Guidebook to Quality in VET
A contribution of Qualipaths partners
1) Introduction by Paul Quénet: Qualipaths and
2) European viewpoints over three Key questions.
3) Some good practices.
4) Conclusion by Professor Erwin Seyfried.
1) Introduction by Paul Quénet: Qualipaths and EQAVET.
Based on EQAVET the European quality in VET strategy, Qualipaths, was set up around the
observation of several quality assurance implementations in VET systems.
We always kept in mind that, in addition to the improvement of the service provided,
EQAVET aims at developing transparency and trust within training systems and vocational
certifications. Thus EQAVET is meant to facilitate the European Credit system for Vocational
Education and Training (ECVET) which is the European instrument to promote mutual trust
and mobility in VET.
Our partnership consists in public institutions and training providers from various countries
where quality assurance is seen from different angles. It has been a real asset of the project
whose purpose was to place quality assurance approaches within a large scope describing
the various situations we came across.
Before we propose this description, let’s make it clear that quality assurance is not a goal in
itself. This is why first and foremost it must address the needs of the beneficiary for which
we shall see that there can be a range of definitions. Implementing such a process should
provide an added value which should exceed the tangible and intangible investments
required. Therefore we built our exchanges asking ourselves what we considered to be three
What is the impact of quality assurance on the VET beneficiary?
How can quality improve the management of a VET institution?
How can a VET organisation choose standards or norms?
If our reader notices that there are different answers, we have to keep in mind that our
exchanges were meant to highlight our different approaches in order to better compare them
and see how they address their contexts, thus enabling us to draw conclusions being
beneficial to all. I would like to pay tribute to all partners for their outstanding participation to
our seminars as well as their written contributions. Their open-mindedness, trust and
courtesy have guaranteed the success of our project.
Quality assurance approaches may emphasize some of the aspects of a concept which is
multiple and multifactorial yet some invariable parts have been revealed and it is worth
- It is necessary to have a beneficiary-focussed quality approach.
The beneficiary can be seen at various levels. For the governing institutions,
society is the beneficiary in itself through the improvement of the VET system. For
training service providers the beneficiary is first and foremost the learner who can
be empowered up to sharing responsibility in the setting up of her/his pathway
including its assessment. The organization itself as well fund providers ordering
the training service are also to be considered as well as the partnership with
stakeholders from their environment.
o Ongoing improvement strategy is also necessary – it has to be noticed
that EQAVET is based on the typical PDCA.
o Whatever the demands, the constraints in the implementations, there always
exists a reference framework to compare the current situation of the training
system and the ways it evolves.
o Every quality assurance approach can be achieved successfully but with a
strong commitment of the leaders
o It only makes sense if all the staff embrace the issue
o Benchmarking approaches facilitate and speed up quality assurance
o Whatever the reference framework chosen the implementation leads to the
creation of a quality foundation framework which can be used for operating
The scope of quality assurance can be described through the following chart:
TRAINING ORGANISATION VIEWPOINT
QUALITY ASSURANCE SCOPE
By placing the beneficiary at the center, we can consider a “quality planning” constituted by
three axes. One of the axes (purple) is defined through the use (or not) of a standard. In
addition to ISO norms, among the standards we find the Scottish, Italian, Turkish, French
GRETA +. Off standards, we can place both the French ecocitizenship approach and the
Label “lycée des métiers”.
The other direction of quality planning is defined through the axis (green) going from self-
evaluation to external audit. The award of a label associated to standards necessitates an
external audit yet some institutions can choose to apply the standards without having
external audits either for economic reasons or because the label is of no relevance in their
context. It is the case of the Italian training center which applies ISO standards without audit.
It is also the case of the “Leonardo Transfer of innovation” QALEP which facilitates a
reflection on the evolution of the label “Lycée des Métiers”.
Above the quality planning we can place the viewpoints of institutions which will give the
impetus or impose the use of quality assurance (blue axis). By “imposing” we mean that the
formal use of a norm with external audits is a compulsory marker for training organizations to
benefit from funding, most of the time public in that particular case. It is the case in Scotland
and Italy. Others choose an impulse which provides training institutions with a range of tools
or criteria they are free to use. These tools can be more or less elaborate yet can provide a
standard, external audit schemes or a label.
Here we find several experiences: Turkey, Poland, and France with its wide range of
approaches (GRETA +, Lycée des métiers, ecocitizenhip). It has to be noticed that EQAVET
also belongs to this category.
Let’s consider at the other end of the vertical axis the viewpoint of establishments confronted
to the choice to implement (or not) quality assurance as well as their level of involvement in
the process. Being in a context where quality assurance is imposed by the authorities does
not necessarily prevent their freedom of choice for a norm. We had the opportunity to visit an
Italian training center which chose ISO 9001 whose standards went beyond what their fund
provider, the regional government, required
As a conclusion EQAVET which places itself in a logic of impulse, is not a standard in itself:
on the contrary it promotes the adaptation to the local contexts without being a meta-
standard. We have to consider that starting from EQAVET, we have mainly observed
implementations based on standards, external audits and labels. Our partnership cannot
claim perfect statistical relevance for our observation; nevertheless we modestly feel that our
outcome is obviously of interest. We also noticed that there is also a tendency to define one’s
own standards and requirements which is in stark contrast with a normative approach which
would avoid the multiplicity of reference frameworks for one single topic. As an example the
GRETA network implements 3 approaches in parallel: GRETA+, ecocitizenship, “centres
inter-institutionnels de bilan de competences” for specific services. If the quality foundation
framework facilitates convergences, the multiplicity of standards may lead to spreading
efforts too thinly. It would be a pity if the large freedom provided by EQAVET in its
implementation led to more constraints and compliance to too many standards for training
organizations. Beyond the standards, the norms and the audits we have to keep in mind that
quality assurance is implemented by women and men in order to provide other women and
men with the best possible service.
2) European viewpoints over three Key questions.
Question One: WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF QUALITY
ASSURANCE ON THE VET BENEFICIARY?
Quality Assurance for a VET institution can be defined as checking that the standards and
the quality of education provision meet agreed expectations.
By having a robust Quality Assurance system employers, beneficiaries and awarding bodies
can be confident that the level of education is delivered at an appropriate level.
The beneficiary should be convinced that they have received the best learning experience
available. They should also be convinced that the level of education is relevant to the sector
in which they plan to be employed.
The Quality Assurance system should confirm that the course the beneficiaries enrol in has
clear and consistent objectives and that the assessment practices meet the necessary
criteria and requirements.
The Quality Assurance system should allow feedback from the beneficiaries in an attempt to
improve the standard of delivery. The feedback may influence a decision to use more or less
technology as an example. The feedback is an iterative process which feeds into the training
provider’s continuous development objective.
By including an awarding body into the Quality Assurance system, this reiterates that what is
being delivered in the classroom or within a work placement is delivered consistently across
all training providers. The use of verification systems (which usually means sampling
assessment material) ensures that assessments are fair, current and valid.
The external review system implemented by a number of national bodies usually score or
rate an institution as part of its review. In Scotland, Education Scotland (formerly called
HMIe…Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education) issue a number of “confidence” statements
as part of its external review. These statements are issued on its website and a formal report
is created. This allows the beneficiary to rate the VET institution against others and may
influence his/her decision to enrol in the future.
- Inclusion of beneficiary in the Quality Assurance system is essential to give a
balanced view of quality process
- Use of external bodies gives quality assurance system credibility
The quality assurance in VET will lead to:
- Improvement of the labor force quality;
- Establishing a balance on the labor market between the need of qualified workers and
- Increasing the labor productivity;
- Integrating of disadvantaged groups in the process of education and on the labor
- Increasing the mobility;
- Reaching higher level of education.
Through the quality assurance information is provided to students and to all stakeholders to
reassure them about the quality of provision, and to enable them to make informed choices
about programs and institutions.
Setting clear rules to decide who offers VET provision will help to increase the percentage of
accredited VET providers respectively ensures that more candidates take programmes that
lead to formal qualifications.
Publicising those courses and qualifications that are approved encourages the take-up of
Using feedback helps training providers to improve provision which encourages greater
Working with external partners helps to ensure that programmes are fit for purpose and all
stakeholders can be confident about encouraging candidates to study for formal
- Use trainees’ feedback and encourage participation
- Develop external partnership to meet the needs of beneficiaries
A vocational school is a school of positive choice because it does not limit the student from
Further Education and development. Quality assurance makes the vocational school a
reliable institution; which caters for accreditation and validation procedures and abides by the
norms of standards of vocational education. It prepares the beneficiaries to do jobs which
allow them to enter the labour market successfully and find employment in various sectors of
industry. A good vocational school guarantees a good and interesting job, success and
career-oriented future and enables young people to start and fully control their career
development. Obtained knowledge, skills, qualifications and competences make them
reliable, responsible employees, fully aware of their own value. In Lodz, Poland there are
currently 35 technical secondary schools and 33 vocational secondary schools preparing
graduates to work in more than 70 different professions. After passing a vocational
examination in a given specialisation, the pupil or student receives a certificate. A diploma
confirming vocational qualifications is awarded after passing all examinations required for a
given profession and after finishing school. It will also be possible to take examinations
without being enrolled in school if the pupil has completed lower secondary school education
or an eight-year primary school and has worked or studied in a given profession for a
minimum of two years. This will streamline the confirmation of competences gained through
non-formal education or informal learning.
