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Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
Ecological problems and solutions
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Ecological problems and solutions

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This presentation opens with global warnings, gives you a survey of earth's main biodiversity hotspots and offers some solutions to the ecological multitask challenge - Download as PDF to use the …

This presentation opens with global warnings, gives you a survey of earth's main biodiversity hotspots and offers some solutions to the ecological multitask challenge - Download as PDF to use the links in the table of contents, share if you like or just enjoy

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  • 1. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 2012
  • 2. Global warnings Global warnings 5 Impact of overpopulation 6 2020: for each inhabitant in the industrialized countries, there will be five in the developing countries  7 Global poverty  8 - 9 Nuclear risks  10 26/04/86: reason for a separate case study  11 Nuclear heritage  12 Natural and anthropogenic greenhouse effect  13 Greenhouse gases  14 Origin greenhouse gases and their impact  15 Global desertification happens mainly at the peripheries  16 Calamity of heating out of control  17 Feedback in the carbon cycle  18 Siberian roulette  19 The arctic region contains 500 billion tons of carbon  20 Methane bubbles faster up out of the tundra as expected  21 Future choices?  22 Anomaly surface temperature  23 Oil pollution  24 Deepwater Horizon, Gulf of Mexico, April 2010  25 Nature reserves in Louisiana mutilated  26 Bon Secour Refuge, Alabama threatened (3,5 103 ha)  27 Lepidochelys kempii, ‘arribada’  28 Human and ecological risks – pesticides  29 Reduction PCBs (35% since ’85) ensured seals of reproductive successes  30 Bhopal shows extra risks pesticides  31 01/11/’86 the Rhine (almost) died  32 - 33 Acid rain  34 Consequences of acid rain  35 SO2 -pollution and bio-indicators  36 Eutrophication and consequences  37 Terrestrial eutrophication  38 Eutrophication and solutions  39 The O3 layer: a protective shield for all life on earth  40 Destruction of the ozone layer  41 First observation in 1970 …  42 First observation in 1970 … images 1995 – 2004  43 Ozone depletion over the Arctic in 2011  44 ‘World avoided’ without ban CFCs  45 Pollution of oceans by plastic and trash 
  • 3. Trojan horses Trojan horses 46 Harmful invasive species  47 Black lists  48 Examples of harmful exotic species A1- Ludwigia grandiflora  49 Original distribution of Ludwigia grandiflora  50 Situation in France in 2009  51 Examples of harmful introduced species A1 – Rana catesbeiana  52 A2 - Introduced species: e.g. black cherry (Prunus serotina)  53 A2 - Introduced species: e.g. giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum)  54 A2 - Introduced species: e.g. Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus)  55 A2 –Introduced species: e.g. harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis)  56 – 59 Introduced species and evolution  60 Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus)  Local flora & fauna under assault Local flora & fauna under assault 61 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003  62 – 67 Threatened taxa: breeding birds in Belgium and the Netherlands  68 – 76 Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands  77 Bee population density levels are dangerously low  78 Severe infection can cause the death of the entire hive between August and October  79 Will global warming bring about a “beepocalypse”?  Biodiversity threatened Biodiversity threatened 80 Global threats to taxa  81Corals, a specialized form of mutualism between algae en corallites  82 Florida Keys reefs: a degraded biodiversity hotspot  83 Reasons for the endangerment of taxa  84 - 85 Example of endangerment through deforestation  86 Loss of habitat and populations  87 Genetic erosion  88 – 92 Removal of keystone species drastically alters communities  93 Eschrichtius robostus  94 – 99 When a species becomes extinct, it’s gone for good  98 Brown-headed cowbirds following grazing bisons  100, 102 Predicted to become extinct?...  101 Hibiscadelphus woodii in bloom  103 Lost?....  104 – 108 Biodiversity in danger during the past 109 Narrow habitats, extensive specialization and limited dispersal may put species at risk  110 The critical predicament of biodiversity is epitomized by Banara vanderbiltii  111 Fungi in the midst of a mass extinction 
  • 4. Main biodiversity hotspots Main biodiversity hotspots 112 - 113 Rifle shots and holocausts  114 – 115 Ecosystems deserving immediate attention  116 San Bruno Mountain, California  117 – 118 Oases of the Dead Sea Depression, Israel and Jordan  119 California floristic province  120 – 122 Slash & burn in Madagascar  123 Grandidiers Baobab (Adansonia grandidieri) 124 The fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) is the islands largest surviving endemic terrestrial mammal  125 – 126 Lower slopes of the Himalayas  127 – 129 Western Ghats, India  130 – 132 Central Chile  133 – 135 The Colombian Chocó  136 – 138 Western Ecuador  139 – 144 Uplands of western Amazonia  145 – 147 Atlantic coast of Brazil  148 – 149 Southwestern Ivory Coast  150 – 152 Fynbos, South Africa  153 – 155 Sri Lanka  156 – 159 Peninsular Malaysia  160 – 162 Borneo  163 – 166 The Philippines  167 – 171 New Caledonia  172 – 174 Southwestern Australia  175 – 177 The Mediterranean Basin  178 Survey of the most important biodiversity hotspots  179 - 182 The list is not closed…  183 – 185 Lake Baikal  186 – 187 Regeneration of tropical rain forest may take centuries  188 – 189 Queimadas or burnings in the Amazon  190 Deforestation and ecological holocaust by genetic engineering  191 Eco-battalions and eco-soldiers  Aware of our riches Aware of our riches 192 – 205 Unmined riches of biodiversity  206 Sustainable use of rain forests as extractive reserves  207 - 208 Reforestation projects  Comprehensive solution to the ecological multitask challenge Resolution 209 – 230 Resolution  231 – 253 Credits, aknowledgments 
  • 5. Impact of overpopulation Global 5warnings
  • 6. 2020: for each inhabitant in the industrialized countries, there will be five in the developing countries • Previous: banana plantations in Nicaragua • Primary production rain forest is consumed by ‘slash & burn’ plantations • The human population puts a huge tax on earth’s resources • One on five lives in extreme poverty • Species are at an accelerating pace threatened with extinction • Since 1950 1/5 of the top layer of the earths surface has been lost Global 6 warnings
  • 7. Global poverty • Cities in developing countries particularly face an enormous growth of massive country flight • Water, food, smog problems, ... are inevitable • Overexploitation of rain forests threaten all species, a lot of which are never investigated and live in undisturbed forests • Problems of endangered species are inherent to poverty andDeforestation, erosion and spoiling malnutritionof cyanide and mercury in the Naporiver in Ecuador as consequences ofgold mining Global 7 warnings
  • 8. Nuclear risks • The Chernobyl motor, with graphite moderator and water cooling, exploded after a test • The test investigated if there could be enough energy for water cooling after a complete stop until diesel production gets going • Emergency cooling was stopped so the test wouldn’t be interrupted • Power reduction to 30 MW instead of 1 000 MW as a consequence of unforeseen development of steam in the cooling • For this reason workers removed control rods, deadly in combination with shortage of cooling water Global 8warnings
  • 9. Nuclear risks • The cooling lessened and lessened, by delay of pump operation, powered by the turbines • The problem with this kind of reactor is the tremendous power it develops at low capacity • Uncontrollable generation of steam was the consequence • Fuel elements got broken and came in contact with water • A steam explosion attacked the heart of the engine • The shutter of the engine let air in: ½ C + O2 → CO: highly combustible • Eight tons of Pu-fuel, Cs & I set fire and ascended in the atmosphere Global 9warnings
  • 10. 26/04/86: reason for a separate case study • Human death toll through influence of radiation valued at 100 000 • Research of the ecological impact: genetic damage for more than 20 sp. • E.g. horses on the island six km further died of a desintegration of the thyroid gland • Research is more difficult because mutant animal is eaten quickly or dies • 2 500 km2 exclusion zone show numerous rare species e.g. eagle-owls (Bubo bubo), great egrets (EgrettaFour km2 pine forest adjacent alba), white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetusto the engine coloured ginger albicilla), black storks (Ciconia nigra),brown and died ‘Red Forest’ river otters (Lutra canadensis),Slow recovery with distorted populations of wolves,…and delayed trees • Positive ecological impact of evacuation exceeds radiation costs • Proof of toll of overpopulation Global 10 warnings
  • 11. Nuclear heritage • Homeless and migrating species accumulate less radiation than these with fixed habitat • Mutations as a result of radiation have not been bound to one place • Migrating species are susceptible to generative heritage or to spread the mutations on to adjacent unpolluted populationsResearch on swallows (Hirundo • Nests, eggs found in sarcophagussp.) shows that migratory birds • Heavily contaminated rodents showare very radiation-sensitive few deviationsMigration trenches on reserves of • Cleaning up by burning withantioxidants electricity generation from theDepression of antioxidants is nucleotides is not an optionlinked to mutations: partial • Mobilization of nucleotides isalbinism and sperm mutations extremely harmful • Vibrating ecosystem has been destroyed Global 11 warnings
  • 12. Natural and anthropogenic greenhouse effect • 30% of the solar radiation is reflected by earth (atmosphere, clouds and surface) • 70% is absorbed: 16% (e.g. UV) by atmosphere, 3% by clouds, 51% by earth • Stefan-Boltzmann: longwave IR radiation is transmitted by earth (10 µm) • Atmosphere, transparent to visible light, behaves like a black body for IR • Only albedo- and black-body- properties took in consideration, earth’s surface temperature would be 33º lower • Without convection temperature on earth would be 72 Global 12 warnings
  • 13. Greenhouse gases • By car emissions, burning of fossil raw materials, deforestation: CO2-record of 387 ppm • Greenhouse gases absorb IR-radiation: tri- (or more) atomic molecules • Natural greenhouse effect: 60% H2O, 26% CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CFCs (life span up to 50 000 years) • H2O in large quantity, but is passive with regard to climate by short yielding life span in the atmosphere • As positive feedback with regard to other gases, as clouds or rain • CO2, CH4 have a life span of hundreds of years in atmosphere • [CFC], [CO2] previous century Global 13warnings
  • 14. Origin greenhouse gases and their impact • CH4- increase is similar to that of CO2 • Livestock, enlarging populations of termites, deforestation, rice plantations and fossil fuels are main emitting factors of methane • N2O coming from chemical industry and artificial manure • CFCs as refrigerants • Global warming: • Longer growing season plants: earlierDesertification: interaction of in spring, later in autumnclimate, overexploitation of • Increase [CO2]: C3-plantslands, erosion, industry, • Warming: thermophilic C4-plantsdeforestation, poverty, mine • Glaciers melting and higher chances of mud flowsconstruction,… • Melting of all the ice would cause seaFor fragile ecosystems level to rise 150 mdegradation of flora, fauna, • Currently with a rate of 1,8 mm/yearsoil and water sources is during the last 100 yearsirreversible Global 14 warnings
  • 15. Global desertification happens mainly at the peripheries Between 1882 and 1952, the proportion of the earth’s land surface classified as desert rose from 9,4 to 23,3% Global 15warnings
  • 16. Calamity of heating out of control • El Nino ensures periodically dryness in Indonesia, Australia and the Amazon • In ’97 and ’98 el Nino was enormously strong • Model studies predict that El Niño events will become more frequent and severe as earth’s climate warms • Research has recently found that over half the Amazon rainforest is at risk of burning during extreme droughts, like the one that struck from July—November in 2005 • In Indonesia and Malaysia rain forest is growing on wet peat layers • 2 billion barrel CO2 disappeared from smouldering peat during the ‘90’s Nino’s • Some fires were switched on by owners of palm oil companies which set up plantations for extraction of bio-ethanol Global 16 warnings
  • 17. Feedback in the carbon cycle • Warming causes soil bacteria to work and propagate faster • Warmer seas absorb less CO2 • By means of loss of foliage plants and trees grow less • Also if deforestation stops, bunches of the Amazon disappear as heating reaches more than 2° • Forest ecosystems of theFew ° of temperature rise: 30% less Amazon have no defenserainfall, arrival of a dry season instead against fireof daily rainMassive wildfires lead to desertification90% of the Amazon rain forest couldpossibly disappear with a rise of 2° inthe 21st century Global 17 warnings
  • 18. Siberian roulette Global 18warnings
  • 19. The arctic region contains 500 billion tons of carbon • At dry conditions bacteria will oxidize it to CO2 • If the soil is wet, anaerobic bacteria will converse it into CH4, 20 times more powerful as a greenhouse gas compared to CO2 • The permafrost under the East Siberian Arctic Shelf—long thought to be an impermeable barrier sealing in methane—is instead perforated and leaking large amounts of CH4 into the atmosphereCities such as Yakutsk, Vorkuta and • The amount of CH4 currentlyNorilsk will realize they are built on coming out of the swallow Eastquicksand Siberian Arctic Shelf is comparable to the amount coming out of the entire world’s oceans 19 Global warnings
  • 20. Methane bubbles faster up out of the tundra as expected Global 20 warnings
  • 21. Future choices? • Trade in emission rights • Withdraw the status symbol from cars • Apply efficient energy use in construction • Minimum 2 million windmills of 1 MW (= 50x the amount in the year ’09) • Solar panels on roofs, solar mirrors in deserts • Pay to stop deforestation • Certainly no bio-ethanol • 400 ppm CO2-equivalent = 2° warming • Flemish metropolitan dream: Global 21warnings
  • 22. Anomaly surface temperature Global 22warnings
  • 23. Oil pollution • Many times in history crude oil came into the sea or rivers e.g. • Amodo Cadiz (1978) – Brittany: 230 000 tons, thousands of seabirds † • Exxon-Valdez (1989) hits a reef in Alaska: 45 000 tons, many seabirds, otters, seals † • Captain J. Hazelwood was drunk • Sea-Empress (1996) – Wales: 147 000 tons, 25 000 seabirds † • Since accident Erika at the BretonOil is bottled up in a barrier of coast (1999): EU applies stricter conditions on oil transportrubbers • Prestige (2002), Galician coastBoats skim oil of the sea • 170 000 tons of heavy oil fromBioremediation: use of manure to Tricolor (2002) pollutes the Zwinpromote oil-degrading bacteria • Each year up to 500 000 tons of oilSoapy oil-solvents, burnings are leaked into the Russian Ob andAbsorption by e.g. straw, talc Yenisei river basins with TNK-BP being the biggest offender Global 23 warnings
  • 24. Deepwater Horizon, Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 • Total crude oil pollution was almost 0,95 109 l. • Exceeding Exxon-Valdez with a factor 20 • In 1979, platform Ixtoc I caused a spill of 1,1 107 litres in the Gulf of Mexico • The 2nd of May 2010 the government closed the fishery between the estuary and the Pensacola Bay or 225 103 km2, 36% of the federal Waters ofOil spill 24/05/2010, view by Nasa’s the GulfTerra Global 24 warnings
  • 25. Nature reserves in Louisiana mutilated • The quantity of oil drained is enough to destroy the complete marine life in the Gulf and the coasts • Moreover, methane chokes and benzene poisons • The heavier oil components disturb life on the sea floor • Cloggy messes reached the National Wildlife Refuge and theThe Breton and Chandeleur Islands Breton National Wildlife Refuge,host habitats of dozens of bird Louisianaspecies e.g. the brown pelican(Pelecanus occidentalis) Global 25 warnings
  • 26. Bon Secour Refuge, Alabama threatened (3,5 103 ha) • The Refuge beaches serve as nesting sites for Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), smallest but most threatened marine turtle • Grasses of the marsh areas in Louisiana die of oil • The vegetation of grasses is exactly what keeps the small islands together • The loss of these ‘wetlands’The Refuge is home to the Alabama may enormously reinforce thebeach mouse (Peromyscus impact of hurricanes such aspolionotus ammobates), which is Katrina (2005)associated with the sand dunes andsea oats – IUCN 2006: EndangeredCrucial for the health of the entireRefuge ecosystem Global 26 warnings
