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Plastics and environment_by_ecozuri.com

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  • 1. Plastics & Environmental Impacts Ecozuri Inc. promotes reusable shopping bags made from 100% recycled plastics. To learn more about our products and offerings, please visit www.ecozuri.com www.ecozuri.com
  • 2. Part One: Plastics 101 Ecozuri Inc. promotes reusable shopping bags made from 100% recycled plastics. To learn more about our products and offerings, please visit www.ecozuri.com www.ecozuri.com
  • 3. ----- PLASTIC 101------ Definition: Any of various complex organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded, extruded, cast into various shapes and films, or drawn into filaments, and then used as textile fibers. History: Alexander Parkes unveiled the first man-made plastic at the 1862 Great International Exhibition in London. This material -- which was dubbed Parkesine, now called celluloid -- was an organic material derived from cellulose that, once heated, could be molded but retained its shape when cooled. In 1907, chemist Leo Hendrik Baekland, while striving to produce a synthetic varnish, stumbled upon the formula for a new synthetic polymer originating from coal tar. He subsequently named the new substance "Bakelite." Bakelite, once formed, could not be melted. Because of its properties as an electrical insulator, Bakelite was used in the production of high-tech objects including cameras and telephones. It was also used in the production of ashtrays, and as a substitute for jade, marble, and amber. By 1909, Baekland had coined "plastics" as the term to describe this completely new category of materials. The first patent for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a substance now used widely in vinyl siding and water pipes, was registered in 1914. Cellophane was also discovered during this period. Plastics did not really take off until after the First World War with the use of petroleum, a substance easier to process than coal into raw materials. Plastics served as substitutes for wood, glass, and metal during the hardship times of World War's I & II. After World War II, newer plastics, such as polyurethane, polyester, silicones, polypropylene, and polycarbonate joined polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene and PVC in widespread applications. Many more would follow and, by the 1960s, plastics were within everyone's reach due to their inexpensive cost. Plastics had thus come to be considered “common,” a symbol of our consumer society. Since the 1970s, we have witnessed the advent of 'high-tech' plastics used in demanding fields such as health and technology. New types and forms of plastics, with new or improved performance characteristics, continue to be developed. Source: American Chemical Council, Literature research www.ecozuri.com
  • 4. ----- PLASTIC 101------ Types: Characteristics Plastics are divided into three distinct groups: thermoplastics , thermosets and bio-plastics. • Can be very resistant to Thermoplastics soften when heated and harden on cooling. More than 80 percent of chemicals plastics are thermoplastics, examples of which include: • Can be both thermal • High density polyethylene (HDPE) - used for bottles for detergents, food products and and electrical toys insulators • Low density polyethylene (LDPE) - for products such as (bin liners, and flexible • Are generally very light containers in weight with varying • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) - used in bottles, carpets & food packaging degrees of strength • Polypropylene (PP) - used in yogurt and margarine pots, automotive parts, fibers, and • Can be processed in milk crates various ways to • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - is made from oil and salt and is used for window frames, produce thin fibers or flooring, wallpaper, bottles, and medical products very intricate parts • Are materials with a Thermosets are hardened by a curing process and cannot be re-melted or re-molded. seemingly limitless Examples of thermosets include: range of characteristics • Polyurethane (PU) - used in coatings, finishes, mattresses, vehicle seating, and building • Are usually made from insulation petroleum, but not • Epoxy - adhesives, boats, sporting equipment, electrical and automotive components always • Phenolics - used in ovens and circuit boards • Unsaturated polyesters – used for windmills, car body parts, and boats Bio-plastics, which are bio-degradable, are developed from plant materials and bacteria. There are three techniques used to produce bio-plastics: • Converting plant sugars into plastic • Producing plastics inside micro-organisms • Growing plastics in corn and other crops Source: American Chemical Council, Literature research www.ecozuri.com
