Roman City dig, session 9, 2012: Nutrition in the Ancient World, by Kristin Donner

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  • British and German military sites, bone analysis. Ox, sheep, goat, pig, deer, boar, hare, elk, wolf, fox, badger, beaver, bear, vole, bex, otter. Broken beef bones suggest extraction of marrow for soup.Equipment found alongside animal bones, for roasting and boiling meat. Equipment for making cheese from milk of domesticated animals.Fish and poultry were popular (poultry for sick soldiers.)Diet was mostly grain: wheat, barley, oast, spelt, rye. Seed deposits provide evidence for fruits eaten. Actual food (preserved bread loaf) in Pompeii presents unparalleled evidence for food preparation and consumption.
  • British and German military sites, bone analysis. Ox, sheep, goat, pig, deer, boar, hare, elk, wolf, fox, badger, beaver, bear, vole, bex, otter. Broken beef bones suggest extraction of marrow for soup.Equipment found alongside animal bones, for roasting and boiling meat. Equipment for making cheese from milk of domesticated animals.Fish and poultry were popular (poultry for sick soldiers.)Diet was mostly grain: wheat, barley, oast, spelt, rye. Seed deposits provide evidence for fruits eaten. Actual food (preserved bread loaf) in Pompeii presents unparalleled evidence for food preparation and consumption.
  • AFRICAN COOKING: Cook Ware came from Tunesia or Carthage in North Africa. The ash/smoke decoration on the rims was created by blocking the air vaults at the end of the firing process. The limited oxygen produced a dark effect around the rims (and exposed areas in the stack of pots/lids.)Concentric circles functioned to preserve the heat while cooking. Lids, pots, casseroles.COARSE WARES: For cooking, food prep, storage, pots, saucepans, frying pans, lids, patina (large plates for cooking food inside ovens.)
  • Amphorae fragment, including handle, unearthed by Julia Cleary at the Basilica, left side aisle, Sanisera, October 2012.The spike at the base of the amphorae was functional for balance in the curved cargo hold of a shipping vessel, as well as useful as a third handle for ease in lifting and pouring.Amphorae types: Italiano Amphora Campanian. Tarraconenses Amphora, N/E Spain. Betic Amphora. RE Amphora, Ibiza. African Amphora. Eastern Mediterranean Amphora.
  • Pliny the Younger described food in his letters.Pliny the Elder wrote about edible plants in his naturalist works.Galen recommended edible remedies in his medical writings.Petronius described a lavish banquet in his satire, “Trimalchio’s Dinner.” Cicero wrote about meals. Cato the Elder wrote about farming, sacrifices and food in his book, “De AgriCultura.”Athenaeus of Naukratis described a banquet, called Deipnosophists, which described the conversation during a feast.
  • Apicius – De Re Coquinaria = On The Subject Of Cooking. Attributed to CaeliusApicius, due to the words API CAE in the heading of one of two ancient manuscripts. Collection of Roman cookery recipes. Written in a language closer to Vulgar than Classical Latin.Columell – De ReRustica = On The Subject Of Rustic. Recipes, including instructions on how to preserve and pickle fruits and vegetables.
  • Early Rome: *early morning breakfast *main meal at lunch *light supperLate Rome: *early morning breakfast *light lunch *sunset main meal
  • Plebeian (Lower Class) Dinner: Vegetable porridge and bread. Occasionally fish, meat, olives and fruits.
  • Apperitif: Mulsum Wine (Honey wine. Chill before serving.) Cena Beverage: Setinum Wine (from Hills of Setia, above the Appian Forum. Sharp, fiery, fig-flavored. Favored by Augustus because it does not cause indegestion. Pair with dessert, cheeses, seafood, spicy dishes. Gustatio: #1 Boiled Eggs with Pine Nut Sauce. #2 Seasoned Mussels, with Garum (fish sauce.) Prima Mensa: Hot Lamb Stew. Secunda Mensa: #1 Pear Patina. #2 Libum Sweet Cheesecake. #3 Plate of figs, pears and nuts. A nap or resting time followed this heavy meal.
  • These recipe cards feature a modern approach to classical recipes. Illustrations ©2012 Kristin Donner.
  • Roman City dig, session 9, 2012: Nutrition in the Ancient World, by Kristin Donner