  • 27. Lepidochelys kempii, ‘arribada’ Kemp’s ridley sea turtle, measuring 65 cm, is strongly migratory and travels hundreds of km to the nesting site where once it saw its life light IUCN 2011: Critically Endangered Global 27warnings
  • 28. Human and ecological risks - pesticides • Dichlorodifenyltrichloroethane or DDT, fast killer of aphids, mosquitoes, Colorado potato beetles,… was used massively in 1943-1972, [DDT] in the soil: ½-time of 15 years • 1967 was a year of success: many countries were freed of malaria, relieving the poverty • Abuse led to resistance • Facts that caused the ban: • Carsons ‘Silent spring’ (1962) • Organochlorines (DDT, PCB, dioxins,…) accumulated in fatty tissues lift the risk on breast cancer and endocrine diseases • Eggshell thinning as a reason of the decline of birds of prey, pelicans,... • DDT is toxic for aquatic life and neurologically toxic in general • Controversy remained – DDT is effective Global against epidemic malaria 28 warnings
  • 29. Reduction PCBs (35% since ’85) ensured seals of reproductive successes • In 1999, the dioxin affair caused serious trouble for the Belgian government, when PCBs were found in chickens and eggs • PCBs are neurologically toxic pesticides with biomagnification • Immune system is affected, teratogenic effects are multiple • Remote dispersal of PCBs by air and ocean currents • The problem is international • Whales and polar bears found withPCBs are used as coolants, high [PCBs]insulating fluids and in pesticides • Spitsbergen: polar bears with maleIn 1968 in Japan, 400 000 birds and female propertiesdied after eating poultry feed • Eskimos subsisting primarily onthat was contaminated with PCBs ocean resources are faced with alarming concentrations Global 29 warnings
  • 30. Bhopal shows extra risks pesticides • Because of receding profits, security costs at Union Carbide India Limited were scaled back • Bhopal (800 000 inhabitants) was buried with 27 tons toxic methyl isocyanate gases, 03/12/1984 • Escaping people lost their intestines, women aborted on the spot, many suffered enormous asthma attacks • 22 149 directly related deadly victimsHCl bottles in the former lab ofthe abandoned factory show the • More than 1 000 people a year died prematurely of chronic exposure totoxicity of the surrounding Kali the poisongrounds • One mass grave for thousands ofThe local population has put up animals – vegetation was evenlya fight of many years against damagedDow and Union Carbide • Families continued drinking polluted water Global 30 warnings
  • 31. 01/11/’86 the Rhine (almost) died • A catastrophic fire at a chemicals factory near Basel sends tons of toxic chemicals, pesticides and Hg into the river • The neighbourhood smelled the fetidness of rotten eggs and burned rubber • For hundreds of km dead fish surfaced • 500 000 fish died, some species were completely lost • Plants died as well • An investigation six months later revealed that aquatic invertebrates and plants survived the disaster • Setback of 10 years of rehabilitating the ecosystem of the Rhine, severely polluted by the industrial expansion in Germany, France and Switzerland Global 31 warnings
  • 32. Acid rain • Precipitation is slightly acid: pH = 5,6 • H2O + CO2 → H2CO3 • NOx > traffic, nitrifying bacteria • SO2 > burning of coal, melting of metal sulfides and volcano eruptions • NH3 > manure, reacts with H+ to NH4+, oxidized by nitrifying bacteria to NO3- • pH < 5: acid rain • East US with a record pH of 2,6 • Direct dry deposition of gases have a negative influence on water retention of plants facing stress (E.g. Pinus sp. at cold conditions) • NOx and SO2 reacting with H2O produce acid compounds • Naturpark Erzgebirge (Germany), close to the Czech border Global 32warnings
  • 33. Acid rain • Acid deposition of NOx and SO2 also occurs via dry deposition in the absence of precipitation • This dry deposition dissolving in water leads to sulfuric and nitric acid • Wet deposition of acids occurs when any form of precipitation removes acids from the atmosphere and delivers it to the earths surface • Leaching away of metal ions out of rocks, e.g. Al3+, Hg2+, Cd2+ (toxic)… • …leads to a lessened uptake of N, P, K, Mg by the vegetation Global 33warnings
  • 34. Consequences of acid rain • Areas affected (bottom), are not areas that produce (SO2) • Both the lower pH and higher Al3+- concentrations in surface water cause damage to fish and other aquatic animals • The lakes in Scandinavia and North- America suffered a big loss of fish populations since the 1920s • pH precipitation Hawaii 5,3; peak of 3,8 • Since natural gas is desulfurized SO2- emissions dropped • Young fish (trout, salmon) and diatoms die at pH < 5 • HNO3-precipitation > N-saturation of soils • Mycorrhiza are very sensitive to dissolved heavy metals • Growth is delayed, many mycorrhiza species die • Buffer capacity calcareous soil is affected • Acidic soil (peat, taiga) is more sensitive • SO2, NOx can lead to respiratory problems Global 34warnings
  • 35. SO2 -pollution and bio-indicators • SO2 is harmful for the respiratory organs of animals and humans • SO2 penetrates plants via stomata, chlorophyll is degraded, leading to chlorosis under influence of a low pH • Fir, Scots pine, spinach, cucumber, oats,... are sensitive • Corn, celery, citrus,… are more resistent • More SO2 in winter: be cautious with evergreen species • ‘Jardins du Luxembourg’ – Nylander (1886): changing lichen vegetation • Biomonitors: lichens and Usnea sp. are very sensitive to SO2 • Beard lichen (Usnea sp.) in an unpolluted environment, growing on a Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) Global 35 warnings
  • 36. Eutrophication and consequences • Eutrophication: excess of nutrients in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems • [N], [P] too high • Causes are point (fertilization) and diffuse (industry and household) sources of pollution • P is a limiting factor for algal growth • In very polluted waters dominance of cyanobacteria with reduction of [light, O2] can prevailAlgal blooms (Australia) of a.o. • Stench, fish mortality, deteriorationaggregates of cyanobacterial of aquatic plants -no pike in absenceMicrocystis aeruginosa of shelter-, increase of plankton-Toxic for man and animal in hot eaters as common bream,…summers • Too many fish without predatorsN-fixation benefits green algae reduce zooplankton and enhancewith N-limitation in eutrophic algal growthconditions • Charales (Chara sp.), spiny naiads (Najas major),… disappear in favour Global of waterweeds (Elodea sp.) 36 warnings
  • 37. Terrestrial eutrophication • Open pastures, heathland, dunes, oligotroph pine forests and deciduous forests, thickets,… run wild with a decrease of diversity • Wet pastures may dry up by acid deposition or by decrease of alkali ground water • Sodding is a solution • Deciduous forests may encounter a shortage of Mg • Forests will know an accelerated succession and an increase ofEutrophication will favour sand nitrophilous plantssedge (Carex arenaria), a • Some species will dominate,colonizer of dunes while others will vanish by competition Global 37 warnings
  • 38. Eutrophication and solutions • Surface-flow wetlands supported by a wide variety of soil types, can be used for N- and P- removal • Reedbeds can be a palette of reeds (Phragmites sp.), sedges e.g. tule (Schoenoplectus acutus), cattails (Typha ssp.),… • Ammonification in the aerobic and anaerobic layers converses organic N to NH4+…Surface-flow wetlands, Friesland • …which oxidizing bacteriaMozaic of aerobic and anaerobic transform to NO3-patches • Denitrification in anaerobic layersExtensive root systems and air produces N2O and N2 from NO3-filled nerves conduct O2 … • PO43- collides with clay particles or…as a crucial property on metals (Al3+, Fe3+,…)anaerobic soils • Sedimentation and removal of biomass reduces N and P in the Global environment 38 warnings
  • 39. The O3 layer: a protective shield for all life on earth • Sources of depletion: • CFCs (life span of more than 100 y), since 1930 frequently used in air conditioning, refrigerators • CCl4, CH3CCl3, halocarbons and NOx • High concentrations of H2S and CH4 • Montreal (1987): 85% reduction CFCs by 2007Reduction O3 to O2 is a chain • Lowest amounts of ozone foundreaction of Cl over the Antarctic during southernOptimal at -80 , in the polar spring in Octoberstratosphere during Antarctic winter • Marine life, birds, algae and plankton show a decline of growthUV mainly damages amino acids in the Antarctic zone3% less O3 > 20% more chance of • Some alarming holes in the Arcticskin cancer layer were observed Global 39 warnings
  • 40. Destruction of the ozone layer Global 40warnings
  • 41. First observation in 1970 … Global 41warnings
  • 42. First observation in 1970 … images 1995 - 2004 Global 42warnings
  • 43. Ozone depletion over the Arctic in 2011 • The ‘Dobson unit’ is a convenient measure of the columnar density of ozone overhead • One Dobson unit refers to a layer of ozone that would be 10 µm thick under standard temperature and pressure • 300 DU of ozone brought down to the surface of the earth would occupy a layer only 3 mm thick • The extent of ozone depletion in the early spring 2011 was comparable to that in the Antarctic ozone hole • Ozone depleted skies covered Scandinavia and the northern Russia, resulting in increased levels of ultraviolet radiation Global 43 warnings
  • 44. ‘World avoided’ without ban CFCs Left: ozone layer in 2009 Right: the ozone layer without ban Note: red indicates high concentration O3, blue indicates low concentrations Global 44warnings
  • 45. Pollution of oceans by plastic and trash • Fish, turtles, marine mammals and about 44% of all seabirds e.g. royal terns (Sterna maxima), northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis),… mistake plastic for food or get entangled in it • Plastic-derived chemicals can cause cancer in humans and simpler life-forms may be more susceptible than we are • Plastic debris - most of it smaller five mm - are dispersed over millions of square miles of ocean and miles deep in the water column • Solutions include improving the public’s awareness, reducing the use of plastics and enforcing existing laws to punish habitual litterers • The graph shows the average number of trash items counted for several years along a popular 7-mile stretch of Mustang Island Global Gulf Beach, Texas 45 warnings
  • 46. Harmful invasive species • Invasive species have a negative impact on biodiversity, economy or health • Damage is correlated to the integration and ecological impact • Distribution and invasion of black list species must be checked at an early stage • If a species is too harmful, eradication is appropriate • E.g. brown rats (RattusIf funds are limited, control of A1 norvegicus) and common carps (Cyprinus carpio)species is the main priorityEradication is only possible instarting populations with habitatsnot fully colonizedManagement A2 species: preventionof further distribution, particularly innature reserves Trojan 46 horses
  • 47. Black lists • A1-species: e.g. the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), is omnivorous and an ardent predator • Considered less harmful as originally thought • Reproduction is not possible in Western Europe, because the embryo doesn’t survive cold winters • Reproducing populations in southern Europe • Prohibition of 1997 was evaded by import of the cumberland slider (Trachemys scripta troosti)Trojan 47horses
  • 48. Examples of harmful exotic species A1- Ludwigia grandiflora • Invasive neophyte • Kleine Nete Retie, Kasterlee, Herentals, Grobbendonk (Belgium) • Escaped from garden ponds • The water primrose is being controlled, but mechanical removal is an awkward manoeuvre • Vegetative reproduction from parts of a plant makes eradication a titanic jobWater primrose (Ludwigia grandiflora) Trojan 48 horses
  • 49. Original distribution of the water primrose This species has a disjunct distribution with a 1st area ranging from Pennsylvania to Texas, a 2nd in California and Oregon and a 3rd in Brazil, Argentina, Chili, Uruguay and Paraguay Trojan 49 horses
  • 50. Situation in France in 2009Trojan 50horses
  • 51. Examples of harmful introducedspecies A1 – Rana catesbeiana • The bullfrog is native to North-America • Introduced for the rear legs or as inhabitant of garden ponds • The bullfrog, able to catch birds and mammals as prey, is enormously harmful to the native fauna • Ecosystems near the German Rhine has to cope with reproductive populations • In spite of a prohibition on import, trade lingers on Trojan 51 horses
  • 52. A2 - Introduced species: e.g. black cherry (Prunus serotina) • Introduced from America in Europe in the 19th century for timber on poor soils • In the 20th century applied as a soil improver under pine trees • Invasive in forests, especially on acid and sandy soils • Pollination by different species ofAlder buckthorn (Frangula alnus): Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleopterahost to the caterpillar of the • Strongly competitive throughbrimstone (Gonopteryx rhamni), tolerance of shade andthe holly blue (Celastrina argiolus) maintenance of saplingsand the brown hairstreak (Thecla • Colonizing by fast fruiting andbetulae) crowding out of Frangula alnus,Asian knotweed (Fallopia japonica), Prunus padus, Quercus robur,…another example of an A2-species, • Leaves are toxic to cattleis one of earth’s most invasive plants • Control by pathogenic fungus Chondrostereum purpureum Trojan horses 52
  • 53. A2 - Introduced species: e.g. gianthogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) • Giant hogweed, native to the Caucasus Region and Central Asia and much appreciated by beekeepers, was introduced into Europe and North-America • Being a threat to natural ecosystems, this plant is also dangerous to human health • Contact with the toxic giant hogweed sap leads to severe burns • Each plant produces betweenMass vegetation of giant 30 000 and 50 000 winged seedshogweed, Boxmeer, Netherlands • Its regenerative capability meansBy forming dense stands they can that even an isolated plant isdisplace native plants and reduce capable of founding a new colony,wildlife interests especially in presence of waterways, wind or human activity Trojan 53 horses
  • 54. A2 - Introduced species: e.g. Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) • Shelduck (Tadorninae), related to the common shelduck • They are found mostly in the Nile Valley and south of the Sahara • In 1967 some individuals escaped in the Netherlands and Belgium and the species is nowadays commonly observed • Stabilization, within the recent years there has been a furtherEgyptian goose (Alopochen growth of the populationaegyptiacus) in a typical • Not harmed by cold wintersmenacing flight • ‘Trade mark’: aggression • Squatting the nest of other waterfowls, hawks and buzzards Trojan 54 horses
  • 55. A2 –Introduced species: e.g. harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) • Harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) • Introduced as herbivore of mildew and as predator of aphids in greenhouses • Reproduces freely in the ecosystems of Western Europe • Ecological consequences are considerable: as generalist species and super predator it chases away and predates onHarlequin ladybirds, easily indigenous speciesrecognizable by the white markings • Wintering behaviour insideon their pronotum ("M"- or "W"- buildingsshaped black area) Trojan 55 horses
  • 56. Introduced species and evolution • In the African Great Lakes, the tribe of Haplochromini (Cichlidae) have radiated to fill almost all major niches, mostly because of different food habits and courtship • More than 300 adaptive types in Lake Victoria alone • Paralabidochromis chilotes: with thickened lips, preys on insects • Haplochromis obliquidens: grazes on algae • They are being extinguished by the giant Nile perch (Lates niloticus) • Introduced as a game fish by Ugandan officials in the 1920s • Being a fat fish, a lot of wood is required to get it done, promoting deforestation and erosion • Local fishermen were being deprived of their income Trojan 56 horses
  • 57. Introduced species and evolution • The apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) infects apple trees, introduced into North America from Europe around 1800 • Before the arrival of apples from Europe, it was mainly found in hawthorns (Crataegus sp.) • The apple feeding race does not feed on hawthorns and vice versa • This is an example of an early step in the evolution of new species byR. pomonella on hawthorn means of an extra choice of a newBoth races of the maggots foodplant, a case of sympatricare still resigned to the same evolutiontaxon • The possible emergence of a new4 – 6% hybridisation between species of Rhagoletis also appears tothe races drive the speciation among its parasites Trojan 57 horses
  • 58. Introduced species and evolution The graph shows the temporal gap between the two races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Bush 1969) The imago appears before the trees set fruit Parasitoid ichneumon wasps can be launched in case of a plague The ‘apple race’, with 70% less parasitoid infection, is better protected against the wasps, seen that the larvae live deeper inside the fruit as the female wasps can drill their ovipositorsTrojan 58horses
