Evolution of roman anchors

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Underwater Archaeology Field School.
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Evolution of roman anchors

  1. 1. Sara Spatafore Session 9October 24, 2012
  2. 2. Anchor Anatomy
  3. 3. Stone Anchors Earliest anchors used and still in use today  Made up composite anchors used to take wooden anchor down Buoy and Mooring anchors Fishing gear  Weighed down nets Recycled Stones
  4. 4. Types of Stone Anchors No Hole  May have groove cut around (waisted) One Hole  2nd Millenium B.C. Two Holes  One hole for rope and other for anchor Classical (3 Holes)
  5. 5. Wood-Stone Combination Wood and stone were used together to create different types of anchors
  6. 6. Stocked Anchors In use since at least 500 B.C. based on Persian coinage Stocks set at right angle to flukes to force them to dig into the seabed to increase anchor weight and holding  Iron, lead, or wood
  7. 7. Advancements with metal Bronze age led to the inclusion of metal in anchors  Lead stocks and collars  Lead lined wooden anchors  Wooden anchors dipped in molten lead  Lead filled wooden anchors  Hallowed wooden anchors filled with molten lead
  8. 8. Evolution of Roman Anchor Shapes A: Roman Republic  509 B.C. B: Early Roman Empire  82 B.C. C: Roman Empire  27 B.C. D: End of Roman Period  284-476 A.D. E: Byzantine
  9. 9. Nemi Ships Created under Caligula dating to 1st Century A.D.  Pleasure barges? Fishermen  Grappling hooks to salvage pieces 1446: Cardinal Colonna and Leon Battista Alberti  Ropes that damaged planks covered in lead sheeting 1535: Francesco de Marchi dove using diving bell  Bricks, marble paving stones, bronze, copper, lead artifacts, and timber beams
  10. 10. Nemi Ships Continued Between 1928 and 1932 Nemi lake was drained Before discovery of the anchors the composition had been heavily debated The ships were constructed between the periods when iron anchors were replacing wooden ones Two Anchors:  Oak with iron-tipped flukes and stock of lead  Iron with folding timber stock  Looked much like Admiralty anchors reinvented in the 19th century
  11. 11. Port ofSanijtaAnchors
  12. 12. Importance to Archaeology The shape of an anchor can help date shipwrecks and indicate the ship’s origins An anchor could be an indication of a shipwreck or one that had to be detached from the ship The size and weight of an anchor indicates the size and type of a ship
  13. 13. Works Cited Pere http://biganchorproject.com/ http://www.abc.se/~pa/bld/anchors.htm http://www.abc.se/~pa/mar/nemships.htm Gay, Jacques. Six Millénaires dhistoire des ancres. Paris: University of Paris Sarbonne, 1997. Print.

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