- Facilitate the partnership between the stakeholders, policy makers and
schools or organizations in order to perform needs analysis among VET
beneficiaries; specifying their needs and expectations
- Application of learner-centered approach compliant with the quality
regulations and standards
Given the difficulties with measuring impact and to provide valid information on the actual
and effective impact of quality assurance, we would like to distinguish between the objectives
of the quality assurance activities at HWR Berlin and some results, which can be observed.
The general objective of quality assurance at HWR Berlin is to improve students’
performance and their chance for successful graduation, to facilitate the acquisition of
knowledge, skills and competences, to contribute to better marks and to support their
transfer into employment or further education. Following the higher education act of the state
of Berlin, university education should provide professional competences but non-professional
competences, like commitment for active citizenship, should be promoted as well. Primarily,
quality assurance is focused on the interests of the students.
In a more indirect way, quality assurance should also help to increase the reputation of HWR
Berlin and in particular of the awarded academic degrees, thus making it easier for the
graduates to find a job.
Finally, by engaging in quality assurance HWR students should become more satisfied with
the basic conditions and the environment in the university: library, cafeteria, administration
and guidance should fulfil their expectations.
It is rather difficult to measure if these objectives have been achieved but furthermore one
should be aware, that results are influenced by factors which are hardly under control, like
finances and available resources, or which can be changed only in the long run, like the
didactical performance and behaviour of lecturers.
Nevertheless, quality assurance of teaching and learning is integrated as a central element in
the quality management system applied at HWR Berlin. Pedagogical, methodological and
didactical issues are central parts of the quality process: students are regularly interviewed
with questionnaires to give their feedback. Resulting from the efforts for better quality, the
assessment of students’ performance has become more transparent, coordination of
curricular content between lecturers has been enhanced and didactical training for lecturer
has been strengthened. Furthermore, at HWR Berlin special emphasis has been put on the
usage of a learning platform and blended learning concepts and the creation of appropriate
- Coherent quality assurance in VET organisations should not be restricted to
individual factors, like qualification of teachers, effective teaching methods, or
efficient administrative procedures.
- We recommend understanding quality in VET as being composed of mutually
dependent building blocks: the quality of results, of products, of processes,
and of input factors.
It is better to divide beneficiaries into 3 categories. First of them are individuals who take
vocational education, the second ones are enterprises where vocational education students
get employment and the third one is the public who these enterprises provide their services
A-)The impact of the Quality Assurance on Individuals who take vocational
1- Individuals who are educated in a quality and efficient education process
will feel at ease in the working world and will have a better evolution in
2- Individuals who are educated in this way will develop their self- esteem.
3- Individuals who gain necessary vocational qualifications won’t have
4- Individuals who are educated with professional ethics will take into account
and be able to match the interests of the enterprises and expectations of
the public as well as their own interests.
B-) The impact of the Quality Assurance on enterprises where vocational
education students work:.
1-Every enterprise always wants to raise its profitability ratio and market
share. In that respect, it has to adapt itself to technology changes and employ
a labour force able to produce technology and use it .For this reason quality in
VET will increase the rate of finding well-trained staffs.
2-Enterprises which employ qualified individuals will always adapt themselves
to technology and in this way they will develop easily.
3-The most important factor for enterprises is "customer satisfaction".
Enterprises which employ qualified staffs will achieve it easily.
C-) The impact of the Quality Assurance on public whom these enterprises give
1-Customers want to buy products with the best value for money. And they
expect the best after sale service connected to professional ethics. For this
reason, quality in VET also directly affects cohesion, economy and wellbeing
of the general public.
2-To be able to deliver suitable spare parts and frequent service after sales it
is needed to have well-trained staff.
French viewpoint – GIP- FCIP
A training pathway addresses specific objectives which the beneficiary must be well aware
of. Objectives as well as ways to assess the outcome must be formalized as called for in a
typical quality assurance process. If not, remedial actions must be taken. They have an
influence both on current and future trainees.
Quality assurance calls for specific training provisions:
• Trainers’ expertise,
• adequate facilities and equipment,
• various resources: printed, digital, online.
More widely, quality assurance facilitates the beneficiaries’ involvement within the training
process and his/her awareness of the various steps of the learning process. Recent scientific
outcome showed the interest of the learners’ active behaviour in her/his pathways not to
mention monitored self learning.
Indeed quality assurance necessitates ongoing assessment of the beneficiary’s satisfaction.
It enables her/him to express herself / himself and in addition it facilitates adjustments in the
service provided to be made by the institution.
- Consider a wider scope of beneficiaries: students, enterprises and customers
in the quality assurance process
- Consider that VET contributes to the adaptability of enterprises and the
development of the economic environment
With regards to Greta+ reference framework, “tailored training” as required, is personalized
according to the trainee‘s biography and is made clear in an advisory discussion phase
which is to have a strong impact on pathways.
It has to be noticed that EQAVET proves relevant for beneficiaries themselves. The other
consequence is the facilitation of ECVET implementation. Now access to qualification will
depend on the range of ECVET available: the more numerous, the better for beneficiaries.
- Any quality system must be learner-centered
- Quality systems should be mainstreamed to facilitate active pedagogical
French viewpoint – CRBN
In the quality approach being implemented by the Region to promote sustainable
development within vocational training institutions, the beneficiaries must feel the effects of
the process at 2 levels:
- Professional skills they gain during their trainings must incorporate quality principles
in terms of sustainable development. Thus, each training, whether it is specialized in
the field of environment or not, should enable the trainees to know their territories and
master green skills. The aim is to enable them to adapt their skills in an evolving
economy with a structural trend towards a lower consumption of non-renewable
energy and waste reduction. More generally, a quality vocational training is assessed
as to enable the beneficiaries to be able to perceive social, economic and
environmental issues, and to adapt in order to have the best chances to a successful
and environment friendly integration in the labor market.
- Beyond skills on the labour market, education and training centers are places of
learning and socialization, in which beneficiaries should have the opportunity to
develop independence, critical thinking, fairness, consciousness of personal
responsibility and solidarity. Recipients must be able to engage themselves as
contributors to the training course, which must be an opportunity for them to
experience and exercise their role as citizens, actively participating in the smooth
running of training and life in the institution they study in (eg Regional support to
educational policy in the Apprenticeship Training Centers).
“Eco-citizenship” covers both concepts and in the framework of its powers, the Region has
implemented an incentive scheme to support training institutions in order to promote access
for persons undergoing training to a sustainable development education, whatever kind of
training they attend to (training through school or learning, vocational training),
In addition, consideration is being given, involving the new possibilities offered by digital
tools, including social networks, to organize a "trainee portal" that would empower the
representatives of the beneficiaries to contribute and monitor the regional vocational training.
- Develop the autonomy of learners for them to become responsible and
conscious professionals and citizens
The constant attention to the beneficiary and to all stakeholders manifests itself in every
business. Some evidence of this are:
− systematic analysis of training needs and consulting;
− establishment of a professional relationship, acquisition of service requirements for the
− customer communication clear and detailed information concerning activities to be
performed, materials to be used, time of performance of the service;
− training of its personnel to greater customer focus, from requirements implicit and explicit,
to the care of the human relationship to the management of his property, and so on.
− working environment and structure, cozy and pleasant;
− working conditions that give guarantee to protect the safety and health of workers;
− compliance with applicable legal requirements;
− commitment to pollution prevention;
− detection and analysis of the level of customer satisfaction;
− constant research and development of new methods for providing training and consultancy
services in order to maximize benefits for the individual and companies of the activities
− regular communication via newsletter with training and information management, computer
science, foreign languages, internet, but also trade, financing and training.
-Analyze feedback for continuous improvement of the beneficiaries
-Clearly communicate the results that are to be be obtained
Question two: HOW CAN QUALITY IMPROVE THE
MANAGEMENT OF A VET INSTITUTION?
A Quality Assurance system can provide structure for the management of an institution. It
means that the institution has to plan the areas of delivery, introduce target setting and,
review and improve on them.
Without quality indicators there is no way to measure the success or otherwise of an
An organization may be conducting its business in a proper and professional manner but
without a quality system in place there is no evidence to back this up. Without evidence it is
possible that the institution may lose business.
Implementing a quality assurance system that encompasses self-evaluation allows staff and
beneficiaries to take ownership of the process. Staff feel that their views are being heard in
an open and professional manner.
