• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
ICHST 2009 - Budapest
 

ICHST 2009 - Budapest

on

  • 1,509 views

Talk on the early histological research at Ghent University, presented during the 23rd International Congres on the History of Science and Technology (Budapest).

Talk on the early histological research at Ghent University, presented during the 23rd International Congres on the History of Science and Technology (Budapest).

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,509
Views on SlideShare
1,505
Embed Views
4

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

3 Embeds 4

http://www.slideshare.net 2
http://www.docshut.com 1
https://www.linkedin.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    ICHST 2009 - Budapest ICHST 2009 - Budapest Presentation Transcript

    • The early years of histological research
      at Ghent University (Belgium)
      Kristel Wautier
      Alexander Jonckheere
      Danny Segers
      Museum for the History of Sciences – Ghent University
      http://www.ScienceMuseum.UGent.be
    • An overview of it’s history
      Histology
      Histology, the study of the microscopic structure of tissues, has its remote roots in the seventeenth century, germinated sporadically in the eighteenth, grew apace in the middle of the nineteenth, to flower and fruit mightily at the end of this last century.
      Brain Bracegirdle
      The history of histology: a brief survey of sources
      Hist. Sci., xv (1977): 77-101
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      2
    • Part I
      A very brief history of histology
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      3
    • Histology
      Aspects that shaped it’s history
      … it is impossible to appreciate the significance of such results (red.: results of investigations into the microscopic structure of animal tissues) in the absence of three other areas of knowledge.
      Brain Bracegirdle
      The history of histology: a brief survey of sources
      Hist. Sci., xv (1977): 77-101
      • history of the microscope
      • history of specimen preparation, including the history of the microtome
      • general history of disciplines using histological research, such as medicine, biological sciences, veterinary sciences, … including the history of education in these disciplines
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      4
    • History of the Microscope
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      5
    • Van Leeuwenhoek
      A brief history of the microscope
      Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
      • first ‘microscope’ suitable for scientific purposes
      • kick started the field of microscopic observation
      • different tools for microscopy
      • capillaries for the microscopic study of fluids
      • first histological stain
      • alcoholic saffron stain: dried muscle tissue was sectioned, and stained with a solution of saffron in brandy
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      6
    • Mechanical improvements
      A brief history of the microscope
      John Marshall
      (ca. 1663-1725)
      • field lens
      • 2-step focussing
      • tilting
      Edmund Culpeper
      (ca. 1660-1738)
      • 2 tripods above each other
      • object stage
      • mirror
      John Cuff
      (ca. 1708-1772)
      • 1 stand carrying both tube and stage
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      7
    • Optics
      A brief history of the microscope
      Achromatic lenses:
      • ca. 1757 – John Dollond, first achromatic tele- scope lenses
      • history and production of achromatic micro- scope lenses is much more complicated
      Production of lenses:
      • trial and error
      • 1870 – Ernst Abbe develops a theory for the production of lenses based on scientific principles
      • industrial production of microscopes
      Selligue, ca. 1825
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      8
    • The comfortable microscope
      A brief history of the microscope
      1885
      ca. 1835
      Early 20thcentury
      Georges Oberhaeuser
      • drum shaped base
      • mirror not accessible
      • no oblique illumination
      Carl Zeiss
      • horseshoe shaped base
      Nachet – Nouveau modèle 7
      • solid mechanics
      • good optics
      • comfortable
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      9
    • History of the Microtome
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      10
    • Prerequisites for high-quality sections
      A brief history of the microtome
      Specimen preparation
      Tissue sectioning
      Tissue preparation
      fixation
      technical progress of the microtome
      clearing
      decalcification
      prerequisites:
      • sections have to be…
      • as flat as possible
      • of equal thickness throughout
      • subsequent sections have to be of equal thickness
      • it must be possible to determine section thickness beforehand
      embedding
      staining
       no earlier than 1870
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      11
    • Hand-made sections
      A brief history of the microtome
      Making sections with handheld knifes
      Ranvier microtome
      Signed ‘Hs. Süchs, Marburg’
      Serial Number 134
      Bi-concave microtome knife
      According to Gudden
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      12
    • The breakthrough
      A brief history of the microtome
      G. Capanema – 1848:
      • copper, elongated profile
      • slanted slope (positioning of tissue block)
      • horizontal plane with knife
      Leyser – 1870:
      produces a Capanema-like
      microtome
      Leyser microtome
      Signed: ‘Leyser, Leipzig’
      Serial Number 33
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      13
    • The big 4
      A brief history of the microtome
      Minot type
      Late 19th century
      Sliding microtome
      Rotation microtome
      Model ‘Thoma’
      Signed: ‘C. Reicert, Wien’
      Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company
      1889
      Rocking microtome
      Becker microtome
      Cryotome
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      14
    • Part II
      How does
      Ghent University
      fit the picture?
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      15
    • Belgium and Ghent
      Facts and Figures
      Ghent:
      • capital of the province East Flanders
      • ca. 60 km southwest of Antwerp
      • ca. 60 km northwest of Brussels
      • 237250 inhabitants (01/01/2008)
      • second largest municipality of Belgium
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      16
    • Ghent University
      Facts and Figures
      Ghent University:
      • pluralistic
      • 11 faculties:
      • Arts and Philosophy
      • Law
      • Sciences
      • Medicine and Health Sciences
      • Engineering
      • Economics and Business Administration