  • 5. ----- PLASTIC INDUSTRY OVERVIEW---- Plastics Plastics materials Downstream using industries materials and resins Plastic and product NAICS products wholesaling End users, including consumers, NAICS Upstream goods and services 325211 Gov’t docu- 424610 business and government mented plastics Plastics products machinery NAICS NAICS 3261& 3332201 325991 agencies Captive Molds for plastic plastics products NAICS 33351105 U.S. Plastics industry: Plastic manufacturing industry plus $374B shipment in captive plastics products 2007 Plastics industry Full impact of plastics Source: SPI www.ecozuri.com
  • 6. ----- PLASTIC USAGE ---- Total sales & captive use of selected thermoplastic resins* by major market, 2003-2007 (millions of pounds, dry weight basis) CAGR (2003-2007) 80,270 86,101 83,231 83,970 82,354 0.5% 6.5% -0.3% -0.4% 1.9% * Include LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, PP, Nylon, PVC, PS, Engineering Resins, ABS, SAN, Other Styrene Butadiene Latexes, Styrene Butadiene Latexes Source: American Chemical Council www.ecozuri.com
  • 7. ----- PLASTIC INDUSTRY OVERVIEW---- Plastics Plastics materials Downstream using industries materials and resins Plastic and product NAICS products wholesaling End users, including consumers, NAICS Upstream goods and services 325211 Gov’t docu- 424610 business and government mented plastics Plastics products machinery NAICS NAICS 3261& 3332201 325991 agencies Captive Molds for plastic plastics products NAICS 33351105 U.S. Plastics industry: Plastic manufacturing industry plus $374B shipment in captive plastics products 2007 Plastics industry Full impact of plastics Source: SPI www.ecozuri.com
  • 8. ----- PLASTIC LIFE CYCLE----- (Part 1: Resin production, product manufacturing stage) Environmental concerns Biogeochemically Manufacturing Cracking manipulated Extrusion Petroleum Example products: Plastic films and bags Natural gas Monomers Polymers Coal Injection molding Example products: Yogurt Additives containers, closures Energy issues Pollution and toxic Plastics consume 4% materials molding of the world’s oil Industrial practices in Example products: Soft drink Blow stock as feedstock. plastic manufacture can bottles Although, in many lead to polluting cases, the use of effluents. The exposure plastics actually saves to toxic intermediates more oil than used can be hazardous. Rotational alternatives, Significant process molding Example products: Toys or opportunities for improvements are energy preservation employed to avoid the kayaks do exit. above. www.ecozuri.com
  • 9. ----- PLASTIC LIFE CYCLE----- (Part 2: Waste, landfill , incineration and recycle stage) Environmental concerns Discarding Processing Mechanical recycling Recycled plastic (collection, sorting, flakes for new end Consumer Recycling reclamation) product plastic waste Feedstock recycling Monomers for new (heating, polymers gasification, chemical) Plastic waste in Capacity issues Land filling Majority of the plastic waste ends up landfill Industrial in landfill, where they take more than plastic 1,000 years to decompose. waste Not recycling Oceans and wild life Over a billion seabirds and mammals die annually from ingestion of plastics Toxic emission Reduced volume Incineration Burning plastic releases dioxin, a waste in landfill cancer-causing chemical www.ecozuri.com
  • 10. ----- PLASTIC POLLUTION---- HAWAII Canada Canada England UK England, England Sweden Sweden United States Japan Japan Hawaii China Philippines Litter left by tourists Venezuela Antarctica Tanzania bag Floating plastic Philippines New Zealand Beach cleanup Venezuela Antarctica New Zealand Tanzania www.ecozuri.com
  • 11. ----- PLASTIC POLLUTION – WIDELIFE ---- www.ecozuri.com
  • 12. ----- PLASTIC POLLUTION – CITY ---- www.ecozuri.com
  • 13. ----- PLASTIC POLLUTION – OCEAN ---- www.ecozuri.com
  • 14. ----- PLASTIC USAGE ---- Total sales & captive use of selected thermoplastic resins* by major market, 2003-2007 (millions of pounds, dry weight basis) CAGR (2003-2007) 80,270 86,101 83,231 83,970 82,354 0.5% 6.5% -0.3% -0.4% 1.9% * Include LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, PP, Nylon, PVC, PS, Engineering Resins, ABS, SAN, Other Styrene Butadiene Latexes, Styrene Butadiene Latexes Source: American Chemical Council www.ecozuri.com