- The Quality Assurance system has to be inclusive. All staff have to be
involved and engaged in the process. This gives staff ownership of process.
- Setting realistic targets and review them regularly with appropriate staff.
- It should not be seen as a management tool, but one that belongs to and is
used by the whole VET institution.
A crucial precondition for the successful implementation of a quality management system is
to involve all stakeholders who should participate actively in the quality process - building a
culture of quality. A culture of self-evaluation with constant improvement in order to enhance
the quality of VET institutions’ processes and results should be created. Agreement
regarding the future development and implementation of objectives should be reached by
way of communication between the key actors on the respective levels, by setting clear roles
and responsibilities for the quality management process.
The quality reflects on the management of a VET institution via:
- Improving market intelligence and information availability to potential clients and
- Developing effective communication and information dissemination framework;
- Continuously updating the occupational standards in line with the needs of employers;
- Improving the quality of the content of the educational programs according to the demands
of the employers;
- Devising effective continuing VET programs to close the competency gap with EU;
- Improvement of the functioning system for inner monitoring and control with a view to the
inclusion of concrete indicators and criteria for evaluation of the quality of work in the VET
- Enriching of the system for observing the realization on the labor market of the
graduates/and those who have acquired a degree for vocational qualification in the VET
institution in interaction with the Employment Agency;
- The availability of internal system for quality assurance is one of the criteria for the licensing
of the VET institutions. Its components comply with the current requirements at European
- Creating incentive mechanisms to motivate the employers and workers to appreciate the
need for and effectively participate in continuing VET;
- Mobilizing and coordinating the efforts of all social partners, local authorities, NGOs and
other to actively participate in the process;
- Improving the scope, content and volume of information to promote occupational training,
thus increasing the accessibility to education and transparency of terms offered.
- Involve all stakeholders to build a culture of quality through management
- Develop cooperation with employers providing job offers
Each VET institution should benefit from applying quality standards and norms with reference
to management and administration of the company. This streamlines more transparent and
clear management procedures which would be implemented by the internal quality control,
external quality audits, external validation and accreditation systems.
Applying quality assurance polices (e.g. ISO 9001 or language certification) ensures:
- a positive image of the company as a stable enterprise on the educational market
(trusted and reliable). Compliance with external norms generates positive feedback from
- the appropriate level of quality of the company’s internal documentation (certifications,
norms and standards). Unification and standardization of document templates result in
more systematic and clear procedures (e.g. internal observation sheets, evaluation
sheets, report templates etc.) which when followed create an objective overview of the
company’s value on the market
- improvement of the quality of work of the enterprise (both administrative and academic).
academic staff have access to unified documentation compliant with educational
standards focused on learning outcomes and administrative staff have more transparent,
clear guidance procedures to implement quality control and provide high quality service
- greater customer (student – teacher) satisfaction and reduction of the complaints from
unsatisfied external customers - more prospects of employment for students gear
employment for teachers. Better, motivated teachers shape a more professional profile of
the prospective graduate on the labour market.
- competitive educational offer on the labour market, compliant with the employers’
requirements and demands (commissioned courses adjusted to the labour market
expectations – hands-on training reduces the number of graduates with ‘paper
- the increase of the prestige of the company and its services on the educational market
- greater access to domestic and foreign markets through wider mobility schemes -
application of clear norms and standards gears international partnership opportunities for
the educational institutions)
- the increase of profit due to the improved and validated quality systems. For non-state
owned institutions application of quality control procedures can directly results in higher
student enrolment numbers
The process of lifelong learning of personnel involved in VET management, both
administrative and academic, is paramount. Those directly involved in teaching,
should continue their professional development by defining, understanding and
developing values of systems beneficial for individuals and groups of employees,
and by implementing quality management systems. All the possible efforts should be
taken to implement quality management systems in the units and institutions, dealing
with training, which do not apply modern management methods, yet.
As said above, the focus of quality assurance at HWR Berlin is on the (interests of) students.
Following, it is obvious, that the management of the institution should be improved in order to
serve better the needs of students and to support the achievement of their goals.
On the other hand one should be aware that a formalised quality management system allows
to monitor and to improve all processes and infra-structural elements in an organisation that
are considered essential pre-conditions to achieve quality. Improving the effectiveness of the
institutional processes quite often is in full accordance with the needs of students and
lecturers as usually they benefit from transparent structures and processes that are running
smoothly. Especially the teachers appreciate that the quality management system simplifies
their daily work.
- We recommend to understand quality as being commonly (but not
congruently) defined and produced by all stakeholders; i.e., clients (students,
employers), teachers and other staff, and the social environment of the VET
- Establishing effective and efficient quality assurance within a VET
organisation should address in small steps all the building blocks and all the
stakeholders simultaneously, instead of consecutively implementing big steps
concerning single issues.
One of the most important issues for the enterprises is to be able to develop and consolidate
current efficiency. To ensure this, they must have a very good management team. Right
decisions are made by people whose competence perfectly fits in their positions. Institutions
which present a quality vocational education must have a quality management staff, too. It is
needed to have leaders who define workplans, take the right decisions and implement them,
anticipate by evaluating the results of decisions in an ongoing process. On this basis,
institutions which aim to quality should have a quality management staff.
- Have management staff able to anticipate, evaluate results and take steps for
- Have leaders able to use quality processes
French viewpoint – GIP-FCIP
• processes clarifications
• organizational chart clarifications,
• management reviews,
• quality monitoring of service provided,
• financial follow-up,
• approach to anticipation,
quality assurance provides outstanding structuring components for a training organization.
The necessary staff mobilization for the implementation of quality processes is widely
compensated by advantages stemming from a more effective organizational structuration
and the commitment of the teams working together and addressing shared goals.
Moreover it requires the commitment of the whole staff and thus everyone feels involved in
the process and more widely within the institution one works with. I t has to be noticed that
we involved secretaries as internal auditors in Greta+ implementation.
A training organization involved in quality assurance whose staff is truly a party to, provides a
better service to the ultimate beneficiaries and is more robust and self adaptive to a changing
Quality assurance process cannot be opposed to the ongoing daily adaptation of the
institution and its stakeholders. On the contrary, in relying on the quality basis we can set up
a “learning organization” process (in the sense that the institution learns from its ongoing
interaction with its environment and adapts to it in a better way)
French viewpoint – CRBN
Quality approach issued in Lower-Normandy through the ecocitizenship approach was aimed
to – and resulted in – a fundamental change in the relationships between the Region and the
In a context of deployment since 2001 of calls for tenders applied to vocational training for
jobseekers, the political impulse given in 2004 by the new regional majority (coalition
socialists and ecologists) aimed to promote a best-bidder logic rather than a lowest bidder
To establish and develop new criteria for funding continuing vocational training, the regional
departments did not work alone. It was decided since the beginning to set up working groups
with representatives of various networks of training institutions, to interview trainers and
linked actors (especially employment agencies and youth network), in order to integrate their
issues and ensure the quality of vocational training financed by the Region. The same kind of
approach has been implemented for apprenticeship policy. Management talks are organized
to exchange and share on Regional financing arrangements.
- Involve all the staff to participate to the quality assurance process,
encompassing their empowerment for specific missions.
- Move forward up to becoming a “learning organization” relying on its quality
assurance basis framework
Have been highlighted in particular:
- the importance of prolonged relationships between the Region and the training
organizations, which lead the Region to propose contracts for 3 or 4 years instead of
- the role of needs analysis made for each territory to ensure the attractiveness of
training for both the public and the enterprises,
- the importance of coherence and coordination between the different funders of
- and the need to implement security devices during training pathways in order to
avoid the resignation of people in great difficulty.
Furthermore, to develop some approaches, the Region sets up or contributes to programs of
support and advice for training organizations to help them meet the needs of the Region.
This is the case of the sustainable development approach, but other examples exist such as
the use of digital tools for training, and perhaps in the future a new strengthened support for
people accumulating serious personal and social difficulties.
Now, the culture of sharing decision is widely integrated in the operating mode of the Region:
it is no more possible to design a device or a policy without including in its planning the
organizations which will benefit from it. Similarly, the logic which aims to analyze needs by
territory is widespread and is now fully integrated in management practices.
Progress remains to be done in terms of coordination and consistency between the various
funders of vocational training, and becomes a priority at a time that the Region, due to the
2013 decentralization law, should be empowered with more responsibilities related to the
vocational training policy.