  • 59. Introduced species and evolution Rhagoletis pomonella with Batesian mimicry: the markings on the wings closely resemble the forelegs and pedipalps of jumping spiders (Salticidae), this way avoiding predation by them Trojan 59 horses
  • 60. Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus) Trojan 60 horses
  • 61. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008 Local flora & 61 fauna under assault
  • 62. Threatened taxa: breeding birds in Belgium and the Netherlands • Common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) • Declining populations in all countries of Western and Central Europe • More than 20 000 (1987), less than 10 000 (2009) breeding pairs in the Netherlands • Use of insecticides affects the cuckoos, who are dependent on insect eating hosts • Climate change causes some hosts to breed earlier (e.g. the robin), in disfavour of the young cuckoo who hatches best first… • … to eject the other eggs • Mimic cuckoo eggs in a nest of a great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) Local flora & 62 fauna under assault
  • 63. Threatened taxa: breeding birds in Belgium and the Netherlands • The most widespread species of swallow in the world is not endangered, but local populations decline due to specific threats such as the destruction of a reed bed with three million birds for the construction of an airport in Durban • In the 70s more than 200 000 breeding pairs shift to less than 30 000 in 2009 in Belgium • Habitat reduction by replacement of old barns by more modern ones … • ...of which owners keep out nests for (supposed) hygienic reasonsBarn swallow (Hirundo rustica) • High pressure cleaning and whitewashing chase the birds away • For humans they are attractive birds feeding on insects and therefore they have been tolerated Local flora & 63 fauna under assault
  • 64. Threatened taxa: breeding birds in Belgium and the Netherlands • Cities and villages nowadays have a shortage of available nesting sites • In Western Europe and in the Netherlands pre-eminantly, where it is considered an endangered species, numbers have dropped • Replacement of horses by combustion engines, air pollution, use of toxics against insects and plants are contributing factors • The house sparrow is a seed eaterHouse sparrow • The hatchlings need insects for(Passer domesticus) fledging • Invasive in North America and Australia since the 19th century Local flora & 64 fauna under assault
  • 65. Threatened taxa: breeding birds in Belgium and the Netherlands • Dutch and Flemish red lists label the nightingale as vulnerable: 7 500 breeding pairs • Reason of decline: biotope of marsh forests and pastures disappear more and more by depletion of groundwater • Drought during roosting in the south of the African continent provides fewer insects • Loud songs with an impressive variation of whistles, are particularly noticeable atNightingale night because few other birds are singing(Luscinia megarhynchos) • Nightingales sing even louder in urban environments, in order to overcome the background noise Local flora & 65 fauna under assault
  • 66. Threatened taxa: breeding birds in Belgium and the Netherlands • The pied flycatcher is a victim of global warming • Being migratory over long distances, this bird is being confronted with an earlier spring in the temperate zones • A prerequisite to breed is an abundance of insects • The pied flycatcher hastened its breeding season by 10 days, by which less recuperation is granted • The UK population has declined by 43% in the past decade,Ficedula hypoleuca nests in decreasing breeding performanceholes and can be helped by being a major factorsupplying nesting-boxes • As breeding performance is declining, breeding-basedIt has a preference for oak trees strategies such as habitat management remain useful Local flora & conservation tools 66 fauna under assault
  • 67. Threatened taxa: breeding birds in Belgium and the Netherlands • The corn bunting has recently become extinct in Ireland where it was once common • The Flemish population declines by 5% every year, in 2005 the population fell to 150 breeding pairs • Referring to Flanders, the fieldfare (Turdus pilaris), theA corn bunting (Miliaria calandra) Montagu’s harrier (Circusand a European bee-eater (Merops pygargus), the wheatearapiaster) sharing private business (Oenanthe oenanthe), theFormer has declined greatly in golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus),northwest Europe due to intensive the bullfinch (Pyrrhulaagricultural practices depriving it of pyrrhula), the great grey shrikeits food supply of weed seeds and (Lanius excubitor) a.o. illustrateinsects this negative trend Local flora & 67 fauna under assault
  • 68. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • The brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), endangered in Belgium and the Netherlands • Roost sites in tree holes or buildings are often thought of as ‘untidy’ • Pesticide use has devastating effects, causing severe decline in insect prey abundance, and contaminating food with potentially fatal toxins • Insecticides applied to timber inside buildings where roosts occur are a particular danger • An agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe under the auspices of the Bonn Convention, also known as the Convention on Migratory species (CMS) is in force, and all European bats are listed under Appendix II of the CMS Local flora & 68 fauna under assault
  • 69. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • The common midwife toad is a pioneer species, preferring a habitat with pools, hiding places and lots of sunlight • Overgrowth of its habitat by succession makes populations decline • The tadpoles can linger in chalk quarries and holloways with waters considered ecologically ‘bad’Common midwife toad(Alytes obstetricans)Males carrying with them the eggs fromMarch until August Local flora & 69 fauna under assault
  • 70. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • Critically endangered in Belgium • Biotope: small-scale and extensively managed hills and loamy soils e.g. marl quarries • Habitat: marshes, rivers with natural inundations and continuous displacing waters • Undeep waters with a minimum of vegetation and lots of sunlight, where high temperatures may be achieved without competition of other amphibians • Tractor tracks as temporarilyYellow-bellied toad reproduction pools are ideal(Bombina variegata) Local flora & 70 fauna under assault
  • 71. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • Habitat: sunlit vegetations, wooded banks, cattle ponds and forest edges, preferring the transition between water and shrubs • They tend to avoid dark or thick forests, eggs need a minimum of 15° to hatch • As opposed to other frogs, they don’t jump away in case of mowing: they confide on their camouflageEuropean tree frog (Hyla arborea)Main threats include draining & pollutionof wetlands, acidification and habitatfragmentationBeside these, increased use of fertilizersand pesticides, and introduction of troutin ponds account for the decline Local flora & 71 fauna under assault
  • 72. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • Pine martens have a broad diet consisting of small rodents, birds, beetles, carrion, eggs and berries • They prefer well-wooded areas • In the Netherlands they were heavily persecuted in the past • Current threats include human disturbance, illegal poisoning intended to kill foxes and crows and fur trade • Wildlife corridors and eco- engineering made numbers inPine martens (Martes martes) can Flevoland increasereduce the population of grey • The Netherlands have a populationsquirrels… of 350 adult animals…stimulating the population of • After an absence of decades in Flanders, an injured animal wasnative red squirrels who are better spotted in the center of Kalmthoutcamouflaged and move less on the in ’07, in September ‘11 a pineground marten was seen in De Panne Local flora & 72 fauna under assault
  • 73. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • The hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius), a member of the Gliridae family, is a rare sight in Belgium • On loess covered hillsides, on riverbanks, in mixed oak forests rich in food providing trees (nuts, berries, bark, etc.) • Tree or shrub dweller, rarely seen on ground level, nocturnal • It has low mobility, but can colonize new territory via hedgerows • Hibernates, torpor during the summer months in case of food shortage • The hazel dormouse has limited distribution and is endangered, has disappeared from the wild in the Netherlands Local flora & 73 fauna under assault
  • 74. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • Top predator • Clear streaming water or clean, deep lakes • The burbot spawns early, larvae die in temperatures over 6°C • Dependant on flooding of river valleys • Considered extinct in Belgium since 1970 • In 1999, the Flemish government developed a reintroduction program • Primary threats are declining quality of water and destruction of spawningThe burbot (Lota lota) is the bedsonly cod-like fresh water fish • Endangered but not legally protected in the Netherlands, legal protection does exist in Belgium Local flora & 74 fauna under assault
  • 75. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands The last known European crayfish (Astacus astacus) in Flanders was caught in Lanaken in 1945 In the Netherlands the species has been introduced in some small lakes of the Veluwe Once abundant throughout Europe, it is listed as Vulnerable (IUCN ‘11) due to the crayfish plague carried by the invasive American species signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) Local flora & 75 fauna under assault
  • 76. Other threatened taxa in Belgium and the Netherlands • The large blue became extinct in the United Kingdom in 1979 due to the loss of the short turf habitat when rabbits died out during the myxomatosis crisis • One out of ten species of butterflies in Europe are threatened with extinction • In Flanders, the situation is even more severe: out of 64 native species 18 are lost and 2/3 is threatened or on the verge of extinctionThe large blue (Maculinea • Intensive farming, global warmingarion) caterpillar transforms into and tourism led to this disastrousthe butterfly adult inside resultMyrmica sabuleti ants’ nest 76
  • 77. Bee population density levels are dangerously low • The Varroa mite is a parasite that targets honey bees exclusively, first found in the Netherlands in 1983 • A fertilized Varroa jacobsoni female is brought into the nest by a bee • The female infects the breeding cells before they are sealed off with wax • Bee larvae deform because of the presence of the mite, the drones are mainly affectedRemoving the sealed off drone • The adult mite feeds on the bee’sbreeding cells from the hive 2 to hemolymph3 times in May and June can • Creates deformities, affects vitality,reduce the infection by half introduces infectious pathogens • Import of bees is prohibited, transportation can be limited Local flora & 77 fauna under assault
  • 78. Severe infection can cause the death of the entire hive between August and October Graph: Dietzen Hermann (1988) Without prevention, the beekeeper will be confronted with wax moths attacking the hive, surrounded by dead bees Local flora & 78 fauna under assault
  • 79. Will global warming bring about a “beepocalypse”? • Nosema ceranae and N. apis affect the bees intestinal tract • While cleaning the cells, the bee picks up a spore • N. apis shows accelerated germination in CO2-heavy conditions • Bt-pesticides, used for maize monocultures, act synergistically with the fungal parasite • Fumagilline may be effective, but the development of resistance cannot be ruled out • Hive hygiene is of primary importance • Use of Imidacloprid, a highly toxic insecticide to bees enhancing colony collapse disorder, should be forbidden • Healthy and N. ceranae infected hiveLocal flora & 79fauna under assault
  • 80. Global threats to taxa • Corals appear on the IUCN list for the first time (2007) • Charles Darwin Research Station (Galapagos): 3 types of coral Critically Endangered • 74 Galapagos sea weeds appear on IUCN • Overfishing increases barnacle population, which grazes on sea weeds • Marine ecosystems are under globalWellington’s solitary coral threat because of rising temperatures(Rhizopsammia wellingtoni ) • Regional decline because of warmer1 of the 3 endangered sea water, brought about by El NiñoGalapagos corals (mass destruction in Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador and Colombia in 1982-1983) • Localized decline caused by overfishing Biodiversity 80 threatened
  • 81. Corals, a specialized form of mutualism between algae en corallites • Scleractinia (Anthozoa) are polyp-like corallites with a hardened skeleton, which creates the reef • Algae (Zooxanthellae) convert sunlight to sugars, corals produce nitrogen compounds • This symbiosis –and therefore coral reefs- can only exist in shallow, clear water • Rising sea levels is a threat to coral reefsPorites sp., skeleton producing • Increasing levels of CO2 acidifiescoral, can live for up to a 1 000 oceans, reducing the coral’s ability toyears take up calcium and slowing their growth • Eutrophication (induced by fertilizers) reduces O2 levels and suffocates algae Biodiversity 81 threatened
  • 82. Florida Keys reefs: a degraded biodiversity hotspot • A survey of 105 reefs shows a decline by 44% between 1996 and 2005 • The archipelago –the only tropical reef belt off the North American coast- is the 3rd largest with a diversity of 6 000 species • 520 species of fish, 128 species of starfish, 63 species of stony coralElkhorn coral (Acropora palmata), • Reefs become engorged with oil,2006 status: Critically Endangered lose mucus and become more susceptible to infectionsMolasses reef reduced by 96%between 1981 and 1986, in part • Solvents used by BP were morecaused by a 1986 Panama oil spill toxic than the oil itself Biodiversity 82 threatened
  • 83. Reasons for the endangerment of taxa • Primary cause: loss of habitat • Deforestation for the benefit of the wood industry or to make room for cattle • WWF focuses on ‘flagship species’ or ‘keystone species’: used as ‘umbrella species’; what is beneficial to them, is beneficial to the entire habitat • Lemurs on Madagascar • Mountain gorillas in East Africa • Jaguars in Neotropis • Orang-utans on Borneo,... • Other causes: poaching, introduction of new species, climate change • Coquerel’s sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi coquereli) • Below: destruction of rainforest on Madagascar for wood and livestock Biodiversity 83 threatened
  • 84. Example of endangerment through deforestation • The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagscariensis) lives in the rainforests of Madagascar, but also in the drier northwest and on the islands Aye-aye, Nosy and Mangabe • Occupies the same niche as the woodpecker • Taps the bark of trees with its elongated middle finger and listens for edible larvae (Cerambycidae) • Large, overlapping territories of up to 1 km2 • Male ranges overlap between 40 and 75%, and these shared spaces may be occupied by numerous individuals simultaneously • The rapid loss of their natural habitat due to encroachment by humans is the main threat to this species • Hunted because of their habit of eating in coconut or lychee plantations or out ofBiodiversitythreatened superstition 84
  • 85. Example of endangerment through deforestation • Daubentonia robusta, which was three to five times the aye- aye’s weight, once lived in the dry southwest, but has become extinct less than 1 000 years ago • Identical adaptation to a diet of insects; remarkable because normally, only small mammals can live exclusively on insects • Halfway through the 20th century, people thought the aye-aye had become extinct, but it was rediscovered in 1961 • Distribution: broad but sparseBiodiversity 85threatened
  • 86. Loss of habitat and populations • Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) – Bovidae, southwest USA • Rams have large, curved horns • Canyons, cliffs and deserts, where water is a prerequisite for survival • Around 1900, total population imploded to less than 1 000; preservation restored population size • Main predator is the mountain lion • Populations of less than 100 tend to die out rapidly • Once population becomes too small, inbreeding starts to occur • To sustain a population of 1 000, large carnivores need a territory of 106 haBiodiversity 86threatened
  • 87. Genetic erosion • Habitat fragmentation diminishes the gene pool of endangered low populations of wild plant and animal species, affecting their immune system and viability • Populations of endangered species tend to be small, with inbreeding, genetic drift and a loss ofCheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): heterozygosity as a consequencelow genetic variation • Nevertheless the existence of modernPopulation susceptible to but expensive techniques, the best way to prevent genetic erosion is todiseases, weakened physical protect their habitat and to let themfitness and a low fertility rate live in it naturallyWildt (1992) discovered a • Wildlife sanctuaries and corridors todeformation of sperm cells for enable endangered species to travel,more than ½ of the cheatahs meet and breed can be integrated20 000 cheetahs on earth are with reintroduction and ex situalmost genetically similar conservation Biodiversity 87 threatened
