Roman Buildings

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  • Latin for Marketplace Central location for the city, important for conducting both business and other social activities such as political debates, Many other forums are found throughout Rome’s empire, most in Italy
  • Originally used as a central public building in Roman towns, used to conduct business and legal matters, similar to the forum First believed to be constructed in 2nd century BC Large roofed hall, interior colonades, large central aisle, apse,
  • With the adoption of Christianity in rome under constantie in 4th century needed a suitable meeting place not associated to other religions Required a suitable meeting place for growing religion that was not associated with the prior pagan religions Construction of new Basilicas with religious intent
  • Mixing of native italic traditions, derived mostly form Etruscans with imported Greek styles By time of Augustus, (30BC-AD14) there was some classical synthesis culminating in the Pantheon in early 2nd century BC
  • Burned down a couple times, was finally rebuilt in the forum in 44 BC Served as a meeting place of the Senate Would have been about 1,000 senators at the time of completion, requiring the younger members to stand. Built in the Fashion of Etruscan style Outside would have been covered in stucco and marble Can se the remnants of the marble floor
  • Romans adopted the Greeks construction of theaters, but did so in a more secular emphasis of entertainment Massive structures raised on concrete vaults, allowing them to be built in cities, rather than where there was a natural slope like the Greeks They could be built where ever there was a demand First permanent stone theater structure was built under pompey in the 50s BC
  • Made it theater completely semicircular Refer to the construction of theaters in provencies to depict the progress of theater design.
  • An amphitheater is an elliptical open air venue most closely related to gladitorial activities Amphitheater in Pompeii is one of the oldest and best preserved In provinces that could not afford full gladitorial fights amphitheaters were used for sporting contests (Britain)
  • First permanent amphitheater in Rome was the colossum- 70AD to 80 AD Delay in amphitheater construction was more due to the Senates fear of public disorder rather than the gladiatorial activities
  • Romans were not the first to invent the arch, but they were the first to use it to commemorate events ceremonially. The triumphal arch spread around the world First honorific arches were built in rome in 2nd century BC by nobles commemorating their exploits Not many remain from the republican period, with Augustus’ reordering of the forum Triple arch- one grand one flanked by two smaller ones Finest surviving arch is that of titus
  • Triumphal columns celebrated great individuals especially military men roman columns were marble columns topped by bronze or marble statues was wholly unique to the romans An effort to perpetuate their fame through the most durable means possible Erected form the 3rd century BC
  • Largest and most architecturally adventurous structures Used concrete vaulting for its construction- allowing for innovative designs Largest enclose spaces prior to the 20th century First appeared in 2nd century BC Most roman cities had at lest one public bath More of a social practice rather than hygienic
  • Two essential aspects of civilization 1st aqueduct Aqua Appias built in 312 BC by Appias Claudius to supply water to the city’s growing population Runs underground for 10 miles providing water from springs near Albano, Used a very modest gradient of only a 3ft drop per 1000ft allowing a steady flow of water over the long distance Only used elaborate above ground aqueducts when necessary Stone lines channels, using lead pipes only within the city Sewers- less elaborate, required flowing water to be effective, as such many Roman dwellings did not connect to the system.
  • Detached house Simple one-two story house Rooms set around an atrium- a central hall open to the sky With time became more grand with larger atriums, becoming more grandly colonnaded and decorated Slits for windows, or wholly windowless rooms for security rather than privacy Included revered busts of ancestors, making the domus a repository for dynastic pride
  • Roman Buildings