- Develop a culture of decision sharing
- Empower stakeholders with responsibilities
To implement the Integrated Management System, ARCADIA CONSULTING SRL:
− prepared a Manual Integrated Management System for Quality, Safety and Environment,
calling procedures of the System;
− identified the processes needed for the Integrated Management System;
− established sequences and interactions between the processes, policies and methods to
ensure the effectiveness of these operations;
− identified aspects / significant environmental impacts associated with the activities, facilities
and products / services arising from business processes;
− identified hazards / significant risks associated with the activities, facilities and products /
services arising from business processes;
− established criteria and methods to be adopted to ensure effective operational control and
effective monitoring of environmental aspects / impacts and dangers / risks significant for the
− implemented the Integrated Management System following the procedures documented;
− defined and documented how they will meet the requirements of the system, through the
Corporate Policy, objectives, programs and activities related to monitoring of the Integrated
Management System (through meetings, audit and management review);
− prepared a schedule consistent with the specific requirements of the Integrated
Management System, according to an annual plan issued earlier this year by the General
Directorate and constantly updated;
− defined and specified equipment and equipment resources;
− documented the activities of the Integrated Management System, according to the
specifications given in the management process documents for registration;
− ensured the availability of information required to support the actions and monitoring
− measured, monitored, analyzed the processes and implement actions necessary to
achieve the planned results and continual improvement through the use of non-compliance
and indicators of the integrated management system.
- Build a management system clear and reported to the objectives to be pursued
- Avoid bureaucratic systems
Question three: HOW CAN A VET ORGANISATION
CHOOSE STANDARDS OR NORMS?
Definition from QUALISTAT Sub-Group (Quality of Norms Final Report July1998)
• Norm - A standard, pattern or type
• Standard - A measure established as a criterion, any type, fact, thing, etc. serving as
For the purposes of our work we agreed to use the words 'norm' and 'standard' as synonyms,
and define a norm as 'an agreed or recognised convention which contributes towards a
framework for collecting, processing or disseminating coherent statistical data'.
The VET organisation has to choose the standards that are relevant to them. Governmental
(local and/or national) organisations may force VET organisations to adhere to quality
standards as part of their condition of business (ie to gain Government contracts there may
be a Quality Assurance condition in place).
Part of the usual accreditation process for an institution is the implementation of additional
quality assurance systems. An institution has to decide whether the inclusion of these
additional criteria outweighs the adjustment to the institution’s existing systems.
An example is:
To achieve the Customer Service Excellence Quality standard the institution has to set
targets relating to communication (telephone and mail) response times. Setting those
targets and then recording and reviewing them may have too much of an impact on existing
resources for the organisation to undertake.
- VET organisation has to choose which standard or norm is available and
appropriate to itself and its beneficiaries
- VET organisations need to balance benefit of norm or standard against
possible additional cost or resource
Building on existing internal arrangements can encourage training providers to develop their
own quality assurance systems. Setting clear roles and responsibilities offers the option of
requiring training providers to use the EQAVET principles. Using pilot initiatives will
encourage training providers to set up their own internal quality assurance system.
The main documents regulating vocational training in Bulgaria, including learning outside the
formal education system (schools engaged in vocational education and training) - vocational
training centers - VTC is the Law on Vocational Education and Training. It includes a
regulation as to the status of institutions providing vocational training and the enumeration of
types Framework training programs. The Vocational Training Centers most frequently work
according to the Framework Programs A, B, D, E and F (Art. 12).
The VET organizations in Bulgaria should predict and develop their activities according to the
approved government standards. The organizational form for the A, B, D, E and F programs
for persons aged 16 years is a training course. The forms of education, the teaching time and
the number of students in the course is determined by the educational institution. They can
be coordinated with the applicant for vocational training. The vocational Training Centre
develops its own curricula and educational programs consistent with current national
standards. If there is no state standard the program is developed in accordance with the
existing in the current educational system programs, approved by the Minister of Education,
Youth and Science.
The National Agency for Vocational Education and Training (NAVET) in Bulgaria is the
government institution licensing the VET organizations. There are approved by the BG
MEYS syllabuses (training programs). It is appropriate the VET organizations to comply with
the approved state educational standards. In case the VET provider is not a licensed one,
the standards/norms/ are chosen by the VET organization on the basis of a subjective
assessment/evaluation/.It is possible and recommended the VET organization to consult the
corresponding professional organizations when choosing its standards/norms.
When choosing its standards/norms/ a VET institution’s aim should be to gauge employers’
satisfaction with skills of their employees, to synchronize the skills of the graduates and the
needs of the employers.
The VET organizations are allowed to give only a certificate of attendance to the trainees,
indicating the subject of the training in cases when the last is not included in the regulated list
The curriculum (the specification of what was taught in vocational schools) was the main
standard in the past for VET, which has changed.Nowadays more attention should be paid to
the identification and specification of the employment requirements.
The prime instrument to ensure relevance, transparency and quality of the outcomes of the
education and training process are the standards (both economically and educationally
More emphasis should be put on the link between education and the world of work.
The qualification standard has been introduced, stressing the importance that vocational
education and training policy should be led by the labour market. Qualification standards are
either job based, occupational, vocational or general, depending on the degree that they are
adapted to the specific demands of employers or to the requirements of the education
system in general.
The VET standard should be based on three main requirements, which are the
essential ones for any VET standard:
- The employment requirements - What does the student need to be able to do in
- The learning requirements - what students in VET must learn in order to meet these
requirements/expectations, what does the student need to learn to be effective in
- The assessment requirements - how the competence of students will be judged,
how will we know what the student has learned and is able to do in employment.
A VET organization needs to be quite clear about what it is trying to achieve with the VET
National standards may have more components, but these are the essential ones for any
vocational education and training standard.
A VET organization can choose standards related to technical activities,
management/coordination, increased technical specialization, etc.
Modern vocational education standards need to be led by the labour market and to be
flexible in order to be adaptable to rapidly changing circumstances.
When evaluating the VET standards, three sets of evaluation criteria should be taken into
- what the standards are intended to achieve economically and socially (policy
criteria:commonality and coherence - the whole system needs to be coherent,
integrated and should identify links between similar standards; breadth of
competence and transferability . standards should be broad in scope and should
incorporate outcomes which encourage people to transfer to different work activities
and meet the challenges of new work activities; strategic and forward looking .
standards should be based on current best practice and anticipated future
requirements; access and equality of opportunity - participation in learning and the
recognition of achievement has become a democratic right for all citizens);
- what the standards should be like (technical criteria - the functional map which
describes the content of the standard; the structure of the modules within the
- how the standards will be used in practice (implementation criteria - the structure and
format of the standards; the language used to describe the standards).
These points can be used to develop clear criteria for standards and provide a complete
framework for evaluation.
A VET organizations in Poland can apply and implement both internal and external quality
schemes. They are very much related and dependable on each other. High quality of internal
evaluation and quality assurance procedures trigger faster external validation. For example
ISO can be applied only if the internal organization polices of the company are approved and
validated by the external audits according to specific norms and standards. Furthermore,
contemporary educational and employment markets enforce compliance with certain
educational standards. National Quality Framework for the Higher Education standards are
applied for each higher education institution. KRK norms are focused on the learning
outcomes and define knowledge, skills and social competences of each graduate.
What is more internal documentation is created to ensure quality of offered services, e.g.
academic teacher observation and evaluation sheets and reports to standardize assessment
of their classes or lectures. Each department of VET organization has its own specified
regulations compliant with the external, objective educational contracts, rules or organization
An institution can appoint different staff member to cater for quality scheme
implementation. For example to establish the flow of graduates to the labour market, training
supervisors, who closely cooperate with the career office can be appointed by the deans or
directors of individual faculties. Their duty is to supervise students’ traineeship and give them
credits on completion of the programme by signing up their student record book. Students
are provided with documents which are essential for accomplishing of their training
- Traineeship contract (internal document)
- Traineeship Record Book (unified ministerial requirements)
- Proper certificates which are required for specific fields of study (internal
documents compliant with external requirements with reference to learning outcomes )
Apart from that, in order to express their opinion on the course of the training programme,
both students and graduates are asked to fill in evaluation forms. Employers are also asked
to complete the questionnaires in which they can evaluate students’ preparation for the
traineeship. It results in gathering information on the level of students’ preparation to enter
- connect VET to labour market issues
- be clear with what you have to achieve
the labour market.
A thorough analysis and comparison of these two opinions gives grounds for further
discussion and is guidance on how to improve methods, forms and activities in this field of
Another form of applying quality standards for the VET Institution is also e.g. the external
certification with reference to languages. An institution becomes an authorized training and
examination centre for foreign languages only when it agrees to introduce specific standards
in terms of curricula and syllabus development, focus on the learning outcomes of the
specific courses, administrative documentation clearly and thoroughly completed and of
course proper training of the staff both centred on development of skills and professional
development, as well as training on examination requirements and procedures.