  • 88. Removal of keystone species drastically alters communities The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) once thrived among the kelp beds close to shore from Alaska to southern California It was hunted by European settlers for its fur, so by the end of the 19th century it was close to extinction In places where sea otters disappeared completely, an unexpected sequence of events unfolded Biodiversity 88 threatened
  • 89. Removal of keystone species drastically alters communities Distribution Enhydra lutris Population worldwide is estimated to be 108 000 IUCN 2000: Endangered Remaining populations are small and widely dispersed, causing low genetic diversity Biodiversity 89 threatened
  • 90. Removal of keystone species drastically alters communities Sea otters feed mainly on crustaceans, including sea urchins (Echinoidea) The disappearance of the sea otter caused a population explosion for the sea urchin, and because sea weed is the urchin’s staple food, it turned the seabed that once housed forests of kelp into a desolate waste Biodiversity 90 threatened
  • 91. Removal of keystone species drastically alters communities • Above: seabed with kelp forest • Below: seabed from which the sea otter is absent • Small populations survived near the Aleutian Islands (chain of islands between the US and Russia) • Part of this population was moved to the coasts of Canada and the US to restore their presence there • As the sea otter population grew, the number of sea urchins decreased and kelp forests once again flourished • The gray whale (Eschrichtius robostus) migrated closer to shore to protect its young from sharks and to feed on zooplankton Biodiversity 91 threatened
  • 92. Removal of keystone species drastically alters communitiesDistribution Eschrichtius robostus, ca. 20 000 individuals, 2populationsIUCN 2008: Critically Endangered in the northwest PacificSea otter population is under threat from overfishing, oilpollution and predation by Orcinus orca Biodiversity 92 threatened
  • 93. Eschrichtius robostusBiodiversity 93threatened
  • 94. When a species becomes extinct, it’s gone for good • 1 – A species is endangered when it has a large area of distribution, but is sparsely dispersed • Bachman’s warbler (Verminora bachmanii) is the rarest bird indigenous to the US (Alabama, South-Carolina) • It winters on Cuba and occasionally on Isla de la Juventud • Area suited for wintering becomes scarce due to deforestation in favour of sugar cane plantations and, upon its return, the male risks not being noticed by females • Habitat: forested swamp valleys, preferably rich in river cane (Arundinaria gigantea) Biodiversity 94 threatened
  • 95. When a species becomes extinct, it’s gone for good • River cane also known as ‘switch cane’, at one time covered an area from Virginia to Florida and western Texas • Canebrakes were once a common feature of the landscape in the southeastern United States, but today it is an endangered ecosystem • The cutting down of its habitat and the draining of swamps are the mean threats facing the Bachman’s warbler • Last sightings: South-Carolina (1988), Cuba (2002) • Below: Congaree National Park (South-Carolina), possibly one of the last place of refuge for this species Biodiversity 95 threatened
  • 96. When a species becomes extinct, it’s gone for good• 2 – A species is endangered when it consist of a few dense populations, living in a small area of distribution• Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), southern Michigan peninsula, requires large areas, densely forested with young Pinus banksiana• Between 1961 and 1971, the population fell to 400 birds, in part due to brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) Biodiversity 96 threatened
  • 97. When a species becomes extinct, it’s gone for good • Research suggests the cowbird exhibits mobster-like behaviour • They will monitor the nest and destroy it if their egg is not present • This makes warblers less inclined to remove the egg, an action for which they are physically underequipped to begin with • Originally, the species followed the trek of the bison, but contrary to the bison, the bird adapted successfully to life in open spaces, after the forests east of the prairie had been cut down • Their reproductive niche complements their nomadic lifestyle Biodiversity 97 threatened
  • 98. Brown-headed cowbirds following grazing bisons Biodiversity 98 threatened
  • 99. When a species becomes extinct, it’s gone for good • 3 – A species is endangered when it exists in large populations, distributed over large areas, but has become highly specialized to occupy a rare niche • The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) can only claim 1% of its original territory, which consists of pine forests that are at least 80 years old • To nest, they hollow out cavities in living, mature longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) • Offspring aids the breeding pair in protecting their young, creating a group that requires an area of ca. 86 ha 99 Biodiversity threatened
  • 100. Predicted to become extinct?... • Hibiscadelphus distans is an endemic of Kaua’i, Hawaii • In the Lower Koai’e Canyon rest two existing populations of 20 wild and 150 introduced trees • Despite the extreme rarity of H. distans, it is the biggest population of the genus, of which four of the six species are extinct or are extinct in nature • H. woodii e.g. with four trees observed on Kaua’i is even closer to eleminationBiodiversity 100threatened
  • 101. Hibiscadelphus woodii in bloomBiodiversity 101threatened
  • 102. Predicted to become extinct?...• The Socorro sowbug (Thermosphaeroma thermophilum) is an aquatic crustacean that has lost its natural habitat and survives in an abandoned bathhouse in New Mexico• The relict population took this refugium after the well where the sowbugs lived was shut down in 1970• Genetic and physiologic divergention demonstrates apart from the possible speed of evolution an extra threat if the species has to survive in the wild again Biodiversity 102 threatened
  • 103. Lost?.... • Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is limited to palm groves and river-edge woodland across southern Pará, Brazil • Poaching by bird fanciers, paying up to 40 000 $ for a single bird, has driven the Spix’s macaw to a population of four birds left in the wild • The decline was hastened by imported Africanized bees, whose colonies occupy the tree holes favored by the macaw • By late ‘90 only one single male was left in the wild, according Tony Juniper of the International Council for Bird Preservation, ‘being desperate to breed’Biodiversity 103threatened
  • 104. Biodiversity in danger during the past • Polynesians colonized the Pacific islands from Tonga to Hawaii from 8000 BC on • They subsisted on crops and domestic animals carried in their canoes • To complete their diet, the voyagers ate their way through the endemic fauna • When European settlers arrivedMoa-nalo is a general term for all after Captain Cook’s visit in 1778,extinct flightless goose-like ducks there were 50 native species ofThe proof of their existence is landbirds in Hawaiihidden in the sinkholes of the Ewa • Bone deposits show that anotherPlain caves, where they were 35 species had already beenimprisoned and died extinguished by the native Hawaiians Biodiversity 104 threatened
  • 105. Biodiversity in danger during the past • Before the Maoris arrived in New Zealand around 1300, it was home to 11 species of moas (Emeidae and Dinornithidae), the largest weighing 230 kg • In a period of ± 150 years all of them have become extinct • They had undergone a radiation filling many niches, seen the lack of moderate and big mammals • On South Island, the deposits are piled with moa bones dating from 1100 to 1300Simulation of the hunting forDinornis giganteus Biodiversity 105 threatened
  • 106. Biodiversity in danger during the past Haast’s eagle (Harpagornis moorei), twice as large as a golden eagle, was the only natural enemy of the moas The largest eagle known to have ever existed became extinct in ± 1400 when its major food sources, the moas, were hunted to extinction by humans and much of its dense forest habitat was cleared Biodiversity 106 threatened
  • 107. Biodiversity in danger during the past Fully isolated for 70 million years, Madagascar was the theater for a biological tragedy like New Zealand’s The Indonesian Malagache pioneers, extinguished from 500 to 1000 the seven species of elephant birds (Aepyornithidae), including A. maximus, the world’s largest bird Also erased were seven of the seventeen genera of lemurs Biodiversity 107 threatened
  • 108. Biodiversity in danger during the past • Quaternary (2,6 million year BC- 0) extinctions, beside being caused by the ice ages, appear to have occurred where naive animals encountered humans • Paleo-Indians throughout America, Dutch sailors on Mauritius –to meet and extirpate the dodo -, Polynesians across the Pacific were constrained by neither knowledge of endemicity nor any ethic of conservation • The hunters were selective in their choice of taxa, with a concentration on large mammals and flightless birds • They ignored other species e.g. small rodents • ‘Human hunters help no species’ Edward O. Wilson • Edward O. Wilson, The Diversity Of Life, 1992 Biodiversity 108 threatened
  • 109. Narrow habitats, extensive specialization and limited dispersal may put species at risk • Freshwater and land molluscs are vulnerable to extirpation because they are specialized for life in narrow habitats • As a result of a miniature adaptive radiation, the fungus grazing tree snail genus Achatinella is endangered by introduction of the carnivorous Euglandina sp.,… • … loss of habitat, predation by rats and through human collection • Moorean endemic tree snail species are exterminated since 1987, on Tahiti the same sequence is now unfolding • Achatinella sowerbyana, Euglandina rosea Biodiversity 109 threatened
  • 110. The critical predicament of biodiversity is epitomized by Banara vanderbiltii • 250 of the 20 000 plant species known in the US are extinct, another 680 are in danger of extinction (2000) • About ¾ of these occur in only five places: California, Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Texas • In 1986 the population of Banara vanderbiltii was down to two plants growing on a farm near Bayamon (Puerto Rico) • Cuttings were obtained and are now successfully growing in the Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami Biodiversity 110 threatened
  • 111. Fungi in the midst of a mass extinction• Inventarisations in Germany, Austria and the Netherlands have revealed a 40 to 50% loss in species during the past 60 years• The main cause of this decline appears to be air pollution• Many of the vanished species are mycorrhizal fungi, enhancing absorption of nutrients by the roots of plants• Ecologists wonder what would happen to land ecosystems without fungi, and we will soon find out• Russula rubra, extinct in Belgium in 1949 Biodiversity 111 threatened
  • 112. Rifle shots and holocausts• Large, conspicuous organisms receive the greater part of man’s malign attention rather than sowbugs and spiders• Conservationists now recognize the difference between rifle shots or the extinction of one species and holocausts, the destruction of the entire ecosystem• The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) cannot be saved if the remnant woodland in which they live is cleared• The biggest players in a community are the ‘keystonespecies’, serving as umbrellas for all life around them Main 112 biodiversity hotspots
  • 113. Rifle shots and holocausts• Even the most optimistic estimate suggests there are approximately 40 Javan rhinos in the wild on Java• Deforestation, Agent Orange and particularly the trade in horns for traditional Chinese medicine, fetching a price 30 000 $/kg, brought the population on the brink of extinction• Once widespread from Java and Sumatra to China and India• The Javan rhinoceros’ range has been shrinking for at least three millennia to an area of 300 km2, insufficient to restrict inbreeding Main 113 biodiversity hotspots
  • 114. Ecosystems deserving immediate attention • Usumbara Mountain forests, Tanzania • Birds include the green headed oriole (Oriolus chlorocephalus), one of the species of the Amani Forest Nature Reserve • The total area is about 836 km2, of which 450 km2 is covered with forest • With more than 2000 plant species of which about 25% are endemic and with 140 endemic tree species, Amani has been declared as one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots • Overpopulation, poverty, invasive vegetation, deforestation and soil erosion are the main threats Main 114 biodiversity hotspots
  • 115. Ecosystems deserving immediate attention The long-billed forest warbler (Orthotomus moreaui), is an endemic songbird living in the Amani Forest Nature Reserve Endangered, threatened by loss of montane forests Main 115 biodiversity hotspots
  • 116. San Bruno Mountain, California • Scientists said San Francisco is notorious in international lepidopterist circles for its long list of disappearing butterflies • Of the 54 species that lived in San Francisco around 1900, only 34 remain • The San Bruno elfin butterfly (Callophrys mossii bayensis) with its typical lycaenid interaction with ants, is restricted to a few small populations • Host plant: Sedum spathulifolium • Native fauna and flora is diminished by off-road vehicles, quarrying and invasive Eucalyptus species, gorse (Ulex europaeus),… Main 116biodiversity hotspots
  • 117. Oases of the Dead Sea Depression, Israel and Jordan• These humid refuges in a desert area, called ghors, are isolated tropical ecosystems sustained by freshwater springs• True pockets of an ancient flora and fauna restricted to the vicinity of ghors or even to a single spring, are joined by species that flourish thousands of kilometers to the south• The springs are populated with endemic Cichlidae, the banks with e.g. weaver ants (Oecophylla sp.) and the surrounding rocks with a.o. the Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), from which the wild population is estimated at ± 1 200 animals (IUCN 2008) Main 117 biodiversity hotspots
  • 118. Oases of the Dead Sea Depression, Israel and Jordan• The Nubian nightjar (Caprimulgus nubicus), found from Kenya to Oman, has places for brooding in the oases• The oases are threatened by overgrazing, expansion of a quarry and commercial development Main 118 biodiversity hotspots
  • 119. California floristic province• This Mediterranean-climate domain, stretching from Oregon to Baja California and recognized by botanists as a separate evolutionary center, contains ¼ of all plant species of the US• The hotspot is home to the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) and holds some of the last individuals of the Critically Endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), here with common raven escort• Wilderness destruction is caused by commercial farming, pollution and road construction Main 119 biodiversity hotspots
  • 120. Slash & burn in Madagascar• The most basic need for the Malagasy - putting food on the table - far exceeds that of biodiversity and forest conservation• One has only to fly over the coast or sail along the shore to see how the red soil of Madagascar is washing into the sea• 30 primates, all lemurs; reptiles and frogs (as sole amphibians) that are 90% endemic illustrate the unique richness of nature• 2/3 of all chameleons of the world live on the island Main 120 biodiversity hotspots
  • 121. Slash & burn in Madagascar• 80% of the 10 000 plant species is endemic• Since the military coup by the current leader Rajoelina (2009), forest conservation efforts in Madagascar have been reversed and illegal logging has grown into a major revenue• Former President Ravalomanana protected forests and promoted sustainable agriculture• Brookesia minima, world’s smallest chameleon Main 121 biodiversity hotspots
  • 122. Slash & burn in Madagascar • Adansonia is a genus of eight species of trees, six native to Madagascar, one native to mainland Africa and one to Australia • The six Malagasy species are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species • Adansonia madagascariensis - Madagascar baobab • They are pollinated by a diverse fauna of lemurs, moths, bats and in Africa by e.g. galagos species (Galagidae) • The fruits contain more vitamin C than oranges Main 122 biodiversity hotspots
  • 123. Grandidiers Baobab (Adansonia grandidieri) Main 123 biodiversity hotspots
  • 124. The fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) is the islandslargest surviving endemic terrestrial mammal• Fossas are particularly vulnerable to extinction by forest fragmentation, dwindling lemur populations and the persecution by farmers to protect their poultry• IUCN 2008: Vulnerable, over the course of the last 21 years, there has been a population reduction exceeding 30%, with a current population size of less than 2 500 animals (Hawkins and Racey 2005) and ±400 breeding adults Main 124 biodiversity hotspots
