-partners are taking an active role by observing the labour market, continuously updating occupational standards, devising new programs for continuous training, adapting existing professional profiles of programs to newly emerging trends and developments in technology and procedures and providing the pertinent skills. Activities for better quality are driven by the ambition to design innoative and attractive trainings programs and to achieve satisfactory results for both the trainees and their (potential) employers. Another key priority of Qualipaths-partners for achieving high quality is on teaching and learning and on the provision of individualised training including targeted support, personal advice, individual consulting and work-based learning. It is to meet the individual needs of the students no matter what their social background and their sometimes difficult individual starting conditions are. Like many other providers of vocational training and education all over Europe, Qualipaths-partners are confronted with a growing heterogenity and diversity of their trainees, asking for detailed customization of all their services. In this respect, ensuring quality in VET provision and promoting educational success for trainees includes supporting social integration, preparation for more active participation in society, and creating individualized pathways opening up access to the world of work. Quality-related activities in support of this priority are mainly oriented to train and motivate teachers and trainers and providing esteem for their often tremendous engagement. Teachers and trainers play a vital role in the production of quality, in particular when it comes to the customisation of services and elaboration of individual learning plans for the trainees. Focus on the world of work Focus on organizational processes Focus on the needs of trainees
    • 41 The dynamics for quality are pushed mainly by the enthusiasm of teachers and trainers and their (voluntary) commitment that often goes beyond their official duties and tasks. Quality development within the organizations of the Qualipaths-partners is inconceivable without the extensive personal commitment of staff. At organizational level, this key priority for quality asks for developing an individualized approach to quality management: to better reflect and respond to the complex needs for customisation and the relating objectives for quality accordingly, some Qualipaths-partners have deviated from standardised quality management models and shaped their own tailor- made internal quality systems. Those individal approaches to quality are corresponding more directly to the organizational challenges in promoting the capacities of teachers and other staff to recognize and to respond appropriately to the individual needs of the trainees. Coming to a third key priority, for some Qualipaths-partners the effectiveness and efficiency of the management processes in the organisation plays a central role in their concept of quality. A close coherence between the quality management system and the concept of quality can be observed here: the quality management system adopted allows the monitoring and improvement of infrastructure, equipment and all the management processes inside the organisation that are considered essential for achieving quality. The implementation of such a quality management system resulted in organizational chart and process clarifications, in improving continuous monitoring of service provision, in self-organized financial follow-up allowing to change the relations between state authorities and the VET provider organization towards strengthening decentralised responsibility. It is important to note that improving the effectiveness and efficiency of organizational processes is not just a concern of the senior management, but is in full accordance with the needs of teachers and trainees, too, as they benefit from transparent structures and processes that are running smoothly; teachers and trainers are particularly appreciative when quality management simplifies their daily work. The implementation of a formalised quality management system within their organization is particularly relevant to those partners, that are operating in the open market; these partners need to maintain an efficient organisation of all their services in order to compete against other supplier organizations for vocational education and training. The use of new electronic tools for distribution of information and collection of feedback on quality from internal and external stakeholders, helps these partners a lot to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their organizational processes. Towards the end of the Qualipaths-project, all partners highly appreciate that mutual respect and friendship has grown steadily by visiting each other, by meeting and working together. It has been proven, that exchange of experience and learning from each other is a good opportunity for improving the quality of own services. Although no systematic comparison or benchmarking between the partner organisations was made, mutual learning was possible despite considerable distinctions between the partner organization, and it is to mention in this respect, that EAQVET, the European framework for quality in VET, has helped a lot to find a common language and to understand the peculiar parameters of each partner in terms of context, customers, staff and equipment. By exchanging experiences based on the shared spirit to understand each other, there is always a chance to gain good ideas and new knowledge which are worth of taking it up, thinking it further and building on it. By cooperating with each other and comparing their different approaches to quality management Qualipaths-partners have identified many common concerns and they enriched their daily practices with plenty of ideas to improve the quality of their individual training and education services. ES / 25 April 2013
    • 42 Signature of the Commitment charter by QUALIPATHS partners’ representatives in Glasgow at the kick off of the project in January 2012.