- Engage all Institutions in the quality schemes implementation, especially those
directly Involved in educational matters,
- Encourage access to clear and transparent norms and standards widely
available for the company’s decision makers and beneficiaries
Basically there are two different options to choose standards or norms. One option is to
introduce a standardised system from outside, for example the ISO-standards. The other
option is opposite to this top-down approach: Standards or norms are self-created by the
staff of the organisation in a bottom-up process and due to the active involvement they are
In reality, a mixture of both approaches is most appropriate. It needs a top-down
engagement to arrive at common standards and in parallel it needs intensive, well-structured
and moderated discursive processes with all stakeholder groups. In educational institutions,
involvement of stakeholders is particularly important because it is part of the organisational
culture to express and to exchange personal views and to give explanations and
justifications. Standards that are implemented just top-down will be ignored; because of the
basic autonomy of teachers and trainers - especially in the classroom – one has to ensure
consensus, agreement and ownership when developing quality standards.
- Quality assurance includes lobbying and marketing, safeguarding the input
factors, recruitment and development of appropriate personal, design of
effective administrative and management processes, customisation of
teaching, assessments, exams, and study conditions, as well as
communication and discussion of results.
- In addition, it is highly recommendable to develop and to support the creation
of an internal quality culture--a common understanding, communication, and
appreciation of quality in VET.
The Turkish system provides a “total quality” scheme whose impetus is given by the national
government which provides a framework in which every school and particularly vocational
highschool has the opportunity to define its own objectives and criteria to reach its goals.
Every institution should have different objectives and criteria as they have different product
and give different services. This is how every school has the opportunity to make strategic
choices within a national framework
While choosing objectives and criteria, they must take into account the economic and
geographical environment as well as the expectations of the public. The standards chosen by
the institution are made to provide internal and external customers’ satisfaction, develop
growing trust from their environment to address their needs.
The basic standards and norms must be ‘customer satisfaction’ and ‘trust’ in each institution.
Other standards should be developed according to the specificity of each enterprise.
It has to be noticed that proficiency competitions among the vet schools are organized and
are typical of Turkish education. Students in every branch of vet schools attend these
competitions where they have the opportunity to display their production.These competitions
encourage them to try to be best in their works.
During vet education the students take work experience placements for practical training.
Through the feedback of the performance of their students VET institutions have a chance to
see their weaknesses and strengths in the training delivery
French viewpoint – GIP- FCIP
A training organization can decide to choose within a wide range of possibilities starting with
the implementation of basic quality assurance principles up to more complex compliance to a
norm controlled through external audits. The closer to the latter, greater the impact will be on
staff mobilization, on the overall organization as well as on the beneficiaries. In addition, the
decision to choose a specific quality standard for a training organization relies on its “core
business” consisting in pedagogical practices and the tailored pathways of beneficiaries.
Nevertheless, such an objective can be reached but through the development of a quality
culture shared at all levels of the institution. Gaining this culture is a long term process and it
may appear to be more relevant to start with implementing ongoing improvement processes
with simple actions in which everyone will invest. Thus for the GRETA network of Lower
Normandy, the informal process leading to the award of Greta+ label by external audits to the
whole network took over five years.
It has to be noticed that a training organization can be subjected to several norms and
standards according to the nature of the service provided, the various requirements of fund
providers or the necessary commitment, more or less formalized, to sustainability. If the
requirement for a “quality assurance basis” is at the root of efficiency, such demands from
the environment are not easy to satisfy and may give good reasons to people who believe
that quality assurance entails expensive investments (particularly with regards to staff cost),
which are ultimately disproportionate to the results obtained. This reasoning led to quality
- Enable every institution to define its own objectives and criteria.
- Make choices in keeping with the requirements and expectations of its
assurance processes being given up by numerous French networks. This is why Greta+
strives to cover some major requirements, without listing too wide a range of them which
would be difficult to address.
By promoting quality asssurance without imposing it, nor imposing standards, EQAVET
creates a freedom area for decisions makers and training institutions. This area opens to a
large spectrum of norms which requires the commitment of VET institutions. In that respect
the awarding of greta+ to our network in Lower Normandy is not sufficient with regards to the
“bilan de competences” (assessment scheme for competence formally and informally gained
in working life by employees) which requires another standard which is only partially covered
- Choose a standard with external audit providing that enough time is allowed
for that in the institution.
- Encourage institutions to have as few numbers of labels as possible.
French viewpoint – CRBN
Due to regulations, the Region does not have the authority to impose a single quality
standard, eg ISO, to training institutions: it can only mention a wish, allowing equivalencies.
It does not even want to. In line with its policy to expand access to better qualification for the
whole population of Lower-Normandy, the Region has chosen not to favor a training
organization rather than another, but instead to promote multiple ways of access to
qualifications, with the aim that the training scheme should respond to the needs of as many
people and profiles as possible.
Thus, the Region wants the vocational training organizations to be part of the process that
aims to make them progress towards the quality level it wants, regardless of their starting
level (eg all Apprenticeship Training Centers signed in 2012 “progress contracts”).
In the thematic priorities it wishes, this process consists of three elements:
- Consultation with representatives of training institutions for the implementation of a
- Deployment of a support and advice platform. Eg. for the sustainable development
approach, training organizations are being offered a diagnosis, and for those who
wish to engage in the process, the implementation of an action plan is supported by
an independent agency, paid by the Region.
- Gradual integration into the funding criteria of the Region (elements of the calls for
tenders for jobseekers’ training, extra funding to specific projects in educational
- Planning of continuous training for trainers, staff and guidance counselors
- There are various ways leading to qualification: each organisation has to
organise its own quality assurance processes according to its own culture
ARCADIA CONSULTING LTD is a company recognized by the Regione Veneto and certified
ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and 18001:2007 HOSAS with a business idea to design
and deliver training and counseling in the key areas of management, especially quality
The project has been designed by Arcadia Consulting with Management to CPIPE to connect
the accreditation system of the Veneto Region with a complete quality system.
Article. 1 of the Decree of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security no. 166 of 25 May 2001
defines accreditation as an act by which the competent Public Administration (in this case the
Veneto Region) recognizes the ability of a Training Organization to propose and implement
training programs and orientation financed with public resources. The D.M. adopted the
model that forms the basis for all regional systems of accreditation.
The Training Organisations seeking accreditation must comply with the minimum standards
of quantity and quality through the following requirements:
• economic and financial;
• organization and management;
• endowment of human resources;
• efficacy and efficiency in previous activities and relationships with the territory.
At the same time you have defined the document system: Manual, Procedures, Work
Instructions and Forms. This phase has built what has already been in use, with what is
already provided by the accreditation system of the Veneto Region and the requirements of
the ISO 9001 standards.
The rules are complementary but mandatory (Veneto Region) and one optional (ISO 9001).
The combination of the full definition of the organization and evaluation of results, in
particular on the beneficiaries.
- ISO 9001 is very useful to clearly define the responsibilities and ways of
working if properly interpreted.
- Accreditation to the Veneto Region stimulates the achievement of results but
does not define how to achieve them
- The implementation of both rules leads to genuine continuous improvement.
3) Some good practices.
Eco citizenship in training, Lower Normandy
Total Quality in Turkey, the interview of the head of Besni directorate
Quality and the learner at the centre of the process, a Scottish approach
The Bulgarian approach to quality in VET
GretaPlus is the label awarded by the French ministry of education to its departments which
meet the criteria of the AFNOR BP X50-762 good-practice reference framework “tailored
training and service for adults”
This reference framework is intended for adult training institutions or providers of service in
favour of adults beyond the strict scope of training. This is defined under French law. Among
these services one can mention individual competence assessment or support of
organisations confronted with change.
The framework AFNOR BP X50-762 is built around 15 commitments to customers and a
quality assurance basis with 6 requirements. The 15 commitments regard the various steps
of the implementation process of training services from the analysis of needs up to the
supply of the certification of the competence gained through training. The course design and
training are necessarily tailored and the pathways are constantly adapted according to
intermediary evaluations. Staff competence, suitable facilities and equipment are of course
part of the requirements. Four requirements of the quality assurance basis are connected to
management (policy, evaluation…), the two others regard monitoring, anticipation and
It is up to an entity to ask for label award: it defines its scope provided it is compatible with
the specific object: “training and service for adults”. It has to be noted that part of these
commitments are also valid for initial vocational training. Some structures are also seeking to
obtain the label for their overall activity whereas others for one sector exclusively. It has also
to be noted that the GRETA network of “l’ Académie de Caen” (5 training organisations and
their head office under the ministry’s scope) asked for the whole organisation to be validated.
The entity sets up its quality assurance system to bring it into line with the Greta Plus
requirements which have all to be met. For example a process-oriented approach is not
compulsory, nevertheless if chosen it must be operative.
The delivery of the label comes within the scope of an audit approach inspired from the ISO
norm. Internal audits are planned and external audits are implemented by auditors appointed
by the French ministry of education. These audits highlight strong points and improvement
areas and above all issue ISO-like comments and non conformities.