  • 125. Lower slopes of the Himalayas• Lush mountain forests encircle the southern and eastern edges of the Himalayas• The fauna and flora is a complex mixture of tropical species of southern origin and temperate species from the north• The succession of deep valleys and sharp ridges divides the fauna and flora into large local assemblages, displaying for example 9 000 plant species of which 40% are limited to the region• Red panda (Ailurus fulgens), Vulnerable, less than 10 000 individuals face the risk of inbreeding (Nepal to China) Main 125 biodiversity hotspots
  • 126. Lower slopes of the Himalayas • Snow leopards (Uncia uncia) occupy alpine and subalpine areas generally 3 350 and 6 700 meters above sea level in Central Asia • Snow leopards have stocky bodies, long thick fur, small and rounded ears as adaptations to cold mountainous environments • Considerable predation of domestic livestock occurs which brings this opportunist, first described in 1775 (Schreber), into direct conflict with humans • Home range varies with density of prey (12 – 1000 km2) • Wild population maximum 6 500 • Densely populated regions put pressure on the virgin woods, down Main by 2/3 through logging,… 126biodiversity hotspots
  • 127. Western Ghats, India • These moist, deciduous forests and montane rain forests have a unique floral composition • Former is the habitat of teak (Tectona grandis), a lot of which were illegally and extensively cut in the 20th century • The latter are dominated by evergreen forests characterized by trees of the Lauraceae a.o. Litsea oleoides (Kerala, Tamil Nadu) • 18 endemic species of this genus thrive in the Ghats, of which three have a very limited range • The family, with many relic species, has its origin in the coastal laurel forests of Gondwana Main 127biodiversity hotspots
  • 128. Western Ghats, India • The purple frog (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis) is the sole representative of an ancient lineage of frogs that has been evolving independently for over 130 million years after the break up of Gondwana • The purple frog is described as a ‘living fossil,’ closest relatives being four tiny frog species found in the Seychelles in the Sooglossidae family • Formally discovered in 2003, the purple frog spends most of the year underground, surfacing only to mateThe potential for dam during the monsoondevelopments to inundate vast • The purple frog is thought to be a rareareas of its habitat also means species, although it is very hard to findthat the status of the purple • Known from only 135 individuals, offrog is extremely precarious which only three are female Main 128 biodiversity hotspots
  • 129. Western Ghats, India• The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is home to the biggest population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)• It is also an important refuge for tigers• More than 6 000 Asian elephants roam in the Western Ghats of Karnataka (2004)• About a third of the cover of the Ghats is gone already, the remainder is disappearing by 2-3% a year, fragmented due to clear felling for coffee, tea, teak, cardamom and ginger Main 129 biodiversity hotspots
  • 130. Central Chile • This Mediterranean vegetation is characterized by a high degree of endemism through its geographic isolation • Chile is separated from the rest of the continent by the high mountain range of the Andes along its length, dry deserts in the north and frozen ice- fields in the Patagonian south • The flora of Central Chile contains 3 000 plant species, half of the entire Chilean flora, crowded into 6% of the national territory • The surviving cover is only 1/3 of the original and is located in the most densely populated part • Puya alpestris, Bromeliaceae Main 130biodiversity hotspots
  • 131. Central Chile• In earlier times the Chilean palm (Jubaea chilensis) was to be found throughout Central Chile, but it is almost extinct due to the destructive extraction process of its sap• The sap from the trunk produces a fermented beverage, collecting it requires felling the tree, restricting this forest type to some valleys in La Campana and Las Palmas de Cocalan Main 131 biodiversity hotspots
  • 132. Central Chile• The high mountain lizard (Phymaturus palluma) inhabits montane grasslands with elevations up to 3 000 m and exhibits a thermoregulation of darkening to absorb more heat• Central Chile and West Argentina, herbivorous, viviparous Main 132 biodiversity hotspots
  • 133. The Colombian Chocó • In the core of the Chocó the Pangan Nature Reserve encompasses 12 000 acres of super-wet tropical rain forest • Unexplored for the most part, as many as 10 000 plant species grow here, of which ¼ are estimated to be endemic • Keystone species include the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), the only bear species native to South America, the threatened banded ground cuckoo (Neomorphus radiolosus) and baudó guan (Penelope ortoni) • Populations of baudó guan are extremely sensitive to selective logging, hunting for gold, oil palm and illegal coca plantations Main 133biodiversity hotspots
  • 134. The Colombian Chocó • Baudó guan, blue poison dart frog (Dendrobates azureus), the latter found only in the Pangan Nature Reserve, as example of an organism with aposematic coloration to warn predators for its toxic alkaloid secretions • Since the early ’70s, the Chocó has been relentlessly invaded by timber companies and, to a lesser extent, by poor Colombians searching for land • The forests are already down to ¾ of their original cover and are still being destroyed at an accelerating rate Main 134biodiversity hotspots
  • 135. The Colombian ChocóJaguar (Panthera onca), IUCN 2008 Near Threatened Main 135 biodiversity hotspots
  • 136. Western Ecuador • In 1978 Gentry & Dodson documented 90 plant species unique to the Centinela ridge in Ecuador • The cloud forests in which they grow are ecological islands surrounded by lowland rain forests and closed off by the treeless paramos • Among the plants, mainly epiphytes and orchids, were 38 endemic species, many of which were unusually dark-leafed • By 1986, the botanical oasis was cleared: 96% of the forests on the Pacific side have made space for agriculture • A few of the endemic plants have persisted in the shade of cacao trees • Wilson refers to similar extinctions around the world as ‘centinelan extinctions’, Janzen speaks of ‘living dead’Wilson, The Diversity Of Life, 1992 Main 136 biodiversity hotspots
  • 137. Western Ecuador • South of Centinela, the Rio Palenque Science Center a.o. collaborates in protection and research of less than one km2 forest remnants • There are 1 200 plant species in this area, ¼ of them endemic to western Ecuador • In 1993, Dodson & Gentry identified 650 bird species, by which the degree of endemism is among the highest in the world • The Global Trees Campaign is working on reforesting 40 hectares of the Awacachi Corridor with native trees and raising awareness in local communities to conserve the area • Planting the endemic Carapa megistocarpa (Endangered IUCN 2011) Main 137biodiversity hotspots
  • 138. Western Ecuador The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja), a former inhabitant of the canopy layer of the Centinela ridge and Rio Palenque Americas most powerful raptor can be seen in lowland rain forests, but is rare throughout its range Main 138biodiversity hotspots
  • 139. Uplands of western Amazonia • Tertiary alluvial uplands of evergreen rain forests engirdle the Putamayo (Colombia, Peru), the Caquetá (Colombia), the Amazone and the Napo river (Peru) • Common tree species of the upper canopy are the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra), Terminalia amazonia, Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Carapa guianensis and the rubber tree (Hevea guianensis), forming the scenery of primates e.g. the equatorial saki (Pithecia aequatorialis), marmosets (Callithrix sp.), jaguars, bats e.g. the southern little yellow-eared bat (Vampyressa pusilla), three species of anteaters, manatees (Trichechus sp.) and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) nearby or in the rivers Main 139 biodiversity hotspots
  • 140. Uplands of western Amazonia • Tapirus terrestris, Vampyressa pusilla • 500 species of birds populate the Amacayacu National Park e.g. the pavovine quetzal (Pharomachrus pavoninus), the golden-winged tody- flycatcher (Todirostrum calopterum) and the endemic ochre-striped antpitta (Grallaria dignissima) • Reptiles are represented by e.g. the Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa)- the largest fresh water turtle-, the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodylus) and the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) • The Tarapoto’s lake is renowned for its pink dolphin’s community (Inia geoffrensis) Main biodiversity hotspots 140
  • 141. Uplands of western AmazoniaPavovine quetzal (Pharomachrus pavoninus)Melanine organized in platelets renders the males a strikingiridescent coloration Main 141 biodiversity hotspots
  • 142. Uplands of western Amazonia The diminutive pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) is the smallest monkey in the world, weighing only 120 g Female pygmy marmosets are slightly heavier than males They can produce a variety of vocalisations, including a sharp warning whistle and a clicking sound to indicate threat Main 142 biodiversity hotspots
  • 143. Uplands of western AmazoniaInia geoffrensisThe Amazon Pink river dolphin is on the verge of extinctionin the Amazon river basinPollution from agriculture, heavy metals from industry andmining, as well as hydroelectric dams are to blame Main 143 biodiversity hotspots
  • 144. Uplands of western Amazonia A large part of the ecoregion is intact, but still vulnerable to advancing palm oil and coca plantations, logging, mining and cattle-raising 1/3 is under jurisdiction of indigenous communities, mainly between the Putamayo and Caquetá basins Settlement of Yagua, northeast Peru Main 144 biodiversity hotspots
  • 145. Atlantic coast of Brazil • A unique rain forest once reaching from Recife to Florianópolis has been reduced to less than 5% during the 20th century • NGOs are huge benefactors in Brazil, a strategy being implemented to maintain biodiversity is creating wildlife corridors • The tropical forest, tropical savanna and mangrove are blessed with high endemism: 40% of the vascular plants, 60% of the vertebrates are found nowhere else in the world • Over 11 000 species of plants and animals are threatened, new species are continuously being found Main 145biodiversity hotspots
  • 146. Atlantic coast of Brazil • In 2006, a new species of blond capucin (Cebus queirozi), was discovered in norteastern Brazil • Dwindling Bahia coastal forests threaten another species namely the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) • Almost 88% of the original forest habitat has been lost and is replaced by pastures, croplands and urban areas serving aIn 1990 researchers discovered a population of 130 million peoplenew tamarin, the black-faced • Human activity makes the Atlanticlion tamarin (Leontopithecus forest more susceptible to fires, tocaissara) which it is not accustomed Main 146 biodiversity hotspots
  • 147. Atlantic coast of Brazil Maned sloth, endemic to the Bahia coastal forests Maned sloths are folivores, and feed exclusively on tree and liana leaves, especially Cecropia sp. Main 147biodiversity hotspots
  • 148. Southwestern Ivory Coast • Ivory Coast has the highest level of biodiversity in West Africa, with over 1200 animal and 4700 plant species • Most of this diversity occurs in the rugged interior region • Like the rest of West Africa, Ivory Coast has suffered severe deforestation, with less than 2% of primary forest remaining in ‘05 • Prior to the outbreak of war, 17% of the country was set aside in protected areas and measures were taken against illegal logging, poaching, and settler encroachment • Zebra duiker (Cephalophus zebra), Population estimated at 28 000, ‘99 • Common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Population ± 50 000 Nigeria to Guinea Main 148biodiversity hotspots
  • 149. Southwestern Ivory Coast • Limba, Afara or Korina (Terminalia superba), emergent tree in mature tropical forest, deciduous during a short dry period • The bark is used by the Kroumen for the treatment of malaria • Taï National Park (4 520 km2) is Ivory Coast’s last tropical evergreen forest once roaming 160 000 km2 and a natural reservoir of Ebola • The traditional knowledge of indigenous communities (Bakoué, Kroumen) is an attic of genetic potential not yet explored by natural science and medicine Main 149biodiversity hotspots
  • 150. Fynbos, South Africa • Fynbos is the smallest but richest per area unit of the world’s six floral kingdoms • Known for its exceptional degree of biodiversity, 8 600 plant species can be found of which 6 200 are endemic • The flora is composed of evergreen sclerophyllous plants including Ericaceae, Proteaceae and Restionaceae • 30% of plants in the Fynbos produce seeds with anNamaqua rock rat (Aethomys elaiosome which attract antsnamaquensis) pollinating patentleaf carrying the seeds into theirsugarbush (Protea humiflora) burrows and protecting themSouthern double-collared sunbird from common fires(Cinnyris chalybeus), Kniphofia uvaria Main 150 biodiversity hotspots
  • 151. Fynbos, South Africa • Threats to the 71 000 km2 fynbos are the spread of alien species e.g. Acacia sp., agriculture and global warming • A 51% to 65% loss of the area extent of the fynbos is predicted, depending on the climate scenario used • Fynbos cannot support herds of large mammals since the nutrient poor soils on which it grows do not provide enough nitrogen for the protein that large mammals require • Smaller mammals common to fynbos are chacma baboons (Papio ursinis), supporting diversity by seed dispersal, and dassies (Procavia capensis) • Mountain pride (Aeropetes tulbaghia) passionate for red visits Disa uniflora Main 151biodiversity hotspots
  • 152. Fynbos, South Africa Chacma baboons (Wildcliff Nature Reserve) utilize visual signals - such as staring as threat behaviour, canine tooth display and lip smacking -, gestures, vocalizations and tactile communication Mainbiodiversity hotspots 152
  • 153. Sri Lanka• The forest cover has been reduced to slightly less than 10% of its original area, much of the primary forest is being limited to a 56 km2 tract within the Sinhajara Forest• Sri Lankan elephants (Elephas maximus maximus), - population 2 000 - and Sri Lankan leopards (Panthera pardus kotiya), both listed as Endangered by IUCN, once enjoyed a distribution from sea level to the highest mountain ranges Main biodiversity hotspots 153
  • 154. Sri Lanka • The Sinharaja Forest, a 112 km2 remnant of primary forest has been designated as Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site (1989) • Of Sri Lankas 26 endemic birds, the 20 rain forest species all occur here, e.g. the elusive red-faced malkoha (Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus), Cuculidae (VU, IUCN ‘07) • Unusual among agamid lizards, the rarely observed whistling lizard (Calotes liolepis) utters a high-pitched whistle when alarmed • The endemic Shorea trapezifolia, Critically Endangered (IUCN 2011), is one of most dominant components of the canopy in the protected area at Sinharaja Main 154biodiversity hotspots
  • 155. Sri Lanka• As many Dipterocarpaceae, Shorea trapezifolia is a large forest emergent species, found in fragments of lowland and sometimes highland wet evergreen forest, usually on deep soils• Most of the habitat has been converted into plantations• Sri Lanka has a diversity of 257 endemic dipterocarps Main 155 biodiversity hotspots
  • 156. Peninsular Malaysia • The Peninsular Malaysian Rain Forests ecoregion is the biggest in the Indo- Pacific, behind the Borneo Lowland Rain Forests • These majestic forests are dominated by dipterocarps, with wide-ranging top carnivores e.g. Malayan tigers (Felis tigris jacksoni), herbivores e.g. Sumatran rhinoceros (Didermocerus sumatrensis),… • Less than 300 Sumatran rhinos and 500 Malayan tigers remain in the wild • Giant honey bees (Apis dorsata), never domesticated, protect 90m reaching Tualang trees (Koompassia excelsa) from loggers, since the value of honey is greater than that of the timber Main 156biodiversity hotspots
  • 157. Peninsular MalaysiaColony of the giant honey bee, aggressive whendisturbed, in a Tualang treeThese 30 000 bees provide 450 kg honey a year,granting the tree a taboo against felling Main 157biodiversity hotspots
  • 158. Peninsular Malaysia• The Sumatran rhinoceros is the smallest of all rhinos• Around 75 may live in Peninsular Malaysia, the community of Taman Negara (2 770 km2) being the largest• The Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatras largest, was estimated to contain a population of around 500 rhinos in the 80s, but due to poaching this population is now considered extinct• Production of palm oil is the chief cause of logging lowland forests Main 158 biodiversity hotspots