  • 15. ----- PLASTIC SALES VOLUME BY TYPE ---- Total sales & captive use of selected thermoplastic resins* by resin type, 2006-2007 (millions of pounds, dry weight basis) 92,347 94,350 CAGR (2003-2007) 4.0% 4.6% -1.8% 2.5% 2.2% (1) Except Phenolic resins, (2) Sales & Captive Use Data Include Imports, (3) Canadian production and sales data included, (4) Canadian and Mexican production and sales data included, (5) Includes: engineering resins, polyurethanes (TDI, MDI and polyols), unsaturated (thermoset) polyester, and other resins. Source: American Chemical Council www.ecozuri.com
  • 16. Part Two: Plastic Bags Ecozuri Inc. promotes reusable shopping bags made from 100% recycled plastics. To learn more about our products and offerings, please visit www.ecozuri.com www.ecozuri.com
  • 17. ----- PLASTIC BAG 101 --- Definition: Bags that are made out of "film", or thin flexible sheets of plastic. Plastic film is typically defined as any plastic less than 10 mm thick. The majority of plastic films are made from polyethylene resin and are readily recyclable if the material is clean, dry, and not pigmented black. History: 1957 The first baggies and sandwich bags on rolls are introduced. 1958 Poly dry cleaning bags compete with traditional brown paper. 1966 Between 25 and 30 percent of packaging for bread is plastic. 1966 Plastic produce bags on rolls are introduced in grocery stores. 1969 The New York City Sanitation Department's "New York City Experiment" demonstrates that using plastic bags for refuse curbside pickup is cleaner, safer, and quieter than metal trash can pick-up. This began a shift to plastic can liners among consumers. 1974/75 Retailing giants such as Sears, J.C. Penney, Montgomery Ward, Jordan Marsh, Allied, Federated, and Hills make the switch to plastic merchandise bags. 1973 The first commercial system for manufacturing plastic grocery bags becomes operational 1977 The plastic grocery bag is introduced to the supermarket industry as an alternative to paper sacks. 1982 Kroger and Safeway start to replace traditional craft sacks with polyethylene "t-shirt" bags. 1990 The first blue bag recycling program begins with curbside collection. 1990 Consumer plastic bag recycling begins through a supermarket collection-site network. 1992 Nearly half of U.S. supermarkets have recycling available for plastic bags. 1994 Denmark creates first plastic bag tax. 1996 Over 80% grocery bags used are plastic. 2002 Ireland introduces the worlds first consumer paid plastic bag tax. www.ecozuri.com
  • 18. ----- PLASTIC BAG 101------ Types: Resin type Characteristics Usages Examples Bags (e.g., thicker newspaper bags, bread Films with high clarity, LDPE - Low Density bags) moderate stretch & Polyethylene Bubble wrap (may also strength characteristics contain nylon Bags (e.g. clear, thin newspaper bags) films have moderate clarity, LLDPE - Linear Low Dry cleaning film slightly tacky feel to the Density Polyethylene touch Consumer paper packaging (i.e. toilet paper, paper films have moderate clarity, MDPE - Medium towel) poor stretch and strength Density Polyethylene characteristics films have some opacity, Most grocery bags HDPE - High Density crinkle to the touch, low T-shirt bags Polyethylene stretch, can tear easily, high Bags with sealed air for strength packaging (e.g., air cushion) www.ecozuri.com
  • 19. ----- THE ALTERNATIVES FOR PLASTIC BAGS---- Paper bags Biodegradable bags Reusable bags • Degradable in well-run • Light and convenient like • Reduce energy usage, landfill, landfill plastic bags and pollution due to its • Hold more stuff • Biodegradable in certain reusable nature • Higher percentage of conditions Pros recycling (10% -15% versus 1%-3% for plastics) • Consume forests • Highly confusing definition of • If the bags are not reused a • Take 4 times as much energy bio-plastics. Many bio-based sufficient number of times, as needed to produce products are not necessarily more energies are wasted as • Generate 70% more air biodegradable most reusable bags are made pollution and 50 times more • Many biodegradable bags from materials that require Cons water pollution in production require special processing and more energy to produce • Take 90% more energy to facilities. There are limited • Difficult to remember as it recycle when recycling rate is collection and processing requires living habit changes low platforms • Inconvenient since most • 7 times heavier than plastic • When mingled with traditional products are bulky to carry to transport plastics, this causes • Take up more space in landfill contamination and make the product unrecyclable NOT THE RIGHT ANSWER NOT AS GOOD AN ANSWER AS THE RIGHT ANSWER – BUT IT SOUNDS NEED INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS Source: Literature research www.ecozuri.com