    1. 1.  Nutritional Remains Pottery  Cooking  Transport and Storage Art Literature Cook Books Roman Meal Structure Sample Menu  Plebeian Dinner Format  Aristocratic Dinner Format
    2. 2. Legio XV in Pram, AustriaExcavations provide evidence Scientific analysis of bones & shells indicates animals consumed Seed deposits provide evidence for fruits eaten Preserved food (Pompeii) presents unparalleled evidence Proximity of cooking equipment indicates preparation practices
    3. 3. R.E. Common Ware Coarse Wares & Common Wares Kitchen Ware from Ibiza  Locally made pottery 3rd-7th century AD  Plain, unglazed earthenware vessels Soft, chalky texture  Color variation according to clay and Beige, yellowish color fabric firing methods Either plain or incised decorations  Big temper particles in fabric  Commonly supplied to militaryAfrican Cooking Cooking pots from North Africa Mortaria 2nd-5th century AD  Mortars used for food prep Hard, red fabric  Strong bowls with a flange (for Ash/smoked effect on the rims gripping) and spout Concentric circles  Grit (trituration) on the interior face for strength and textureItalian Ware Kitchen Ware from Italy Pyroxene temper particles Thicker, rougher fabric
    4. 4. Amphorae in the Ecomuseo, Sanisera Amphorae fragment uneathed by Julia Cleary Amphorae  Used for transportation of liquids  Typically wide at girth, narrow at neck  Two handles near the mouth  Often feature a spike at base, for shipping ease
    5. 5. Food, tableware, cookware and food commerce memorialized in… Still-life wall paintings Mosaics Art from the House of Julia Felix
    6. 6. Surviving literature Pliny the Younger – Writer Pliny the Elder – Naturalist Galen – Physician Petronius – Satirist Pliny the Younger Cicero – Statesman Cato the Elder – Agricultural Writer Athenaeus of Naukratis – Writer
    7. 7. Apicius ManuscriptWell-known recipe books Apicius – 4th-5th century AD – De Re Coquinaria Columell – 50 AD – De Re Rustica
    8. 8. Painting from Pompeii Early Rome Late Rome• Breakfast ientaculum ientaculum• Lunch cena prandium• Dinner vesperna cena
    9. 9.  Cena Beverage: Wine to Drink with the Meal, Wine to Water Ratio 1:2, 1:3 or 1:4 Prima Mensa: Vegetable Porridge, Bread (Fish, Meat, Olives on Occasion) Secunda Mensa: (Fruit on Occasion)
    10. 10.  Apperitif: Wine to Stimulate Appetite Cena Beverage: Wine to Drink with the Meal, Wine to Water Ratio 1:2, 1:3 or 1:4 Gustatio or Promulsis: Raw Vegetables, Salad, Eggs, Fish or Shell Fish Prima Mensa: Cooked Vegetables, Meats Secunda Mensa: Fruit, Sweet Pastries Comissatio: Final Wine Course
    11. 11. Ssolgergj. SPQR Banner. Vexilloid of the Roman Empire. 20 June 2008. 28 October 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org.Slide No. 1.“Roman Republic Empire Map”. 27 October 2012.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Republic_Empire_map.gif#file. Slide No. 2.“Still Life Showing Eggs, Thrushes, Napkin; House of Julia Felix, Pompeii”. 23 October 2012.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:House_of_Julia_Felix_Still_Life_Eggs.jpg. Slide No. 7.“Sale of bread at a market stall”. Roman fresco from the Praedia of Julia Felix in Pompeii. 12 March 2009.http://en.wikipedia.org. Slide No. 7.N.S. Gill. “What Did the Romans Eat?”. About.com. WGBH. PBS Online. 23 October 2012.http://ancienthistory.about.com. Slide No. 8.Wolfgang Sauber. “Pliny the Younger”. Dom S. Maria Maggiore in Como. Fassade: Statue Plinius des Jungerenvon Tommaso und Jacobo Rodari. 14 July 2006. 27 October 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org. Slide No. 8-9.“Apicius”. Wikipedia.org. 21 October 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicius. Slide No. 9.“Apicius handwriting” (ca. 900 AC). New York Academy of Medicine. 23 October 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org.Slide No. 9.
    12. 12. N.S. Gill. “Foods of the Classical World. What We Know About What the Ancients Ate and Drank”. About.com. WGBH.PBS Online. 23 October 2012. http.ancienthistory.about.com. Slide No. 10.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_ancient_Rome. Slide No. 10.Andrew Dalby.“Painting from Pompeii, now in the Museo Archaeologico Nazionale, showing a banquet or familyceremony”. Originally from Great Treasures of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Abbeville, 1978. Sourced fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org. Slide No. 10.Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins. “Everyday Life. Food And Drink”. Handbook To Life In Ancient Rome. New York, 1994.Oxford University Press. Pages 342-343. Slide No. 10-15.http://pistorius.edu.glogster.com. Slide No. 11.“Preferred Ancient Roman Wines”. About.com. WGBH. PBS Online. 21 October 2012. http://ancienthistory.about.com.Slides No. 11-12.http://romancooking.blogspot.com.es. Slide No. 12.http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/wine/vintage.html. Slide No. 12.Carla Raimer. “Ancient Roman Recipes”. About.com. WGBH. PBS Online. 01 November 2000. 23 October 2012.http://ancienthistory.about.com. Slides No. 13-15.

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