  • 159. Peninsular Malaysia• The sun beer (Ursus malayanus), generally nocturnal, but also seen during the day is the smallest of the eight living bear species• Its fondness for honey gives rise to its alternative name ‘honey bear’• Much of the sun bears food must be detected using its keen sense of smell, as its sight is poor• VU IUCN ’07, poached for their bile used in Chinese medicine Main 159 biodiversity hotspots
  • 160. Borneo • The world’s oldest rain forest in northwestern Borneo is under constant threat from unsustainable logging practices • The seven ecoregions have a diversity of about 15 000 plant species and are an important refuge for many endemic species as Orangutans (Pongo sp.) eating fruits in dipterocarp trees, the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi), the rare bay cat (Pardofelis badia – IUCN ‘11 EN), Elephas maximus borneensis,… • Trees comprise 267 species of dipterocarps, holding the greatest insect diversity on Borneo - as many as 1 000 species have been found in just one tree Main 160biodiversity hotspots
  • 161. Borneo • A projection towards 2020 reveals that 2/3 of the pristine forests which inspired famous scientists as Wallace will be under constant threat from palm oil plantations and tropical timber acquisition • The rain forest was greatly destroyed from the fires of 1997 to 1998, which were started by the locals to clear the forests for crops and perpetuated by an exceptionally dry El Niño season during that period • Borneo pygmy elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) Main 161biodiversity hotspots
  • 162. Borneo• Thick smoke covering southern Borneo in ‘09, image Nasa Terra• The destruction of rain forest and peatlands during the 1997-1998 El Niño released more than 2 billion tons of CO2 in the atmosphere• In ‘09 Indonesia revealed plans to convert millions of hectares of peatland across Kalimantan, Sumatra and Papua, despite warnings from environmentalists Main 162 biodiversity hotspots
  • 163. The Philippines• The Philippine Biodiversity Expedition 2011 studied Luzon island for 42 days and discovered 300 new species in reefs and tropical forests• 2 517 out of 8 613 species assessed by IUCN and 17 291 species in Southeast Asia alone, are on the edge of extinction if no action is taken to combat biodiversity loss• Fragmented into 7 100 islands in a pattern that promotes speciation, the Philippines have evolved an immense endemic flora and fauna• The tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis) IUCN ‘11 Critically Endangered• ‘We are at the center of biodiversity loss’ ACB (ASEAN Center for Biodiversity) Executive Director Rodrigo Fuentes 2010 Main 163 biodiversity hotspots
  • 164. The Philippines• In the past 50 years, 2/3 of the forest has been cleared, including all but 8 000 km2 of the original lowland cover• Rafflesia lobata, belonging to the genus of which the dramatic flowers are the largest single flowers in the world (Ø = 20 - 90 cm), can be found in the countrys mountainous regions• Rafflesia is a parasite, host plants are vines of Tetrastigma spp.• Discovered in the Central Panay mountain range in ‘06, Rafflesia lobata is inherently rare because of a double habitat specialization Main 164 biodiversity hotspots
  • 165. The Philippines Philippine flying lemur (Cynocephalus volans), is one of two species of flying lemurs The membrane between tail and forelimbs helps this arboreal lemur to glide distances of 100 meters or more Despite the destruction of lowland forests and hunting, IUCN downlisted it to Least Concern in 2008 Main 165biodiversity hotspots
  • 166. The Philippines• The primary prey for the Philippine eagles (Pithecophaga jefferyi) are monkeys, birds, flying foxes and Philippine flying lemurs• In 2010, the IUCN listed this species as Critically Endangered, less than 500 birds survive in the Philippines, exposure to pesticides that affect breeding being a major threat• In recent years protected lands have been established specifically for this species Main 166 biodiversity hotspots
  • 167. New Caledonia• Tropical melting pot of species, e.g. the kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus), endemic to forests and shrubland of New Caledonia• Introduction of dogs, … reduced the population of this flightless bird to less than 1 000 in 2009• New Caledonia lacked mammals prior to the arrival of humans, except for Chiroptera (bats)• The loss of much of New Caledonias native forests and the settlement of Europeans who brought with them cats, dogs, rats and pigs are the two major causes of decline Main 167 biodiversity hotspots
  • 168. New Caledonia• Cyathea intermedia in habitat, the tallest endemic fern-tree in New Caledonia• The forests of New Caledonia hold 1 575 species of plants, of which an astonishing 89 % are endemic• The ecoregion covers an area of 14 600 km2• Less than 1 500 km2 or 9% of undisturbed forests survive Main 168 biodiversity hotspots
  • 169. New CaledoniaThe coral reef araucaria (Araucaria columnaris) is an endemicconifer, showing maximum growth and abundance in its nativehabitat at the edge of the sea, forming dense populations on cliffsand reefs exposed to the prevailing wind Main 169 biodiversity hotspots
  • 170. New Caledonia • The gargoyle gecko (Rhacodactylus auriculatus), appraised as a pet, is a nocturnal and mainly arboreal animal with long limbs and toes with well- developed lamellae, assisting in climbing • Gargoyle geckos are considered medium to large sized geckos reaching an average size of 40 cm • The goliath imperial pigeon (Ducula goliath), another colorful inhabitant dwelling in the undisturbed New Caledonian rain forests, is one of the many endemic pigeons and also the largest – see next slide • IUCN 2008 Near Threatened owing to increased hunting Main 170biodiversity hotspots
  • 171. New Caledonia The goliath imperial pigeon hunted as a game bird by most of the tribes during traditional feasts Main 171biodiversity hotspots
  • 172. Southwestern Australia• The Nullarbor Plains xeric shrubland is one of the ecoregions where WWF pursues ecoregion conservation, a broad-scale approach to implement a comprehensive strategy conserving species, habitats and ecological processes• It is the worlds largest single piece of limestone (200 000 km2), characterized by a flora of e.g. marble gum (Eucaluptus gongylocarpa) in the north, western myall (Acacia papyrocarpa) and saltbush (Atriplex sp.) in the south• Woma python (Aspidites ramsayi), classified as Endangered (IUCN 2011), found in northern South Australia Main 172 biodiversity hotspots
  • 173. Southwestern Australia• Marble Gum with Spinifex grasses as the understory• Frequent wildfires, mining operations, feral predators and herbivores and widespread expansion of the Mediterranean Ward’s weed (Carrichtera annua) after an accidental introduction have substantially modified habitats over extensive areas of both subregions and caused numerous extinctions of indigenous mammals Main 173 biodiversity hotspots
  • 174. Southwestern Australia • Male southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) mark their grazing area and warren refuges with scent secretions • Rabbits compete with wombats for forage, stimulating annual grass species becoming the dominant species, which are insufficient for the wombat’s metabolic needs • On the Nullarbor Plain it is abundant, but drought may affect the young in this harsh environment • The largest population lives nearby hole n°4 of the Nullarbor Links, worlds longest golf course Main 174biodiversity hotspots
  • 175. The Mediterranean Basin• The sclerophyllus shrublands, stretching west to east from Portugal to Jordan and north to south from Italy to Morocco, support 22 500 endemic plant species, 4 times the number found elsewhere in Europe• Being a tourist destination, populations of threatened species are increasingly fragmented; hardly 100 000 km2 of vegetation out of 2 000 000 km2 hotspot extent is untouched• The largest population of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is estimated at 60 to 110 adults in the Sierra Morena Main 175 biodiversity hotspots
  • 176. The Mediterranean Basin • Distribution Lynx pardinus, 1990 and 2003 • The Iberian lynx prefers environments of open grassland with juniper (Juniperus sp.), mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) and relict populations of strawberry trees (Arbutus unedo) • Its habitat loss is due mainly to infrastructure improvement, urban and resort development and tree monoculture (Pinus sp., Eucalyptus sp., Pseudotsuga sp.) • In addition, the lynx’s prey population of rabbits is declining due to diseases such as myxomatosis and hemorrhagic pneumonia • If the Iberian lynx were to become extinct, it would be the first big cat species to do so since Smilodon populator 10 000 years ago Main 176biodiversity hotspots
  • 177. The Mediterranean Basin Strawberry trees have a preference for lime soils Widespread in the Mediterranean region, image: Jordan Main 177biodiversity hotspots
  • 178. Survey of the most important biodiversity hotspots• These vulnerable ecosystems of great value have lost at least 70% of their primary vegetation• This, and containing at least 0.5% or 1 500 species of endemic vascular plants, is next to one of the criteria also a topic of critique• On the other hand, regions that are relatively intact (e.g. the Amazon Basin) have experienced relatively little land loss, but are currently losing habitat at a tremendous rate Main 178 biodiversity hotspots
  • 179. The list is not closed…• The rain forests of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, Liberia, Queensland, Hawaii, the Great Lakes of East Africa, lake Baikal and virtually every drainage system in the world near heavily populated regions (Ganges, Tennessee, Amazone,…) can be added to this list• The keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), Belize’s national bird, uses holes that woodpeckers have made and tree hollows in tropical forests from South-Mexico to Venezuela• In ’98 -a strong el Niño year- fires destroyed over 1,5 million acres, while every year in Mexico close to a million acres of rain forests disappear for fuel wood collection, agriculture and Chiapas conflicts Main biodiversity hotspots 179
  • 180. The list is not closed… • The Xingu River will be forever changed by the construction of a monster dam, the Belo Monte • Up to 80% of the Xingu River will be diverted from its original course, causing a permanent drought on the rivers 100 kilometer long ‘Big Bend’ if the scenario is not reviewed • The area either dried out or drowned by the dam spans the entire known world distribution of a number of species e.g. the plant-eating piranha (Ossubtus xinguense) and the Xingu poison dart frog (Allobates crombiei) • During its first 10 years, the Belo Monte-dam complex would emit 11,2 million metric tons of CO2 and surplus amounts of CH4, due to decomposing vegetation and anaerobic decay • The project will trigger an increase in population, uncontrolled land occupation, illegal logging and cattle ranching Main 180biodiversity hotspots
  • 181. The list is not closed…• Kayapó warriors performing a traditional fishing practice• During the 6-month-long low-waterseason on the Xingu, the costly dam would generate as little as 1 000 MW of electricity• In all probability, the rain forests in this region would not survive, 400 km2 will be flooded and ± 50 000 people would be forcibly displaced Main 181 biodiversity hotspots
  • 182. The list is not closed • In Chilean Patagonia, the construction of dams on the Pascua River and two dams on the Baker River would flood globally rare forest ecosystems and some of the most productive agricultural land in the area • More than 2 000 km of transmission lines would require one of the worlds longest clear-cuts through untouched temperate rain forestsThe dams would flood 14 000acres, disfiguring the otter’s • Supporters say the economic benefitsand the South Huemul deer’s of the dam project justify carving(Hippocamelus bisulcus) habitat roads through the heart of Chiles remaining wildernessFewer than 1 000 of thediminutive animals are believed • Investment in more efficient use ofto exist, IUCN ‘11 Endangered electricity, together with renewable sources such as solar, geothermal and wind, would ensure a sustainable Main biodiversity energy future for Chile 182 hotspots
  • 183. Lake BaikalLake Baikal is the world’s oldest lake, containing roughly 20% ofthe worlds unfrozen surface fresh waterLake Baikal, at least 25 million years old, was formed as anancient rift valley, displaying the typical elongated crescent shapePhoca sibirica or Nerpa, the only exclusively freshwater pinnipedspecies, arrived at Lake Baikal when a sea-passage linked thelake with the Arctic OceanExcessive hunting for its pelt, as well as poaching and pollution,may be reducing the population Main 183 biodiversity hotspots
  • 184. Lake Baikal • Due to sponges, arthropods, molluscs, flat worms and nematodes, the ability of Lake Baikal for self-purification is one of the greatest • Crust and branched forms of the endemic sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis are real submarine forests at depths of 2 to 40 m • Lake Baikal’s unique chemical composition and tectonic history is reflectedLubomirskia baicalensis, with the by more than 80% ofgreen colour of small symbiotic algae – animal species beingZoochlorella sp. endemic Main 184 biodiversity hotspots
  • 185. Lake BaikalBaykalsk Pulp and Paper Mill, constructed in 1966, bleachingpaper with chlorine and discharging waste into the lakeAfter decades of protest, it was closed in November 2008However, on January 4th 2010 production was resumed,despite protests of ecologists and local residents Main 185 biodiversity hotspots
  • 186. Regeneration of tropical rain forest may take centuries • The forest at Angkor, for example, dates back to the abandonment of the Khmer capital in 1431 and is still structurally different from older forests in the same region • In Malaysia, a field which had been abandoned in 1944 was not colonized by any dipterocarp, the dominant hardwoods in Southeast Asia • With a primary rain forest fall from over 70% in 1970 to just 3,1% in 2007, the deforestation rate in Cambodia is one of the highestOblique aerial views of remnantAngkorian urban features Main 186 biodiversity hotspots
  • 187. Regeneration of tropical rain forest may take centuries • In March 2010 the site held over 270 Sarus cranes, more than 30% of the global population • The fragility of the forests is caused by the accumulation of the nutrients in the tissue, rather than in the soil • Regeneration is also limited by the fragility of the seeds of the trees, with little time to be carried by animals or water into sites favorable for growth • Al3+-and Fe3+-ions form insoluble compounds with PO43-, decreasingIn 2011 the Sarus crane (Grus the availability to plantsantigone) has been reintroducedin Kampong Trach, Cambodia • Ca2+ and K+ leach from the soil soon after their compounds are dissolved in the rain water Main 187 biodiversity hotspots
  • 188. Queimadas or burnings in the Amazon • In the Brazilian Amazon, people recognize three seasons; dry, wet and queimadas • From July to October 1987 the forests seemed to be at war • 50 000 km2 in Pará, Acre, Mato Grosso and Rondonia were cleared during these four months • “In Brazil the colour green is seriously threatened. Although it is crying in the wilderness to state that you need a series of measures to preserve our environmental wealth, and raise awareness and educate both the entire population and the authorities, this statement still holds true – and is getting very urgent. Otherwise, we run the serious risk of losing all our green – even the green in our flag”. Chris Bueno • Queimada, soybean plantation, Main biodiversity hotspots Pará 188
  • 189. Queimadas or burnings in the Amazon Smoldering pastureland cleared for cattle, Rondonia The rampant deforestation puts Brazil among the world’s biggest emitters of CO2 and CH4 Between 60% to 75% of Brazil’s emissions come from deforestation of the rain forest Main 189 biodiversity hotspots
  • 190. Deforestation and ecologicalholocaust by genetic engineering • South American rain forests are cleared for genetically modified soybeans, cotton and maize, undermining biodiversity by risking the genetic integrity of wild plants • Studies have shown that Roundup’s active ingredient glyphosate is toxic to earthworms, beneficial insects, vertebrates, mycorrhizal fungi plus it destroys the vegetation on which they depend for food and shelter • Furthermore Monsanto has been buying up seed merchants throughout the developing world, blocking farmers ability to share seeds • Farmers must either purchase GM seeds - and the expensive herbicides required to grow them - or plant nothing at all • In 2007, at least 2 700 km2 of Amazon rain forest were cleared for soy farming Main biodiversity hotspots and cattle ranching 190