  • 20. ----- THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PLASTIC BAGS ---- Energy The energy used to make one high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic bag is 0.48 megajoules (MJ). consumptions To give this figure perspective, a car driving one kilometre is the equivalent of manufacturing 8.7 plastic bags (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Production and distribution Health Toxic emissions are produced during the extraction of materials for the production of plastic grocery impacts bags. The manufacturing and transportation of such materials contribute to acid rain, smog, and numerous other harmful effects. Air and Water Without enhanced processes, the manufacturing of two plastic bags produces 1.1 kg of atmospheric Pollution pollution, which contributes to acid rain and smog, and 0.1 g of waterborne waste, which has the capability of disrupting associated ecosystems, such as waterways and the life that they support. Following manufacturing, the plastic grocery bags are subsequently shipped all over the world. Container ships used to transport these bags to each consumer country use fuels which produce high levels of pollutants, such as sulfur. Land Pollution Lightweight plastic grocery bags are additionally harmful due to their propensity to be carried away on a breeze and become attached to tree branches, fill roadside ditches, or end up in public waterways, rivers, or oceans. In one instance, Cape Town, South Africa, had more than 3000 plastic grocery bags that covered each kilometer of road. Impact on Most distressing, over a billion seabirds and mammals die annually from ingestion of plastics (Baker, wildlife 2002). In Newfoundland, 100,000 marine mammals are killed each year by ingesting plastic (Brown, 2003). However, the impact of plastic bags does not end with the death of one animal. When a bird Disposal or mammal dies in such a manner and subsequently decomposes, the plastic bag will again be released into the environment to be ingested by another animal. Marine The North Pacific Tropical Gyre, also known as the Garbage Patch, is seven million tons of floating Pollution plastic waste spanning an area twice the size of Texas. There is six times as much plastic in the gyre than there is plankton. Plankton is the area’s most abundant food source. Animals mistake this waste for food, dying either from plastic poisoning or blockage of their digestive system. This plastic absorbs, transports, and releases hydrophobic pollutants (PCB,DDE,DDT) not only harming the oceans food chain, but us as well. www.ecozuri.com Source: Literature research
  • 21. ----- PLASTIC SHOPPING BAG LIFE CYCLE----- Only 2% recycled, still Production Distribution Destination Disposal a very expensive process of natural gas or oil Use large amount 500-1,000 bags to produce and Supermarket Home recycled Recycling used per household per transport year Up to 3-4 trillion a year worldwide, 100 billion in US alone Average usage time: 12 minutes 96% goes to Landfill Other foods or Take >1,000 yrs to liquid breakdown Home Home garbage Natural gas or oil extraction Ethylene Polymerization Ethylene manufacturing Bag production General Landfill merchandise and Reuse disposal/waste apparels treatment Maximally 1-2 times Pollute land Fast food Garbage and oceans convenient stores & service stations Public areas Litter Other retails Litter Source: Nolan-ITU, Literature research www.ecozuri.com
  • 22. Part Two: Plastic Bottles Ecozuri Inc. promotes reusable shopping bags made from 100% recycled plastics. To learn more about our products and offerings, please visit www.ecozuri.com www.ecozuri.com
  • 23. ----- PLASTIC BOTTLE 101 --- Definition: A plastic bottle is a container constructed of plastic with a neck that is narrower than its body and an opening at the top. The mouth of the bottle is normally sealed with a plastic bottle cap. Plastic bottles are typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink. History: Plastic bottles were first used commercially in 1947, but remained relatively expensive until the early 1960's when high- density polyethylene was introduced. They quickly became popular with both manufacturers and customers due to their lightweight nature, and relatively low production costs compared with glass bottles . The food industry has almost completely replaced glass in many cases with plastic bottles, but wine and beer are still commonly sold in glass bottles. Types