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The study of disease processes specifically to how it affects bone. For example: Diseases can cause lipping, create holes, and make bones brittle.
A calcification or bony hardening ofligaments in areas where they attach to your spine. It is a flowing calcificationalong the sides of contiguous vertebrae.It is a type of degenerative arthritis and leads to limited mobility.
The Pathology of DISH:• Fusion of the vertebrae that shows as a candle- wax appearance.• This fusion also only appears on the right side of the vertebral column.
• Motion is limited in actions and movements that require lateral flexibility.
This occurs when the cartilage layer betweenbone wears down and leaves the bones to rubagainst each other during movement.There is no known cause for osteoarthritis,but is commonly called wear-and-teararthritis.The pathology of osteoarthritis shows as:• Eburnation which creates a polished look due to the repetitive rubbing of two bones.• Lipping around the joint surface which is thought to be a reparative action.
• Pain or stiffness in joints due to long periods of inactivity or excessive use.• Grating or a “catching” sensation that occurs during joint movement.• Depending on where the osteoarthritis occurs nerve compression can result in weakness in the limbs.
This vertebrae was found at the Cave site this season, and shows signs of lipping.
An airborne disease that affects the lungs of theindividual.Only severe cases of TB end up making a mark onthe bone, as the individual needs to live with thedisease for a while before the pathology moves tothe bone.Pathology of TB:• Makes the vertebral bodies brittle and porous.• Can make the vertebral bodies break and cause a condition known as kyphosis.• Can cause ankylosis, when vertebral bodies fuse.
• At first TB does not affect mobility, at least from the perspective of the bone.• When TB moves to the vertebral bodies it can collapse them making the afflicted person hunch over which is called kyphosis.• When ankylosis occurs the vertebrae have collapsed and formed one unit that results in a bone mass that is immobile.
• Arthritis Foundation. 2008. News from the Arthritis Foundation. http://www.arthritis.org/media/newsroom/media- kits/Osteoarthritis_fact_sheet.pdf.• Aufderheide, Arthur and Conrado Rodriguez-Martin. 1998. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge, UK.• Eustice, Carol. 2009. Spine Osteoarthritis-What You Need to Know. http://osteoarthritis.about.com/od/spinespinalosteoarthritis/a/spine_O A.htm.• MedicineNet. 2012. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis. http://www.medicinenet.com/diffuse_idiopathic_skeletal_hyperostosis/ article.htm.• Medscape Reference. 2012. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1258514-overview#a0101.• NobelPrize. 2009. Robert Koch and Tuberculosis. http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/tuberculosis/readmor e.html?downloadURL=true&loId=BCCBBF73-1B0D-42EA-B590- FF3EA8AA5FDF.• Waldron, Tony. 2008. Paleopathology. Cambridge University Press, UK.