ICHST 2009 - Budapest

1,428 views
1,279 views

Published on

Talk on the early histological research at Ghent University, presented during the 23rd International Congres on the History of Science and Technology (Budapest).

Published in: Education, Travel, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,428
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ICHST 2009 - Budapest

  1. 1. The early years of histological research <br />at Ghent University (Belgium)<br />Kristel Wautier<br />Alexander Jonckheere<br />Danny Segers<br />Museum for the History of Sciences – Ghent University<br />http://www.ScienceMuseum.UGent.be<br />
  2. 2. An overview of it’s history<br />Histology<br />Histology, the study of the microscopic structure of tissues, has its remote roots in the seventeenth century, germinated sporadically in the eighteenth, grew apace in the middle of the nineteenth, to flower and fruit mightily at the end of this last century.<br />Brain Bracegirdle<br />The history of histology: a brief survey of sources<br />Hist. Sci., xv (1977): 77-101<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Part I<br />A very brief history of histology<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Histology<br />Aspects that shaped it’s history<br />… it is impossible to appreciate the significance of such results (red.: results of investigations into the microscopic structure of animal tissues) in the absence of three other areas of knowledge.<br />Brain Bracegirdle<br />The history of histology: a brief survey of sources<br />Hist. Sci., xv (1977): 77-101<br /><ul><li> history of the microscope
  5. 5. history of specimen preparation, including the history of the microtome
  6. 6. general history of disciplines using histological research, such as medicine, biological sciences, veterinary sciences, … including the history of education in these disciplines</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />4<br />
  7. 7. History of the Microscope<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />5<br />
  8. 8. Van Leeuwenhoek<br />A brief history of the microscope<br />Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek<br /><ul><li> first ‘microscope’ suitable for scientific purposes
  9. 9. kick started the field of microscopic observation
  10. 10. different tools for microscopy
  11. 11. capillaries for the microscopic study of fluids
  12. 12. first histological stain
  13. 13. alcoholic saffron stain: dried muscle tissue was sectioned, and stained with a solution of saffron in brandy</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />6<br />
  14. 14. Mechanical improvements<br />A brief history of the microscope<br />John Marshall<br />(ca. 1663-1725)<br /><ul><li> field lens
  15. 15. 2-step focussing
  16. 16. tilting</li></ul>Edmund Culpeper<br />(ca. 1660-1738)<br /><ul><li> 2 tripods above each other
  17. 17. object stage
  18. 18. mirror</li></ul>John Cuff<br />(ca. 1708-1772)<br /><ul><li> 1 stand carrying both tube and stage</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />7<br />
  19. 19. Optics<br />A brief history of the microscope<br />Achromatic lenses:<br /><ul><li> ca. 1757 – John Dollond, first achromatic tele- scope lenses
  20. 20. history and production of achromatic micro- scope lenses is much more complicated</li></ul>Production of lenses:<br /><ul><li> trial and error
  21. 21. 1870 – Ernst Abbe develops a theory for the production of lenses based on scientific principles
  22. 22. industrial production of microscopes</li></ul>Selligue, ca. 1825<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />8<br />
  23. 23. The comfortable microscope<br />A brief history of the microscope<br />1885<br />ca. 1835<br />Early 20thcentury<br />Georges Oberhaeuser<br /><ul><li> drum shaped base
  24. 24. mirror not accessible
  25. 25. no oblique illumination</li></ul>Carl Zeiss<br /><ul><li> horseshoe shaped base</li></ul>Nachet – Nouveau modèle 7<br /><ul><li> solid mechanics
  26. 26. good optics
  27. 27. comfortable</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />9<br />
  28. 28. History of the Microtome<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />10<br />
  29. 29. Prerequisites for high-quality sections<br />A brief history of the microtome<br />Specimen preparation<br />Tissue sectioning<br />Tissue preparation<br />fixation<br />technical progress of the microtome<br />clearing<br />decalcification<br />prerequisites: <br /><ul><li> sections have to be…
  30. 30. as flat as possible
  31. 31. of equal thickness throughout
  32. 32. subsequent sections have to be of equal thickness