Obtaining the label presupposes a successful external audit leading to a positive decision
made by the label authorities ('comité du label'). The label is awarded for three years
subjected however to annual audit outcomes. After three years the labelisation process is
Eco-citizenship in training, Lower Normandy
VET centres are places where citizens improve their skills and learn to socialize. They are
key-structures to disseminate knowledge and good practices on eco-citizenship : the trainee
should be aware of the stakes of sustainable and local development, be able to analyze
his/her behaviour as a consumer, an economic agent and a citizen, adopt eco-citizen habits,
and spread sustainable development principles.
The quality approach developed by the Region aims to implement these principles by
supporting the VET centres in getting skills and being able to spread them inside their
organization and towards the pupils and trainees.
The sustainable development is a voluntary process that meets the needs and aspirations of
the structure and all those who compose it. The Region supports the process through a
methodology that provides benchmarks for action and offers advice to optimize results. The
help of an independent expert may be applied for, and training for trainers are being set up.
0. Making the decision to engage in the process: approval by the Board administration
and registration of establishment or project contract progress
1. Stimulate the process
2. Establish a steering committee to coordinate the process
3. Perform diagnosis, current state of affairs
4. Identify areas of possible progress in the short, medium and long term
5. Define and adopt a first action plan, over a defined period, to provide
operational responses to identified areas for improvement
6. Seeking recognition of its approach
7. Implement the actions and follow
8. Evaluate the results of the first action plan
all in a permanent process of mobilizing the entire community
educational, actors of the structure and its partners, information, consultation
and continuous improvement.
On the long run, the Region wants that the more VET centres as possible engage in the
process, and put it as an objective in the regional Agenda 21.
Total Quality in Turkey, the interview of the head of
AN INTERVIEW ABOUT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT WITH THE DIRECTOR OF
NATIONAL EDUCATION IN BESNI, Hüseyin TURAÇ
1-Is there a quality management which is used in education institutions and schools to
raise the quality in Turkey?
Yes, there is. It is called Total Quality Management and it has been used since 1999 within
the scope of a project. The main aim of TQM is to raise the qulity in schools and classes. To
be able to use the project in all educational fields, Provincial Organisation Total Quality
Management Implementation Project was promulgated by National Education Ministry.
Within this project TQM Province Formatters have been educated and inform works have
begun and continued in province organisations. Quality can be defined as ‘Suits to needs
and provide satisfaction. Quality is an essential element for productions and services
nowadays. The way to achieve quality is to have educated and qualified people. In this
sense, perfection has been the background of quality (for people and institutions).The first
step is to measure the performance objectively, both individual and institutional, in view of
raising quality up to perfection.
2-Could you give a short information about the implementation of TQM?
TQM has started on 19th October 1999.The project has been started to implement on 1st
November 1999 in 12 central organisations in 1st stage, on 1st March 2000 in 12
organisations in 2nd stage and on 1st June 2000 in 19 organisations in 3rd stage.
Our National Education Ministry has signed ‘Good Intent Declaration’ with Quality
Association and by joining ‘National Quality Process’ which is started by QA,Ministry has
aimed to generalize the Quality awareness to all country.
TQM implementations in our Ministry has been continued by basing on EFQM(European
Quality Management Foundation).By getting support of QA, first institution directors and at
least 2 or 3 people from each institutions have been informed about Perfection Model.
Besides , the units and Criteria Quality Improvement team members are given training in
TQM and EFQM’s Perfection Model.So 2177 staffs in central Ministry were informed about
TQM and 996 staffs were informed about EFQM’s Perfection Model between November
1999 and November 2000.On 31st December 2000 most units of Ministry have finished self-
evaluation as Perfection Model and began to develop planning for specific areas of
3-What is the aim in TQM implementation?
The aim is to raise quality in schools and classes.
4-What is the performance measurement tool in TQM studies?
One of the tools is Perfection Model which is developed by EFQM. This model has been
used in our Ministry. Self-evaluation is at the basis of it and the process of using the model
have shown the institutions’ perfection level. As a result from self-assessment, areas for
improvement are therefore identified as well as their level, which is to lead to a better
5-What are the main principles of TQM ?
Here are the main principles of TQM:
a) Total Quality Management practices are carried out with a plan and project.
b) Educational measures shall be taken to ensure satisfaction of the beneficiaries of the
c) At each stage team work is prioritized and is provided, pooling brain and heart power of
d) Resources are used effectively and efficently.
e)The level of achivement target is always measured.
f) System is always improved by questioning and is reformed.
g) Staff’s qualificitaion is always raised and attempts to reach perfection are undertaken.
H) An operating environment for staff is provided so that they are able to use all their
ı) Consedering permanent changes in shedule and environment, a learning organisation
approach is institutionalized by a plan.
j) Instead of being part of problems , being part of solutions is taught to staff.
k)Improving the quality is a duty for all staff.
l) Improving is possible with changes.
m) Ensuring a balance between corporate and individual objectives are taken into account
for employees’ job satisfaction.
6-Can you give some information about the process of TQM’s implementation?
TQM IMPLEMANTATION ACTION STEPS
1.Organising Quality Council, Quality Improvement Team and School
Development Management Team
2. Determining School/Institution Representative(Director)
3. Education of School/Institution Representative
4. Preparing School/Institution‘s Strategic Plan and Determination of
5. Making Self-evaluation
A) Informing the school staff
B) Establishing Criteria Teams
C) Education of Criteria Teams
D) Adaptation of Perfection Model’s Criteria’ s sub-areas to the ınstitution
E) Creating Data Collection Methods(Question,Observation,Document Review,etc)
F) Collecting data
G) Evaluating data;
1)Determination of Strengths
2)Identifying areas for improvement
H) Having Convention Meeting (Determination of topics in improvement plan) and
Submission to Quality Council
6. Creating Improvement Team (Working Group) and prioritisation areas for
improvement according to self-evaluation
7. Preparation of school/institution Improvement Plans
8. Preparation annual school/institution development plans in accordance
with improvement plans
9. Implementation annual school/institution development plans
10. Review(Formative Assessment)
11. Implementation annual school/institution development plan
12. Final Evaluation and report writing
* every month (June/December)TQM Monitoring and Evaluation Form is filled by schools and
sent to Province/District National Education Directorate
**School development management team carries out Quality Council’s and Quality
improvement team’s tasks.
7-You have said that TQM has started in 1999. Were there any works or
comprehension about quality in your culture?
Sure we had
• Stick the needle into yourself (to see how it hurts) before you thrust the packing-
needle into others.
• A beauty which you want for yourself unless you do not want for others, you cannot
be a nature man.
• Ahi Culture(Customer focus)
• The person whose two days are equal is in loss(Continuous Improvement KAİZEN)
• Many hands make light work. (Full Participation, Teamwork, Team Spirit)
• The spirit of us instead of me.(Corporate Culture)
• Love was created because of Creator.
• Make it be easy,do not make it be difficult ,make it be loved ,do not make it be hated.
• Turkish History from 19th May 1919 to 29thOctober 1923 = (Process Management)
• Alparslan in Malzgirt Battle,Yavuz in Egypt ,Fatih the conqueror in İstanbul , Atatürk in
Dardanelles and Independece War (Leadership)
Quality and the learner at the centre of the process,
a Scottish approach.
Education Scotland and the Vocational Education and Training (Further Education
Scottish Vocational Education and Training (VET) institutions have to undergo external
reviews by Education Scotland formerly called Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education
(HMIE). The aims of such external reviews is to evaluate colleges against the three key
principles of High Quality Learning, Learner Engagement and Quality Culture;
Three key principles
Education Scotland makes use of information that already exists in the public domain as well
as that submitted to the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) to assess any areas at risk and
maintain regular contact with VET institution.
QualitQualitQualitQuality Culturey Culturey Culturey Culture
High QualityHigh QualityHigh QualityHigh Quality
Three major evaluative activities
A formal meeting called “Annual Engagement” takes place every year between Education
Scotland and the VET institution. Annual engagement is a tool for dissemination of
information from Education Scotland to the VET institution and for the VET institution to
highlight sector-leading areas of excellence.
Periodically “Subject-based Aspect Reports” are undertaken by Education Scotland in
conjunction with the Scottish Funding Council (SFC). The Scottish Funding Council is the
main funding body for Scottish Further and Higher Education (Colleges and Universities). An
aspect report is used to highlight good practice and explore areas where further development
or action is needed in a particular subject area, for example hairdressing or land-based
The main quality process for the VET institution from Education Scotland is the “External
Reviews of Colleges”. The external review takes place within a 4 year review cycle and the
outcome is a formal report that is published on the Education Scotland website.
The external review team is normally made up of one Managing Inspector (Senior Inspector),
two Education Scotland Inspectors, two Associate Assessors and one Student Team
Member. Associate Assessors are managers from the College sector who have been trained
by Education Scotland to assist in the review. The Student Team Member is a former
President of the Students’ Association who is tasked with gathering the views of the College
students in the review.