      • Veterinary Medicine
      • Psychology and Educational Sciences
      • Bioscience Engineering
      • Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • Political and Social Sciences
      • over 30.000 students
      • staff of 6800 persons
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      17
    • The origin of Ghent University
      1817
      Founded in 1817 by King William I
      Inauguration October 9th, 1817
      Courses started on November 3rd, 1817
      4 Faculties:
      • Medicine
      • Sciences
      • Law
      • Arts & Philosophy
      Staff:
      • Rector: J.C. Van Rotterdam
      • 16 professors
      • 13 members of administrative staff
      190 students
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      18
    • 1817 - 1830
      Histology during the early days of Ghent University
      During the early days of Ghent University there was no delineated course in histology
      • medical sciences: part of courses in pathology, anatomy, physiology?
      • biological sciences: all biological courses were taught by one professor, including zoology, mineralogy, comparative anatomy, botany and plant physiology
      • veterinary sciences: no such faculty existed
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      19
    • 1830 - 1835
      Belgian independence: repercussions for Ghent University
      Profound reorganization of higher education
      Ghent University is deprived of its Science faculty and its Arts & Philosophy faculty
      A free Science faculty is founded and maintained by a number of professors
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      20
    • 1835 - 1900
      Ghent University back in the game...
      Sep. 1835: new reorganization of higher education
      Ghent University starts anew with the 4 traditional faculties
      • general trend: histology is still part of
      other courses
      • histology is often merely a minor
      part of the curriculum
      • reflected by the nature of scientific research
      • some examples
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      21
    • Some examples: botany
      1835 - 1900
      Section through the stem of a fern
      Section through an onion peal
      Research:
      initially conducts histological and embryological research
      turns to botany and develops the field of biostatistics
      Julius MacLeod
      ‘Cours pratique de Botanique’
      Academic year 1894-1895
      Section through the pistil of a
      caryophyllaceous plant
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      22
    • Some examples: zoology
      1835 - 1900
      Felix Plateau
      ‘Cours de Zoologie’
      Academic year 1889-1890
      Research:
      Arthropod physiology
      Experiment and dissection based
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      23
    • 1871
      The turning point
      Sep. 30th, 1871
      • Charles Van Bambeke becomes professor at Ghent University
      • responsible for the course in human anatomy
      In those days, the course in human anatomy already included a chapter on microscopic anatomy or histology
      This will become increasingly more important in Van Bambeke’s teachings
      Van Bambeke also started a practical course in microscopic anatomy
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      24
    • 1898
      Coursd’HistologieSpéciale
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      25
    • Van Bambeke’s scientific research
      1859 - 1914
      Van Bambeke’s interest for histology, reflected by his teachings, is also mirrored by his scientific research
      Two main topics:
      The early development of vertebrates
      The anatomy and histology of fungi
      1868
      Recherchessur le développement du Pélobatebrun
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      26
    • Van Bambeke’s instruments
      1867 vs. 1880
      ‘La méthode à laquelle j’ai eu recours est à peu près celle que les botanistes emploient pour l’examen du pollen; l’oeuf durci est débarrassé de sa couche gélatineuse que l’entoure (…) est placé, au moyen d’un pinceau, dans une petite excavation pratiquée sur un fragment de moelle de sureau; on s’assure alors s’il se trouve dans une position convenable pour la coupe qu’on se propose de faire; une goute de stéarine fondue provenant d’une bougie allumée le fixe en suite dans la petite excavation susdite: après cela, il ne reste plus qu’à faire les coupes au moyen du rasoir; la tranche ou les tranches obtenues sont placées dans un verre de montre renfermant de l’essence de térébenthine et débarrassées ainsi de la stéarine qui les entoure; enfin elles sont portées au moyen du pincet sur le verre porte-objet et préparées d’après les règles ordinaires.’
      Gliding microtome, type Rivet-Leyser
      Signed: ‘C.Reichert, T. Wien’
      Serial nr.: 12428
      Dated ca. 1880
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      27
    • Van Bambeke’s other legacy: fungi
      1888– 1912
      The anatomy and
      histology of fungi
      24 publications
      several new species
      ca. 950 slides
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      28
    • In Van Bambeke’s footsteps
      Camille De Bruyne
      • doctor in natural sciences
      • started his career as histologist
      • turned to biogeography
      Groundbreaking work on phagocytosis
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      29
    • Van Bambeke’s true successor
      OmerVanderStricht
      • doctor in medicine
      • 1884 – deputy assistant histology course
      • 1889 – wins a travel grant
      • 1899 – succeeds Van Bambeke
      • WWI – travels to the USA
      • 1915-17: Fellow in Biology – Western Reserve University, Cleveland (Ohio)
      • 1917-18: Lecturer in Biology – John Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore
      Groundbreaking work on:
      the development of blood
      the structure of the inner ear
      ovogenesis and the development of the mammalian egg
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      30
    • Vander Stricht’s heritage
      100-1000s of histological slides
      embedded tissue blocks
      animal (human) tissue
      autopsy
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      31
    • Early histological research at Ghent University
      Conclusions
      The history of histology is clearly affected by the history of the microscope and the microtome
      The history of these instruments shows that the prerequisites for histological research were met no earlier than the end of the 19th century
      This is also reflected by the history of histological research and teachings at Ghent University
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      32
    • The Museum for the History of Sciences
      ScienceMuseum@UGent.be
      http://www.ScienceMuseum.Ugent.be
      http://sciencemuseum.ning.com
      ICHST Budapest 2009
      Kristel Wautier – Museum for the History of Sciences
      33