  • 191. Eco-battalions and eco-soldiers • Anti-poaching teams guard four of the world’s remaining eight northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) at Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya • In Nicaragua, the green guard, a unit of 580 environmental soldiers, recently won its first ‘battlefield victory’ by netting 111 800 cubic feet of illegal lumber felled by loggers • The eco-battalion discovered the lumber contraband hidden under netting and brush to avoid detection from the air • Since 1983, Nicaraguas forest cover has dropped from 63% to some 40% • In addition to carrying guns, the green soldiers also carry shovels as part of a nationwide effort to plant 560 000 trees in the various national reserves that Main have been affected by deforestation biodiversity hotspots 191
  • 192. Unmined riches of biodiversity• Volcanism in the Sierra Madre (Mexico) created microhabitats, resulting in radiation of e.g. Pinus and Quercus• The endemic Zea diploperennis survives in an area of a few square miles in Sierra de Manantlan, in the west of the ecoregion• The discovery of this disease resistant and perennial species in 1977, stimulated the investigation of the Sierra’s vegetation• The deep rooting diploid maize with agronomic possibilities, was only a week away from extinction by machete and fire Aware of 192 our riches
  • 193. Unmined riches of biodiversity• The rosy periwinkle (Cantharanthus roseus) can be considered as a real star species rendering medicine one of its major breakthroughs• Endemic to Madagascar, it has been used to treat a variety of ailments• Whilst researching the anti-diabetic properties, scientists discovered that several highly toxic alkaloids can be used in the treatment of different types of cancer• One derived compound is credited with raising the survival rate in childhood leukemia from less than 10% in 1960 to over 90% today Aware of 193 our riches
  • 194. Unmined riches of biodiversity Catharanthus coriaceus is the most threatened species in the Malagasy genus Catharanthus The habitat in Bitsileo is acutely affected by grazing and burning, and is disappearing before any phytochemical research has been doneAware of 194our riches
  • 195. Unmined riches of biodiversity• People in India treasure the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) as the ‘village pharmacy’• Neem oil strengthens immunity, prevents baldness and is thought to be helpful in preventing malaria; traditionally, slender branches have been chewed to clean ones teeth and extracts are used as insecticides• Noted for its drought resistance, it is planted in the dry southern districts of Pakistan, India and in the Sahel Region• Neem as manifestation of the Mother Goddess Kali Aware of 195 our riches
  • 196. Unmined riches of biodiversity • Throughout history, 7 000 kinds of plants have been grown or collected as food • 20 species provide 90%, 3 (maize, wheat and rice) supply more than half • In most part of the world these are sown in monocultures • Fruits illustrate the pattern of underutilization • At least 3 000 species are available in the tropics, 200 are actually in use • Lulo or Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense), Colombian Cordillera • The fruits are found at local markets • Infections and limited keeping qualities make large-scale cultivation unsustainable • Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), Southeast Asia, used in folk medicineAware of 196our riches
  • 197. Unmined riches of biodiversity • The winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), ‘one species supermarket’, New Guinea • Practically the entire plant is palatable, from spinach-like leaves to young pods usable as green beans, seeds resemble soybeans and the tubers are richer in protein than potatoes • The plant is one of the best nitrogen fixers with nodulation accomplished by Rhizobium sp.Aware ofour riches 197
  • 198. Unmined riches of biodiversity • The maca (Lepidium meyenii), related to the turnip (Brassica rapa), is grown for its fleshy hypocotyl by Andean people • Maca, increasing libido, was eaten by Inca imperial warriors before battles, granting them legendary strength • Its habitat was limited to 10 hectares in ‘80 around Lake Junin, Peru • The growing demand of the supplement industry has been one of the reasons for macas expanding cultivation in Peru and Bolivia • However, the starchy maca can cause goiters when high consumption is combined with a diet low in iodine • Maca is traditionally grown at altitudes of 8 000-14 500 ft where few other crops can be grown 198Aware ofour riches
  • 199. Unmined riches of biodiversity Babassu palm (Orbignya phalerata), Maranhão, Amazon Harvested in the wild and semi-wild states, this ‘tree of life’ gives the world’s highest known yield of vegetable oil Some trees can yield up to one-half ton of fruits per year The babassu palm has great potential for reforestation of degraded tropical ecosystemsAware of 199our riches
  • 200. Unmined riches of biodiversity • In a ‘77 article in Science amaranth was described as ‘the crop of the future’ • Its seeds are a gluten-free source of protein, complementing other grains in their amino acid composition • Ancient amaranth grains used to this day include 3 species e.g. Amaranthus caudatus, thought to have represented up to 80% of the Aztec’s caloric consumption before the conquest • In the Andes it is known today as kiwicha, in Indonesia and Malaysia A. tricolor is called bayam, in Africa A. cruentus can boost food security • In Greece A. viridis is served in aAware of salad 200our riches
  • 201. Unmined riches of biodiversity • Valued as ornamental, the amaranth is cherished by poets as well • The flowers of the Hopi Red Dye amaranth (A. cruentes) were used by the Hopi as the source of a deep red dye • ‘What a lovely flower is the Rose, a favorite alike with Gods and with men. I envy you your beauty and your perfume." The Rose replied, "I indeed, dear Amaranth, flourish but for a brief season! If no cruel hand pluck me from my stem, yet I must perish by an early doom. But thou art immortal and dost never fade, but bloomest for ever in renewed youth.’ (Aesops Fables, 600 BC)Aware of 201our riches
  • 202. Unmined riches of biodiversity• In the Atamaca Desert of northern Chile the tamarugo tree (Prosopis tamarugo) sends roots through a meter of salt to tap brackish water deep within the desert soil• The bushy tree apparently grows without the benefit of rainfall, a dense mat of lateral roots obtain some water from dew• This nitrogen fixing tree can create open woodland and ground vegetation in otherwise sterile wastelands• The tamarugo produces abundant fodder, mature plants will support sheep at rates comparable to those of high-quality pastures elsewhere in the world Aware of 202 our riches
  • 203. Unmined riches of biodiversity • The five other species inhabit the Amazone, Oronico and Essequibo drainages • The turtles are highly valued as a protein source by local people and have been overhunted • But they are easy to cultivate in natural ponds while being fed on aquatic vegetation and fruitMagdalena river turtle • P. expansa produces 25 000kg/ha(Podocnemis lewyana) each year, more than 400 times theThe only podocnemid turtle to yield of cattle raised in nearbyoccur northwest of the Andes pasture cut from surrounding forestHabitat degradation, human nest • It carries far less cost to thepredation, pollution and environment than the cattle andhydrological changes due to other exotic animals now beingdams are threats to survival thrust upon the land with disastrous result 203 Aware of our riches
  • 204. Unmined riches of biodiversity • The babirusas are omnivorous inhabitants of tropical rain forests with an intestinal tract similar to that of the domestic pig • The diet of the babirusa includes leaves, roots, fruits and animal material; the strong jaws of a babirusa are capable of cracking hard nuts with ease • Considered something of a delicacy, these 100 kg weighing pigs are easyThe Togian babirusa (Babyrousa to raise on an inexpensive andtogeanensis), endemic to the universally available fodderTogian Islands, is threatened by • Despite the Indonesian illegality ofhunting and habitat destruction poaching, the Sulawesi Christians consider pork a staple food and hunting a major component of their culture 204 Aware of our riches
  • 205. Unmined riches of biodiversity • This inhabitant of scrub woodland, mangrove and low altitude rain forest of various qualities, can be made to yield up to ten times the amount of meat as cattle on the same land • The trick is to cultivate a breeding stock, incubate the eggs, protect the hatchlings and leave them to feed onLesser Antillean iguana (Iguana leaves in the tree canopies,delicatissima) until they are large enough toEndangered IUCN ‘11 by clearance of be harvested as chickens ofhabitat for agriculture, a further the treethreat being the hybridisationbetween lesser Antillean iguanas andinvasive common iguanas Aware of 205 our riches
  • 206. Sustainable use of rain forests as extractive reserves • The poorest people with the fastest-growing populations live next to the richest hotspots of biological diversity • Although wilderness has benefits in itself, ecosystems can be saved by harvesting ‘minor’ products as fruits, oils, latex, fibers and medicines • In 1989, Peters, Gentry and Mendelsohn demonstrated that 275The fragrant white pulp of the kinds of trees in a 1 ha plot nearcupuazú (Theobroma Mishana yielded fruits, vegetables,grandiflorum) – common chocolate and latex with a valuethroughout the Amazon basin – estimated to be $ 422is frequently used in desserts, • The plot contains enough timber tojuices and sweets generate a revenue of $ 1 000 if cut once 206 Aware of our riches
  • 207. Reforestation projects • Most reforestation efforts are being spent on plantations, not on genuine new forests • Unless the land is permanently restored as a forest, there is no reforesting • Since ’06, there has been a decline in the rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, in ‘08 Lula da Silva attended the “One Billion Trees for the Amazon”-project, emissions trading can prevent forests from being cut,… • If 4 million km2 of the tropical regions were replanted as forest, all the current buildup of atmospheric CO2 from human agents would be canceled outAware of 207our riches
  • 208. Reforestation projects • Approximately 35% of mangrove area was lost during the last several decades of the 20th century • Shrimp farming accounts for destruction of a quarter of the worldwide mangrove forests • In Nigeria, oil spills and leaks damage mangroves, threatening the local fishing economy andWhen the mangroves disappeared in water qualityTamil Nadu, so did the stocks of • Mangroves serve as barriers toedible fish on which the coastal coastal storms, conservers ofpopulation lives soil, supporters of sustainableThe villagers in Naluvedapathy planted fisheries, providers of medicala wooded coastline of 80 000 saplings, products, fuel wood, fodder andgranting them future protection from habitats of a wide range ofthe impact of tsunamis and erosion flora and fauna Aware of 208 our riches
  • 209. Resolution • 1 – Survey the world’s fauna and flora • The biology of more than 99% of species remains unknown • A complete survey of earth’s vast reserves of biological diversity may seem beyond our reach, but the processing of 10 million species is achievable within 50 yearsThe glasswinged butterfly • Create a systematic inventory of(Greta oto), InBio Costa Rica broad areas to identify criticalInBio, a biodiversity center localities (e.g. the scattered forestsprototype, aims to describe ½ of Guatemala and southern Mexico)million species • As biodiversity surveys proceed onThe information is used to several levels, the accumulatedimprove Costa Rica’s knowledge becomes an ever moreenvironment and ecology powerful magnet for other kinds of science 209 Resolution
  • 210. Resolution • 1 – Survey the world’s fauna and flora • The mapping of the structure of an ecosystem exists in the form of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) • When applied to biodiversity, the cartography is called ‘gap analysis’ • It can be used to answer questions of conservation practice e.g.: • ‘Do protected areas contain the largest possible number of endemic species?’ • ‘Are the remaining habitat fragments large enough to sustain the populations indefinitely?’,… 210Resolution
  • 211. Resolution • 1 – Survey the world’s fauna and flora • A complete survey may seem beyond our reach … • ….but compared to what is achieved in high-energy physics, molecular genetics and other branches of big science, the magnitude of its challenge is not all that greatCompass termites • 25 000 professional systematists(Amitermes meridionalis) build suffice to cover 10 million speciesmounds oriented north-south • This shortage of experts is perfectlyThis thermoregulation allows illustrated by the fact that exactlythese termites to stay above three people are qualified to dealwhere other species are forced with termite classification, owners ofto move underground 10% of the animal biomass andLitchfield NP, Australië major CH4-producers 211 Resolution
  • 212. Resolution • 1 – Survey the world’s fauna and flora • Stimulate inventory projects on every level, add eminent monotypic studies to taxonomic and cladistic software • Every other form of biological information on species – ecology; physiology; economic uses; status as vectors, parasites or agricultural pests; DNA sequences – can be layered in databases • A male Oreophryne frog guards eggs on the underside of a leaf in a New Guinea forest 212Resolution
  • 213. Resolution • 2. Create biological wealth • As species inventories expand, they open the economic potential of entire ecosystems • The decision to make bioeconomic analysis a routine part of land management policy will protect ecosystems by assigning them future value • Timber and wild plant products can be harvested on a sustainable basis,In the end, we conserve only seeds and cuttings can bewhat we love. We will love transplanted to grow crops, fungionly what we understand. We and microorganisms can be culturedwill understand only what we as sources of medicine, wild habitatsare taught [and research!] can go hand in hand withBaba Dioum 1968 recreation,… 213 Resolution
  • 214. Resolution • 2. Create biological wealth • Late ’91, INBio made a deal with the U.S. pharmaceutical firm Merck • INBio will provide 10 000 samples of plants, animals, and soil to Merck • In return, Merck will pay INBio $ 1 million up front and will give the institute an additional $ 130 000 worth of laboratory equipment • Merck pays royalties to INBio for any drugs developed from the biological samples provided, which Costa Rica can use for the conservation of diversity • Onchocerca volvulus causes river blindness in tropical Africa • Drug treatment with Ivermectin (Merck), killing microfilariae transmitted by Simulium damnosum 214Resolution
  • 215. Resolution • 2. Create biological wealth • Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) was used by Chinese herbalists in ancient times (340 AD) to treat fever • Artimisinin, extracted in ’72, is one of the most effective substances available for the treatment of severe malaria • Establishing a nursery of sweet wormwood helps to ensure a steady supply of the drug and improves the livelihoods of Artemisia growers • Inter-cropping with other plants, e.g. maize, protects it from insect pests • Traditional pharmacopoeia, tested through trial and error by shamans and tribes, may disappear rapidly as they move from their homelands into cities 215Resolution
  • 216. Resolution • 3. Promote sustainable development • The rural poor neighbouring ecoregions are hammered by exploding populations • They cannot all move to the cities, so they hunt the animals within walking distance, cut forests that cannot be regrown,… • The proving ground ofSome 500 000 Seringueiros make sustainable development will bea living from extracting wild the tropical rain forestsresources such as rubber, Brazilnuts, a variety of palm nuts a.o. • One of the most encouraging advances is the extraction ofThey drafted a key proposal to nontimber products in Iquitos,establish ‘extractive reserves,’ Peruauthorized in ‘87 by the Braziliangovernment 216 Resolution
  • 217. Resolution• 3. Promote sustainable development• ICAA watches over the natural riches in the Colombian, Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon• As a result, thousands of settlers in the Amazon region are trained in improving environmental and social practices (agricultural, forestry, and sustainable tourism)• Harvesting the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) Resolution 217
  • 218. Resolution • 3. Promote sustainable development • If timber is needed, the preferred method is ‘strip logging’ • Strip logging, first suggested by Hartshorn in 1979, imitates the natural fall of trees that creates linear gaps through the forest • A thin strip of forest on a slopeThe surrounding forest rapidly fills running parallel to a river or roadin the gap and within 20 years the is cutstrip is covered with secondary • A few years later, another stripforest upslope can be harvestedAmuesha Indians in Peru employ a • Nutrients run downhill, nourishingrotating concept, returning to log the first cut strip and fostering thethe secondary forest growth of new trees • Image E. O. Wilson, The Diversity Of Resolution Life, 1992 218