The review schedules are announced eight weeks in advance and are carried out in three
days during which Education Scotland will engage with learners, observe learning and
teaching sessions, hold professional dialogue with teaching staff members on strengths and
areas for development, conduct interviews and undertake any activity needed to evaluate
evidence against the 17 reference quality indicators and identify key strengths and areas for
More information on the Education Scotland principles and frameworks can be found at
The report has 4 statements determining the level of confidence Education Scotland has with
the institution. The following four high level questions are used to determine the level of
Aspect ReportsAspect ReportsAspect ReportsAspect Reports
External ReviewsExternal ReviewsExternal ReviewsExternal Reviews
of Collegesof Collegesof Collegesof Colleges
Annual EngagementAnnual EngagementAnnual EngagementAnnual Engagement
The last external review for Anniesland College by HMIE (prior to their name change to
Education Scotland) took place in March 2011. HMIE observed learning and teaching and
had talks with over 250 students and staff. They also contacted employers, partner
organisations and community groups. The report produced by the review identified a large
number of strengths, four examples of sector-leading and excellent practise and some points
for action. A student reviewer gave a very good report of her discussions with individual
students confirming that the learning experience at Anniesland was at a very high standard.
Anniesland College received the following confidence statements from HMIE (the best
HMIE is confident that:
• Learners are progressing well and achieving relevant, high quality outcomes
• The college has in place high quality learning and teaching processes
• Learners are actively engaged in enhancing their own learning and the work and life
of the college
• The College is led well and is enhancing the quality of its services for learners and
Each of the confidence statements can have a condition added if the inspectors feel it is
appropriate (Anniesland College had no conditions associated with the confidence
Anniesland College put processes in place to deal with the points for action identified which
become a main topic for discussion in the “Annual engagement” (closing the circle).
How well are the learners
achieving relevant high
How effective are the
college’s learning and
How well are learners
enhancing their own
learning and the work and
life of the college?
How well is the college led and how well is it
enhancing the quality of its services for learners and
Four high level questions
High Quality Learning Learner Engagement
The College also has the opportunity to respond or update Education Scotland on the
progress of the main points for action. This response is published on the Education Scotland
website and is called the “Response to the Outcome of Education Scotland Review”.
From a quality perspective, the use of an external body conducting reviews gives credibility
to the quality processes. This external body reviews institutions in the same sector and
publishes the outcome so benchmarking can be undertaken. The review identifies strengths
as well as areas of concern, includes staff at all levels from support and teaching areas
making staff feel involved. A recent introduction to the Education Scotland process has been
the inclusion of a student (beneficiary) member. This means that the student voice is now
being heard in a formal process rather than in an anecdotal manner that was used in the
Staff in the Quality Department look forward to the Education Scotland external review as a
good review reassures the Quality staff that their internal processes and audits are working.
1. Institution sets realistic targets
Targets are reviewed and reflected upon regularly
2. Quality standards are reviewed by external organisation
External organisations give credibility to process
Allows benchmarking with similar institutions
3. All staff and beneficiaries evaluate and are engaged in process
Staff at all levels are involved so process is not seen as a management tool
Views of beneficiaries are as important as staff and should be treated as such
A Bulgarian approach to quality in VET
The crisis and layoffs motivated many people to study again in order to enhance their
educational attainment, improve their qualification. On the other hand, some companies
introduced, based on an effective social dialogue, flexible working hour schemes, which
enable workers to work and study.
The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science supported this process, opening up wider
opportunities for acquiring of vocational qualification through increased number of classes
and groups of vocational subjects to be studied in evening and part-time forms of study
The highest number of students in vocational schools and high schools study professions in
the group “Technical sciences and technical professions” - 33,76 % of all students, followed
by “Economic sciences and administrations” – 17,74 %,” and “Services for the individual” -
11,71 %. The smallest number of students study professions in the group “Security and
safety” – 0,02 %.
Provisional broad-based commissions involving representatives of the stakeholders and the
social partners are set up for the development of strategic and other VET documents, thus
ensuring the quality of VET and its impact on the VET beneficiaries.
An important role in encouraging participation in different lifelong learning forms plays
validation (assessment and verification) of knowledge and skills acquired in non-formal and
In November 2009, opportunities for career development of teachers and educators were
introduced as a key element of the activities for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of
the teaching and education process. Five horizontal development teacher positions have
been introduced: junior teacher, teacher, senior teacher, head teacher, teacher –
methodologist, respectively educator positions: junior educator, educator, senior educator,
head educator, educator - methodologist.
NAVET (National Agency for Vocational Education and Training, established in 2000 with
VET Law) is a specialized body to the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria for
licensing of activities and coordination of the institutions related to vocational guidance,
training and education..The activities of NAVET are organized in the following main
Participation in the development of policy documents in the field of VET and their
Development and updating of the basic documents for regulation of vocational education and
training system in the country – List of Professions for Vocational Education and Training and
State Vocational Standards for acquiring qualification in professions
Licensing and control of Centers for Vocational Training of adults (employed and
Licensing and control of Centers for Information and Vocational Guidance
Modernising the educational process;
Realising the stage for quality management: planning, implementation, evaluation, review
Since 2012 the ECVET could be implemented step by step for the qualifications at all levels
of the EQF in accordance with the national law and on the basis of testing.
In Bulgaria was made an analysis (2011) of the system for QA in VET in order to study and
analyze it in accordance with the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the
Council/2009/ to establish a European reference framework for quality assurance in VET, to
identify the strengths and gaps in the system of QA in VET.
The development of VET in Bulgaria is important for the creation of skilled workforce and
competitive economy, knowledge - based. The National VET system has 4 levels which are
compatible to the EQF-levels.
National approach to quality in VET should:
- be aimed at ensuring the quality of VET;
- be implemented in stages - preparation, implementation, development;
- decide questions of conceptual and normative;
- specify and personifies the roles of institutions of systemic level;
- provide methodological application cycle for quality of VET in system level and in provider
- adapt the criteria and indicators for quality assurance in VET;
- build tools for internal and external evaluation of the quality of VET;
- develop a glossary of quality assurance in VET;
- include training programs for experts for the implementation of various elements of the
system of quality assurance in VET;
- to stimulate and integrate the efforts of all social partners, including representatives of VET;
- to form a culture of quality assurance in VET.
Building the National approach to quality in VET can be consolidated in a national project
within the Operational Programme "Human Resources Development".
Vocational schools provide initial vocational education and training for acquiring first and
second degree of vocational qualification and qualification in a section of a profession. They
accept students who have completed at least 6th grade.
Vocational high schools provide vocational education with acquiring of second and third
degree of vocational qualification. Vocational high schools may provide also vocational
training with acquiring of first, second and third degree of vocational qualification and
qualification in a section of a profession. They accept students who have completed their
lower secondary education.
Schools of arts provide vocational education with acquiring of third degree of vocational
qualification with up to four years course of study after completed lower secondary
Vocational colleges provide vocational education and training with acquiring fourth degree
of vocational qualification to individuals who have completed their upper secondary
Vocational training centers provide vocational training to individuals who have come 16
years of age.
Information and vocational guidance centers provide vocational guidance of students and
In Bulgaria, continuing vocational training (CVET) is provided by institutions operating within
the system of formal education and training and by institutions providing non-formal training.
Vocational high schools, vocational colleges and vocational training centers are the main
institutions providing CVET.
Universities, special higher institutes and colleges within the system of tertiary education
provide CVET trough special units within their structure.
The social partners, according to the VET Act are involved in the external assessment
process during state examinations for acquiring qualification in a profession. Notwithstanding
the opportunity provided by Act many vocational schools and training centers have difficulties
with including in the commissions representatives of branch employers and trade unions.
The problem consists in lack of preparedness and sometimes of competence for real
participation in the assessment of vocational competences at exit of education and in the
absence of a real mechanism and internal regulatory basis for obligatoriness in ensuring the
participation in commissions.
The system of initial vocational education and training (IVET) is part of the national education
system and offers opportunities for acquiring vocational qualification and for its continuous
State Educational Requirement (SER) for acquiring qualification in the profession is
developed in cooperation with employers for every profession placed on the List of
Professions for Vocational Education and Training. The State Educational Requirement
includes: requirements for the minimum entry qualification and education level; description of
work activities, responsibilities, personal qualities, working conditions specifics, equipment
and tools; opportunities to continue the vocational training; opportunities for vocational
fulfillment according to Bulgarian law; objectives of training; learning outcomes –
competences, knowledge, skills; requirements to the material resources for theoretical and
practical training; requirements to learners. Since 2007, SERs for acquiring qualification in a
profession include as a major structural element a Learning Outcomes section. Learning
outcomes are defined by means of knowledge, skills and personal qualities, which are
acquired in the course of vocational education, vocational training or through professional
experience and can be demonstrated. The development of SER for acquiring qualification in
a profession is organized for every profession by the NAVET and is approved by the Minister
of Education, Youth and Science.