  33. 33. it must be possible to determine section thickness beforehand</li></ul>embedding<br />staining<br /> no earlier than 1870<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />11<br />
  34. 34. Hand-made sections<br />A brief history of the microtome<br />Making sections with handheld knifes<br />Ranvier microtome<br />Signed ‘Hs. Süchs, Marburg’<br />Serial Number 134<br />Bi-concave microtome knife<br />According to Gudden<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />12<br />
  35. 35. The breakthrough<br />A brief history of the microtome<br />G. Capanema – 1848:<br /><ul><li> copper, elongated profile
  36. 36. slanted slope (positioning of tissue block)
  37. 37. horizontal plane with knife</li></ul>Leyser – 1870:<br />produces a Capanema-like<br />microtome<br />Leyser microtome<br />Signed: ‘Leyser, Leipzig’<br />Serial Number 33<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />13<br />
  38. 38. The big 4<br />A brief history of the microtome<br />Minot type<br />Late 19th century<br />Sliding microtome<br />Rotation microtome<br />Model ‘Thoma’<br />Signed: ‘C. Reicert, Wien’<br />Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company<br />1889<br />Rocking microtome<br />Becker microtome<br />Cryotome<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />14<br />
  39. 39. Part II<br />How does <br />Ghent University <br />fit the picture?<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />15<br />
  40. 40. Belgium and Ghent<br />Facts and Figures<br />Ghent:<br /><ul><li> capital of the province East Flanders
  41. 41. ca. 60 km southwest of Antwerp
  42. 42. ca. 60 km northwest of Brussels
  43. 43. 237250 inhabitants (01/01/2008)
  44. 44. second largest municipality of Belgium</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />16<br />
  45. 45. Ghent University<br />Facts and Figures<br />Ghent University:<br /><ul><li> pluralistic
  46. 46. 11 faculties:
  47. 47. Arts and Philosophy
  48. 48. Law
  49. 49. Sciences
  50. 50. Medicine and Health Sciences
  51. 51. Engineering
  52. 52. Economics and Business Administration
  53. 53. Veterinary Medicine
  54. 54. Psychology and Educational Sciences
  55. 55. Bioscience Engineering
  56. 56. Pharmaceutical Sciences
  57. 57. Political and Social Sciences
  58. 58. over 30.000 students
  59. 59. staff of 6800 persons</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />17<br />
  60. 60. The origin of Ghent University<br />1817<br />Founded in 1817 by King William I<br />Inauguration October 9th, 1817<br />Courses started on November 3rd, 1817 <br />4 Faculties:<br /><ul><li> Medicine
  61. 61. Sciences
  62. 62. Law
  63. 63. Arts & Philosophy</li></ul>Staff:<br /><ul><li> Rector: J.C. Van Rotterdam
  64. 64. 16 professors
  65. 65. 13 members of administrative staff</li></ul>190 students<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />18<br />
  66. 66. 1817 - 1830<br />Histology during the early days of Ghent University<br />During the early days of Ghent University there was no delineated course in histology<br /><ul><li> medical sciences: part of courses in pathology, anatomy, physiology?
  67. 67. biological sciences: all biological courses were taught by one professor, including zoology, mineralogy, comparative anatomy, botany and plant physiology
  68. 68. veterinary sciences: no such faculty existed</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />19<br />
  69. 69. 1830 - 1835<br />Belgian independence: repercussions for Ghent University<br />Profound reorganization of higher education<br />Ghent University is deprived of its Science faculty and its Arts & Philosophy faculty<br />A free Science faculty is founded and maintained by a number of professors<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />20<br />
  70. 70. 1835 - 1900<br />Ghent University back in the game...<br />Sep. 1835: new reorganization of higher education<br />Ghent University starts anew with the 4 traditional faculties<br /><ul><li> general trend: histology is still part of</li></ul> other courses<br /><ul><li> histology is often merely a minor</li></ul> part of the curriculum<br /><ul><li> reflected by the nature of scientific research
  71. 71. some examples</li></ul>ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />21<br />
  72. 72. Some examples: botany<br />1835 - 1900<br />Section through the stem of a fern<br />Section through an onion peal<br />Research:<br /> initially conducts histological and embryological research<br />turns to botany and develops the field of biostatistics<br />Julius MacLeod<br />‘Cours pratique de Botanique’<br />Academic year 1894-1895<br />Section through the pistil of a<br />caryophyllaceous plant <br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />22<br />