    1. 1. The Buildings of Ancient Roman Cities Emily Ross July 9, 2010 Session 5 Roman City Menorca, Spain
    2. 2. Common Buildings <ul><li>Forums </li></ul><ul><li>Basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul><ul><li>Senate House </li></ul><ul><li>Theaters </li></ul><ul><li>Amphitheaters </li></ul><ul><li>Triumphal Arches </li></ul><ul><li>Triumphal Columns </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial Baths </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts and Sewers </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul>Roman Forum
    3. 3. Forums Roman Forum in Rome. Central marketplace used for a variety of activities including business and politics.
    4. 4. Basilica <ul><li>First believed to be constructed in 2nd century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Public building used to conduct business and legal matters </li></ul><ul><li>Large roofed hall, interior colonnades, large central aisle, and apse </li></ul>Remains of the Basilica di Massenzio, Foro Romano in Rome.
    5. 5. Christianization of the Basilica With the Christianization of the Roman empire basilicas adopted a religious purpose. Baptism of Constantine by Raphael’s students
    6. 6. Creation of Basilica in Sanisera <ul><li>The basilica here in Sanirera is believed to be built in the 4th or 5th century. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Temples The Pantheon Temple to all gods of Ancient Rome
    8. 8. Temples Cont. Temple of Venus and Roma Venus, the mythical ancecestress of the Julian's, dominates Caesar's Forum
    9. 9. Senate House- Curia <ul><li>Built in the fashion of Etruscan style </li></ul><ul><li>Served as a meeting place of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Burned down several times </li></ul><ul><li>Was finally rebuilt in Caesar's plan of the forum in 44 BC </li></ul>
    10. 10. Theaters <ul><li>Adopted Greek’s construction of theaters </li></ul><ul><li>Roman theaters however, were secular </li></ul><ul><li>Massive structures raised on concrete vaults allowing construction in cities </li></ul>Pompey’s Theater, Rome built in 55 BC
    11. 11. Theaters Cont. <ul><li>Refer to the construction of theaters in provinces to depict the progress of theater design </li></ul><ul><li>This theater gives the full effect of the Roman theater </li></ul>Theater in Sabratha, Libya
    12. 12. Amphitheaters <ul><li>An amphitheater is an elliptical open air venue most closely related to gladiatorial activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Amphitheater in Pompeii is one of the oldest and best preserved. </li></ul><ul><li>In provinces that could not afford full gladiatorial fights amphitheaters were used for sporting contests. </li></ul>Pompeii’s Amphitheater
    13. 13. Amphitheaters Cont. The Colosseum, Rome
    14. 14. Triumphal Arches <ul><li>A monumental archway built to celebrate a victory </li></ul><ul><li>Romans were the 1st to use arch in commemoration </li></ul><ul><li>Not many remain from the republican period, with Augustus’ reordering of the forum </li></ul>Arch of Titus
    15. 15. Triumphal Columns <ul><li>Triumphal columns celebrated great individuals especially military men </li></ul><ul><li>Roman columns were marble columns topped by bronze or marble statues </li></ul><ul><li>An effort to perpetuate their fame through the most durable means possible </li></ul><ul><li>First columns e rected form the 3rd century BC </li></ul>Trajan’s Column 113 AD
    16. 16. Imperial Baths- Thermae <ul><li>Largest and most architecturally adventurous structures </li></ul><ul><li>First appeared in 2nd century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Most roman cities had at lest one public bath </li></ul><ul><li>Included a cold bath, a warm bath, and hot bath- frigidarium , tepidarium , and caldarium respectively. </li></ul>Reconstructed drawing of the Baths of Caracalla in Rome.
    17. 17. Aqueducts and Sewers <ul><li>Two very essential aspects of Roman civilization </li></ul><ul><li>1st aqueduct built in 312 BC by Appias Claudius </li></ul><ul><li>Runs underground for 10 miles providing water from springs near Albano </li></ul><ul><li>Only used elaborate above ground aqueducts when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Sewers were less elaborate. </li></ul><ul><li>Required flowing water to be effective </li></ul>A remaining portion of Aqua Claudia
    18. 18. Housing: Domus <ul><li>A detached single family house </li></ul><ul><li>One or two story house </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms set around an atrium, central hall open to the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Became more grand with larger atriums, grandly colonnaded and decorated </li></ul><ul><li>Slits for windows, or wholly windowless rooms for security rather than privacy </li></ul>Atrium of a Pompeian Domus
    19. 19. Housing: Insulae <ul><li>Large apartment complexes for the lower class </li></ul><ul><li>Often span the length of a block and up to 7 stories tall </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly poorly constructed and were subject to fire and collapse </li></ul>An insula dating from the early 2nd century A.D. in the Roman port town of Ostia Antica.
    20. 20. Thanks ALL!

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