Materials Characteristics Usage High-density Naturally translucent and flexible. The addition of color Shampoo and detergent bottles, milk polyethylene (HDPE) will make HDPE bottles opaque although not glossy. jugs, cosmetics, motor oil Low Density Less chemically resistant than HDPE, but is more For squeeze application Polyethylene (LDPE) translucent Polyethylene Very good alcohol and essential oil barrier properties, Carbonated beverage bottles Terephthalate (PET) generally good chemical resistance Polyvinyl Chloride Naturally clear, have extremely good resistance to oils, Salad oil, mineral oil, and vinegar, (PVC) and have very low oxygen transmission shampoos, and cosmetic products Polypropylene (PP) Excellent moisture barrier, stability at high temperatures Hot fill products such as pancake syrup Dry products including vitamins, Polystyrene (PS) Excellent clarity and stiffness at an economical cost petroleum jellies, and spices www.ecozuri.com
  • 24. ----- THE INCONVENIENT FACTS OF BOTTLED WATER ----- US bottled water market (1997 – 2008) Million gallon/ billion bottles - 18 million barrels of crude oil are requires to produce the 900,000 tons of plastics (PET) that bottle the water - Only 24% of the plastic bottles are recycled – 76% end up as either garbage or liter - The total amount of energy required to make the bottle, fill the bottle with water, transport, refrigerate the bottled water, and recover, recycle, or throw away the empty bottle is equivalent, on average, to filling a plastic bottle ¼ full with oil. 31 billion bottles 15 billion bottles 6 billion 3 billion bottles bottles Source: NY State Department of Environmental Conservation, Beverage Marketing Corporation, Literature Research www.ecozuri.com
  • 25. ----- PET BOTTLE LIFE CYCLE ----- Natural gas and petroleum are The bottled water converted into PET pellets are A beverage is distributed to A consumer buys polyethylene melted and company fills gas stations, the water, drinks terephalate, a blown into and caps the vending machines, it and then chemical bottle molds bottles grocery and big chooses to compound box stores known as PET Toss the bottle … or tossing the bottle in a recycling bin into the trash… (76%) At a mill, the plastic is In the US, 76% of ground into shreds and At recycling centers, the plastic bottles – melted. Used RPET is bottles are sorted, about 7.1 billion typically recycled into washed, and stacked, pounds of them, other products, often then finally crushed, wound up burned in polyester fleece jackets, baled and sold (for 38- incinerators or buried carpets, or plastic 66 cents per pound) in landfills in 2006 decking Sources: The American Chemical Counsel, The Boston Globe Magazine www.ecozuri.com
  • 26. center Sources: CWC, WRAP bottles bottles recycled Drop-off recycling Curbside returned Buy-back Redemption programs for collections of Debale Sorting (manual or automated to separate PVC and color bottles) Grind Air classification to remove labels Scrubber to remove drink residue, glue and dirt Float/sink or hydrocyclone classification to remove cap and ring made from HDPE or PP www.ecozuri.com Metal detector to remove metal Other decontamination process Clean flake packer, storage and shipping Repelletizing ----- PET BOTTLE RECYCLING PROCESS ----- Fiber resins Strapping Packaging Engineered applications applications applications applications Sheet and film
  • 27. ----- US PET BOTTLE RECYCLING STATISTICS ----- Gross recycle statistics for US PET bottles (mmlbs, %) 24.6% 31.7% 27.1% 24.8% 23.7% 22.3% 22.1% 19.9% 19.6% 21.6% 23.1% 23.5% Sources: NAPCOR www.ecozuri.com
  • 28. ----- RYCYCLED PET MARKET STATISTICS ----- Market for US post consumer PET bottles (mmlbs) Top buyers: China Canada Sources: NAPCOR www.ecozuri.com
  • 29. ----- RECYCLED PET UTILIZATION TREND ----- RPET PRODUCT CATEGORIES IN US MARKET (mmlbs) Sources: NAPCOR www.ecozuri.com
  • 30. “Zuri” means “good and beautiful” in Swahili, a beautiful language spoken in East Africa. Ecozuri, Inc. offers environmentally conscious, habit changing products to help people embrace an more eco- friendly lifestyle. We also contribute up to 10% of our revenue to support education for children living in poverty in rural Africa. “Ecozuri” is a registered trademark of California based Ecozuri Inc. The company promotes Ecozuri line of reusable bags made from 100% recycled plastics and offers green custom-made promotional products OEM services for corporate clients. To learn about Ecozuri’s products and offerings, please visit www. ecozuri.com or email info@ecozuri.com www.ecozuri.com