  73. 73. Some examples: zoology<br />1835 - 1900<br />Felix Plateau<br />‘Cours de Zoologie’<br />Academic year 1889-1890<br />Research:<br />Arthropod physiology<br />Experiment and dissection based<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />23<br />
  74. 74. 1871<br />The turning point<br />Sep. 30th, 1871<br /><ul><li> Charles Van Bambeke becomes professor at Ghent University
  75. 75. responsible for the course in human anatomy</li></ul>In those days, the course in human anatomy already included a chapter on microscopic anatomy or histology<br />This will become increasingly more important in Van Bambeke’s teachings<br />Van Bambeke also started a practical course in microscopic anatomy<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />24<br />
  76. 76. 1898<br />Coursd’HistologieSpéciale<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />25<br />
  77. 77. Van Bambeke’s scientific research<br />1859 - 1914<br />Van Bambeke’s interest for histology, reflected by his teachings, is also mirrored by his scientific research<br />Two main topics:<br />The early development of vertebrates<br />The anatomy and histology of fungi<br />1868 <br />Recherchessur le développement du Pélobatebrun<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />26<br />
  78. 78. Van Bambeke’s instruments<br />1867 vs. 1880<br />‘La méthode à laquelle j’ai eu recours est à peu près celle que les botanistes emploient pour l’examen du pollen; l’oeuf durci est débarrassé de sa couche gélatineuse que l’entoure (…) est placé, au moyen d’un pinceau, dans une petite excavation pratiquée sur un fragment de moelle de sureau; on s’assure alors s’il se trouve dans une position convenable pour la coupe qu’on se propose de faire; une goute de stéarine fondue provenant d’une bougie allumée le fixe en suite dans la petite excavation susdite: après cela, il ne reste plus qu’à faire les coupes au moyen du rasoir; la tranche ou les tranches obtenues sont placées dans un verre de montre renfermant de l’essence de térébenthine et débarrassées ainsi de la stéarine qui les entoure; enfin elles sont portées au moyen du pincet sur le verre porte-objet et préparées d’après les règles ordinaires.’<br />Gliding microtome, type Rivet-Leyser<br />Signed: ‘C.Reichert, T. Wien’<br /> Serial nr.: 12428<br />Dated ca. 1880<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />27<br />
  79. 79. Van Bambeke’s other legacy: fungi<br />1888– 1912<br />The anatomy and<br />histology of fungi<br />24 publications<br />several new species<br />ca. 950 slides<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />28<br />
  80. 80. In Van Bambeke’s footsteps<br />Camille De Bruyne<br /><ul><li> doctor in natural sciences
  81. 81. started his career as histologist
  82. 82. turned to biogeography</li></ul>Groundbreaking work on phagocytosis<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />29<br />
  83. 83. Van Bambeke’s true successor<br />OmerVanderStricht<br /><ul><li> doctor in medicine
  84. 84. 1884 – deputy assistant histology course
  85. 85. 1889 – wins a travel grant
  86. 86. 1899 – succeeds Van Bambeke
  87. 87. WWI – travels to the USA
  88. 88. 1915-17: Fellow in Biology – Western Reserve University, Cleveland (Ohio)
  89. 89. 1917-18: Lecturer in Biology – John Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore</li></ul>Groundbreaking work on:<br />the development of blood<br />the structure of the inner ear<br />ovogenesis and the development of the mammalian egg<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />30<br />
  90. 90. Vander Stricht’s heritage<br /> 100-1000s of histological slides<br /> embedded tissue blocks<br /> animal (human) tissue<br /> autopsy<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />31<br />
  91. 91. Early histological research at Ghent University<br />Conclusions<br />The history of histology is clearly affected by the history of the microscope and the microtome<br />The history of these instruments shows that the prerequisites for histological research were met no earlier than the end of the 19th century<br />This is also reflected by the history of histological research and teachings at Ghent University<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />32<br />
  92. 92. The Museum for the History of Sciences<br />ScienceMuseum@UGent.be<br />http://www.ScienceMuseum.Ugent.be<br />http://sciencemuseum.ning.com<br />ICHST Budapest 2009<br />Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences<br />33<br />

×