Vocational education for all, regardless of their age, as well as vocational training for
acquiring first degree of vocational education by students in the compulsory school age
group is provided on basis of curricula approved by the Minister of Education, Youth and
Science (MEYS). They cover three types of training – compulsory training which is general
and vocational, compulsory selective training and optional selective training.
General compulsory vocational training includes training in health and safety at work,
economics, entrepreneurship and business communications. It builds key competences for
lifelong learning and focuses mainly on building and developing entrepreneurial skills.
Branch compulsory training is unified for all professions in a professional branch placed on
the LPVET, while taking into account the specifics of every profession. Compulsory branch
training provides broad profile knowledge of professions and creates conditions for flexibility
in mastering professions in the same branch.
The profession-specific vocational training builds the specific competences required for
practicing the particular specialties in a profession.
The curricula and training programs for compulsory vocational training for the attainment of
vocational education by students and individuals aged 16+ are developed by the MEYS and
are approved by the Minister.
The curricula and training programs for the vocational training of individuals aged 16+,
regardless of the institution providing such training, are developed by the institution which
provides the training or by the entity that has ordered the training.
Assessment of outcomes and organization of examinations are specified in accordance with
the State Educational Requirement for the assessment system. For the organization of state
examinations for acquiring a degree of vocational qualification, the Minister of Education
approves national examination programs which regulate the criteria for assessment of
outcomes. The SER for the assessment system introduces a model of external and internal
assessment, and an order of the Minister of Education, Youth and Science introduces, from
June 2009, criteria and indicators for assessment of the outcomes of the vocational
preparation in school-based vocational education and training. The problem concerning the
recognition of competences, acquired outside of the training institutions from the formal
education and training system is still not entirely resolved in Bulgaria.
The same order introduces also a model of self-assessment in vocational high schools and
schools. Analysis of the results in the first year of implementation of the quality assurance
system elements introduced in VET is pending. Vocational training centers build their own
quality systems in accordance with the licensing procedure.
Different adult training opportunities are provided within the active labor market policy:
vocational training of employed and unemployed persons for mastering vocational
knowledge and skills meeting labor market needs; literacy training for unemployed persons
having no education and qualification towards their subsequent inclusion in vocational
training; acquiring practical experience through apprenticeship in enterprises – for
unemployed persons who have acquired vocational qualification in a profession but do not
have service record in it; workplace training in the form of apprenticeship under the guidance
of a tutor; training for acquiring key competences; motivation training for job interview and
presentation skills, drafting a CV and a motivation letter, etc.; vocational guidance of
unemployed and employed persons for choosing appropriate training, appropriate work,
preserving employment, career development.
The scheme “Qualification Services and Trainings for Employed Persons” is implemented in
2009. It is focused on training employed persons for acquiring or enhancing their vocational
qualification or on training for key competences.
Four new training schemes for employed and unemployed persons have been launched:
The “I Can” scheme focuses on training for vocational qualification and/or key competences
for persons employed on employment contracts.
The “Adaptability” scheme targets workers and employees from enterprises which for
economic reasons have shifted to part-time work. For the period of effect of the scheme it is
intended to cover in training not less than 42 000 employed persons who have shifted to
The “Development” scheme targets -persons who are laid off because of restructuring or
closing of the enterprise, reduced volume of work or closing of a section of the production in
consequence of the economic and financial crisis. For the period of effect of the scheme until
2012, it is intended to cover in training more than 40 000 unemployed persons.
The “Back to Work” scheme focuses on training of unemployed persons for child minders
and their subsequent hiring to care for children aged 1 – 3 in families where both parents are
employed on employment contracts. For the period of effect of the scheme until 2012 it is
intended to cover in training and employment not less than 8 000 unemployed persons.
Towards development of vocational education and training (VET), in March 2009, the three
major institutions in the VET sector – the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science, the
Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, the National Agency for VET and the nationally
representative employer organizations entered into a Framework Agreement for cooperation
in VET. The objective is to pool the efforts of the responsible institutions for concerted
actions to modernize vocational education and training. In the period until 2015 employer
representative at all levels on regional and sectoral basis and in accordance with national
economic development priorities and labor force dynamics with a view to provide quality VET
in line with European processes and tends, including vocational and career guidance.
The paths for acquiring vocational education and training include:
• within the basic education, parallel with attaining basic education level;
• within the upper secondary education system, parallel with attaining secondary
• within the tertiary education system
• Acquiring a certificate for vocational qualification, without attainment of a level of
education within the system of formal and non-formal education.
4) Conclusion by Professor Erwin Seyfried.
From the beginning of their cooperation, the partners in the Qualipaths-project have shared
the common concern to assure and to improve the quality of their services. In fact, this has
been the triggering point to submit an application to the European Commission to get
financial support for their ambitions towards quality by means of the Leonardo-da-Vinci
The forthcoming end of the funded Qualipaths-project, celebrated in a European wide
conference in the Normandy region, will not mean the end of cooperation between the
partners, instead it is taken as an occasion to look back and draw some conclusions from the
mutual exchange of experiences and ideas about quality in vocational training and education.
In cooperating two years on quality issues, it has clearly been shown, that although operating
in quite different national contexts, the approach to quality management of the Qualipaths-
partners has nevertheless a number of characteristics in common. To identify those widely
shared challenges in tackling with quality has been a first effort and one of the main results
from European cooperation within the Qualipaths-project, while at the same time it was
particularly interesting to learn about the particular characteristics of each quality approach
and the fine distinctions between them.
As suggested by the EQAVET-recommendation, Qualipaths-partners mostly refer to the
principles of the PDCA-cycle (plan, do, check, act), although with slight individual
modifications and adaptations, but all intending to adapt and improve continuously the quality
of their services. Cooperation in the Qualipaths-procect contributed substantially to raise
awareness on the background and approach of EQAVET, as well as on the quality indicators
and quality criteria proposed by this European quality framework. It should be added, that
awareness-raising on the EQAVET framework was not only achieved amongst Qualipaths-
partners but also amongst several stakeholders operating in the local and regional
environment of the partners.
Qualipaths-partners are rather successful in linking requirements for external accreditation
with internal quality management. Apart from fulfilling the quality standards required by
national, regional or sectoral frameworks, several partners have sought for conferment of
additional quality labels, thus strengthening their specific profile in providing customised
training and education. Whereas compliance with legal requirements guarantees, for
example, appropriate facilities and equipment, as well as working conditions that protect the
safety and health of staff and trainees, the adoption of additional quality standards (some
stemming from industry) seem to impact more strongly on both the reputation of the VET
organization and on its core processes of teaching and learning.
Their positive response to apply external quality standards within their organisations has
triggered and supported additional efforts for continuous improvement of quality, and several
Qualipaths-partners are going beyond the pure fulfilment of external requirements and
towards achieving excellence.
Although slightly different in their main focus, the Qualipaths-partners are sharing three key
quality priorities. (see illustration below). First, they concentrate on achieving good learning
outcomes and positive employment prospects for their trainees, by taking into account the
demand in local and regional labor markets. Strengthening relationships with companies and
having a good reputation in the world of work are of central importance: Promoting quality of
VET means inclusion of work-based learning in training programs and provision of
internships at potential employers
Key Quality Priorities of Qualipaths Partners
The main activites supporting this quality priority are frequent and intense contacts with
employers and communication with representatives of business organisations, adaptation of
professional profiles to the changing needs in the world of work, bridging those with the
individual starting points of the trainees thus offering customised services.
Quality in this respect is more than responding mechanically to the actual needs of
employers in the local environment: Qualipaths partners intend to anticipate new professional
trends in the labour market, adapt the content of their training programs accordingly and
introduce innovation in the curricula. In relation to the world of work, the Qualipaths-partners
are taking an active role by observing the labour market, continuously updating occupational
standards, devising new programs for continuous training, adapting existing professional
profiles of programs to newly emerging trends and developments in technology and
procedures and providing the pertinent skills. Activities for better quality are driven by the
ambition to design innoative and attractive trainings programs and to achieve satisfactory
results for both the trainees and their (potential) employers.
Another key priority of Qualipaths-partners for achieving high quality is on teaching and
learning and on the provision of individualised training including targeted support, personal
advice, individual consulting and work-based learning. It is to meet the individual needs of
the students no matter what their social background and their sometimes difficult individual
starting conditions are. Like many other providers of vocational training and education all
over Europe, Qualipaths-partners are confronted with a growing heterogenity and diversity of
their trainees, asking for detailed customization of all their services. In this respect, ensuring
quality in VET provision and promoting educational success for trainees includes supporting
social integration, preparation for more active participation in society, and creating
individualized pathways opening up access to the world of work.
Quality-related activities in support of this priority are mainly oriented to train and motivate
teachers and trainers and providing esteem for their often tremendous engagement.
Teachers and trainers play a vital role in the production of quality, in particular when it comes
to the customisation of services and elaboration of individual learning plans for the trainees.
Focus on the
world of work
Focus on the needs