  • 219. Resolution• 3. Promote sustainable development• Yanesha’ or Amuesha in the Palcazú basin, Peruvian Amazon, avoided erosion by adopting an alternative forestry plan instead of the clearcutting used by immigrants and logging companies• In ‘88, a territory of over 34 774 hectares was set up as the Reserva Communal Yanesha with the purpose of protecting important fauna that serve as sustenance to Yanesha communities in the area 219 Resolution
  • 220. Resolution• 3. Promote sustainable development• If all nations held the same number of people as some densely populated but prosperous societies, e.g. the Netherlands or Japan, their quality of life would resemble that of Bangladesh rather than that of the Netherlands or Japan, being dependent on massive imports of natural resources from the rest of the world• A public debate should handle the topic of growing populations, needing to feed themselves without impoverishment, with reference to a healthy agriculture and its natural resources 220 Resolution
  • 221. Resolution • 3. Promote sustainable development • In many parts of the world, the amount of small farms near towns and communities has dwindled • The community-shared agriculture offers organic, ecological and high quality fruits and vegetables to a local community of members • Advantages of the close consumer- producer relationship include increased freshness of the produce, the abolition of environmentally impactful transportation and refrigeration, rich educational opportunities for the young, adult and elderly and the elimination of the adverse effects of farm subsidies and synthetic fertilizers • East Lake Commons development, Decatur, Georgia 221Resolution
  • 222. Resolution• 3. Promote sustainable development• Stands of a thousand species in Borneo and ancient forests in North America are converted to pulp at an increasing rate• Jute (Corchorus sp.) and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers can be used, yielding more pulp than trees and needing little fertilizer, pesticides or whitening chemicals• Jute cultivation - Gopalganj, Bangladesh 222 Resolution
  • 223. Resolution • 3. Promote sustainable development • Large scale recycling of organic wastes from rice and sugar processing and other industries through worm composting systems has generated and maintained soil fertility on otherwise unproductive urban groundsAn ecological and urban alternative • Shrinking cities, like Detroit andagricultural model is approached in New Orleans, are ripe for such athe organoponicos, Cuba project • In the United States, 7,3 calories of energy go into delivering one calorie of food 223 Resolution
  • 224. Resolution • 3. Promote sustainable development • ‘For each one degree Celsius rise in mean temperature, wheat yield losses in India were likely to be around 6 million tonnes per year or around $ 1,5 billion at current prices’ Swaminathan 2011, India’s Green Revolution • The biggest challenge for the agriculture community is dealingOpuntia ficus-indica can be grown with natural calamities such asin semi-arid regions, efficiently droughts or floodsconverting water into biomass, fruits • Biodiversity is the feedstock forand fodder for live-stock climate resilient farming with theHowever, cultivated in the wrong emphasis on the virtues ofplace, this species can develop into a traditional indigenous knowledgedestructive weed (Australia, Hawaii) pertaining to sustainable Resolution agriculture 224
  • 225. Resolution • 4. Save what remains • Ecosystems can’t be created in a laboratory, DNA of extinct species is hopelessly scrambled, reintroduction fails if soil conditions have been altered, seedbanks cannot survive without their pollinators and symbiotic fungi,… • Following the five great extinction episodes, full recovery of biodiversity required 10 to 100 million years • Botanical gardens harbor species that are close to extinction, e.g. Kew, London, holding the last remnants of the nearly vanished tree flora of St. Helena… • … but without conservation of the cloud forests on the island, it is work in vain • False gumwood (Commidendrum spurium), fewer than 10 surviving treesResolution in St Helena 225
  • 226. Resolution• 4. Save what remains• The rosters of 223 zoos are monitored by the International Species Inventory System (ISIS), which uses the data to coordinate preservation• They have been successful with the reintroduction of 3 species e.g. the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx)• The last wild oryx was shot in 1972 and the species persisted only in captivity, after reintroduction the wild population in Israel and Saudi Arabia was estimated at 1 100 (2008) 226 Resolution
  • 227. Resolution• 4. Save what remains• We must face the reality that habitats are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the study of biodiversity has a time limit• Habitats can’t be saved unless the effort is of immediate economic advantage to the poor, who live in and around them• Hot and warm spots must be assigned the highest priority of conservation; rescue of biodiversity can only be achieved by a skillful blend of science, capital investment and politics• We should try to expand reserves from 4,3% nowadays to 10% of the land surface 227 Resolution
  • 228. Resolution • 5. Restore the wildlands • In Central America, dry forest is even more threatened than rain forest • By 1970, dry forest was down to only 2% of its original size, due to ranching expansion • The Guanacaste Conservation Area program began in 1971 as the 26 000- acre Santa Rosa National Park • In the 80s D. Janzen bought hugeDry forest hosts a rich array ranches at lowered prices to massivelyof flora and fauna, including expand Santa Rosa and createjaguars, ocelots, pumas, Guanacaste National Parkhowler monkeys and white • Today the Guanacaste Conservationthroated magpie-jays Area covers 402 610 acres of tropical(Calocitta formosa) dry forest, containing roughly 2.4% of the worlds terrestrial biodiversity, or 60% of the species that occur in Costa Resolution Rica 228
  • 229. Resolution• 5. Restore the wildlands• The coast of the Costa Rican dry forest provides nesting sites for the olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)• IUCN 2012: Vulnerable• The population of the most abundant sea turtle in the world has declined by more than 30% within only one generation 229 Resolution
  • 230. Resolution• 5. Restore the wildlands• The coming century will be the era of restoration in ecology• The rescue can be accomplished if natural habitats are not only preserved but enlarged, sliding the numbers of survivable species back up the logarithmic curve to end the great extinction spasm• Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), Guanacaste 230 Resolution
  • 231. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 2012 Credits Aknowledgments 231
  • 232. • Slide 5: http://www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/85/general.html• Slide 6: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Populations.html• Slide 7: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/neuro/design/AreasResearch.htm• Slide 8, 9: http://library.thinkquest.org/C004218/Nuclear-main.htm• Slide 10: http://chernobyl-serp.narod.ru/ http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/chornobyl/wildlifepreserve.htm• Slide 11: http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/chornobyl/wildlifepreserve.htm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4923220.stm• Slide 12: http://greenhouseeffect.researchtoday.net/ http://www.grida.no/climate/vitalafrica/english/10.htm• Slide 13: http://greenhouseeffect.researchtoday.net/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/cfc/review/• Slide 14: http://www.ciesin.org/docs/002-479/002-479.html• Slide 15: http://www.geo.ucl.ac.be/LUCC/Rapid_land-cover_change_product/Maps.html• Slide 16: http://www.falw.vu.nl/nl/voor-het-vwo/wetenschap-in-gewone-woorden/klimaat/Uitstoot- Indonesie.asp http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/AmazonDrought/• Slide 17: http://www.hier.nu/klimaatnieuws/bossen/2/904/Drogere_Amazone_vatbaar_voor_massale_bosbranden. html• Slide 18: http://map.primorye.ru/raster/maps/commonwealth/soviet_permafrost_84.jpg• Slide 19: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/02/23/methane-the-really-scary_n_169059.html http://motherjones.com/blue-marble/2010/03/massive-methane-melt-siberia• Slide 20, 22: http://climateprogress.org/2006/09/ http://www.wwfblogs.org/climate/content/arctic-sea- ice-record-lows-again-likely-walrus-impacts-12aug2011• Slide 21: http://www.marklynas.org/sixdegrees http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aH3RmllIdaw&feature=share• Slide 23: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/americas/298608.stm http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milieuramp http://newsfeedresearcher.com/data/articles_b17/spill-russia-comments.html• Slide 24-26: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill http://www.wsws.org/articles/2010/may2010/envi-m07.shtml• Slide 25: http://www.nps.gov/prsf/naturescience/brown-pelican.htm 232
  • 233. • Slide 26: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama_Beach_Mouse http://www.fws.gov/digitalmeSlide/FullRes/natdiglib/6_29_2010_Alabama%20beach%20mouse%20Credi t%20USFWS.JPG• Slide 27: http://bajatortuga.com/krst.aspx• Slide 28: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT http://www.junkscience.com/ddtfaq.htm• http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/envicon/pim/reports/Olympia/HoodCanalEagle.htm• Slide 29: http://archive.greenpeace.org/toxics/downtozero/pic/food.jpg• Slide 30: http://www.inventati.org/ganchan/bhopal/ http://portland.indymeSlide.org/en/2004/12/305084.shtml• Slide 31: http://www.eawag.ch/meSlide/2006/20061101/index_EN http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/1/newsid_4679000/4679789.stm• Slide 32-34: http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8h.html• Slide 34: http://www.atm.helsinki.fi/~bonn/IKAC11.pdf http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/acid_rain_in_europe http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/190acidrain.html http://www.geography.ryerson.ca/bardecki/GEO131/NotesAcidRain.pdf• Slide 35: http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/landscap/tuva/usnea.htm• Slide 36: http://www.algae.info/• Slide 37: http://www-biol.paisley.ac.uk/bioref/Habitats/Dunes2.html http://www.carolscornwall.com/Plants%20Lichens%20and%20Fungi/Sedge-Carex%20arenaria-col-10-05- 09.jpg• Slide 38: http://www.meuzelaar.nl/pages/helofyt.htm• Slide 39: http://www.tribuneinSlide.com/2002/20020919/science.htm http://www.ntt.co.jp/kankyo/e/2001report/detail/detail_281.html http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories/s165.htm• http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1995/illpres/1.html• Slide 40: http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1995/illpres/1.html• Slide 41: http://www.physorg.com/news63889351.html• Slide 42: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/ecosystems/penguins/images/Ozone1.jpg• Slide 43: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/dobson.html http://www.japanfs.org/en/pages/031543.html• Slide 44: http://www.livescience.com/ 233
  • 234. • Slide 45: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Po-Re/Pollution-of-the-Ocean-by-Plastic-and-Trash.html http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/08/090820-plastic-decomposes-oceans-seas.html http://www.demorgen.be/dm/nl/5381/Dieren/article/detail/1426180/2012/04/19/De-Noordse- Stormvogel-is-een-vliegend-vuilnisvat.dhtml• Slide 46, 47: http://www.biodiversity.be/invasions/index.htm• es/show/14 http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life////warp/album-Borsch.html• Slide 48: http://www.waterplanten.org/plant8.htm http://users.skynet.be/fon/Jaarverslagen/tabellen/em020907b2.htm http://groups.google.be/group/pic6/web/verwilderde-en-adventieve-planten?version=5 http://www.woodtli-ag.ch/pages/images/ludwigia_grandiflora.jpg• Slide 49: http://plants.usda.gov/maps/large/LU/LUGRG2.png• Slide 50: http://www.tela- botanica.org/page:chorologie_carte?format=html&module=chorologie&action=carte_presence&pr=25& nt=3908• Slide 51: http://www.batraciens-reptiles.com/rana_temporaria.htm• Slide 52: http://ias.biodiversity.be/ias/species/show/14 http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life////warp/album-Borsch.html• Slide 53: http://www.rspee.glu.org/recherche_espece/fiche_espece.php?recordID=440 http://www.nederlandsesoorten.nl/nsr/concept/0AHCYFCCLMXE/damageAndBenefit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heracleum_mantegazzianum• Slide 54: http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=be&checklist=list=clements http://home.wxs.nl/~jwhvdijk/invloednijlganzen.htm http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nijlgans• Slide 55: http://entomologie.de/fotos/harmonia.htm• Slide 56: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cichlid http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplochromine http://www.cichlidforums.com/gallery/showphoto.php/photo/12/size/big http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplochromis http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2292/2429349540_f3bfdb59e1.jpg• Slide 57: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_maggot http://bugguide.net/node/view/363985/bgimage http://www.sciencecases.org/maggot_fly/maggot_fly.pdf• Slide 58: http://www.sciencecases.org/maggot_fly/maggot_fly.pdf• Slide 59: http://bugguide.net/node/view/248877/bgimage 234
  • 235. • Slide 60: http://www.invertebrate-images.co.uk/gallery.php?gal=Spiders• Slide 61: http://cnx.org/content/m41619/latest/• Slide 62: http://www.vogelvisie.nl/soort/koekoek.php http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/265/1397/673.abstract http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgische_Rode_Lijst_%28broedvogels%29• Slide 63: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hirundo_rustica.html http://www.ivnvechtplassen.org/ivn_vogels_veen_weide/Boerenzwaluw_Hirundo-rustica.html• Slide 64: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgische_Rode_Lijst_%28broedvogels%29 http://www.ivnvechtplassen.org/ivn_vogels_stad_dorp/Huismus_passer-domesticus.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_Sparrow• Slide 65: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgische_Rode_Lijst_(broedvogels) http://www.ivnvechtplassen.org/ivn_vogels_park_bos/Nachtegaal_Luscinia-megarhynchos.html• Slide 66: http://www.ivnvechtplassen.org/ivn_vogels_park_bos/Bonte_Vliegenvanger_Ficedula- ypoleuca.html http://bicco-net.org/climate-change-publications/challenges-conservation-declining- migrants-are-reserve-based-intitiative• Slide 67: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgische_Rode_Lijst_%28broedvogels%29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corn_Bunting http://www.hidephotography.com/getpage.php?pg=search&sr=Miliaria%20calandra• Slide 68: http://www.arkive.org/brown-long-eared-bat/plecotus-auritus/info.html http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_on_the_Conservation_of_Migratory_Species_of_Wild_Animals http://www.ninesprings.net/mammalsamphibiansandreptiles.htm• Slide 69: http://www.herpfrance.com/amphibian/common_midwife_toad_alytes_obstetricans.php http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nederlandse_Rode_Lijst_(amfibie%C3%ABn) http://home.hccnet.nl/gerard.smit/ravonwm/Meetnet_Amfibieen/soorten/alyobs_2.htm• Slide 70: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lijst_van_reptielen_en_amfibie%C3%ABn_in_Nederland http://home.hccnet.nl/gerard.smit/ravonwm/Meetnet_Amfibieen/soorten/bomvar.htm• Slide 71: http://www.hylawerkgroep.be/index.php?id=78 http://www.de- natuur.be/pages/boomkikker.html http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boomkikker• Slide 72: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boommarter http://www.arkive.org/pine-marten/martes-martes/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Pine_Marten http://www.nigelspencer.co.uk/wildlife-web- pages/british-mammals/pine-martin.htm• Slide 73: http://waarnemingen.be/soort/info/403 http://natuurbeleving.scene24.net/zoogdieren/Hazelmuis_Muscardinus-avellanarius.php 235
  • 236. • Slide 74: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwabaal http://bch- cbd.naturalsciences.be/belgium/implementation/documents/symposia/symposium2002/symposium22may 2002/abstractsposter.htm• Slide 75: http://www.natuurbericht.be/?id=8105&rss=1&utm_medium=facebook&utm_source=twitterfeed http://www.freenatureimages.eu/animals/index.php/Malacostraca-Hogere-Kreeftachtigen-Malacostracan- Crustaceans/Astacus-astacus-Broad-fingered-Crayfish/Astacus-astacus-8-Europese-rivierkreeft-Saxifraga- Eric-Gibcus http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europese_rivierkreeft http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astacus_astacus• Slide 76: http://vilt.be/Een_op_tien_vlindersoorten_bedreigd_in_Europa http://ssaft.com/Blog/dotclear/index.php?tag/Fourmis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Blue_%28butterfly%29 http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/12659/0• Slide 77: http://www.afsca.be/sp/pa/prod-api-2_nl.asp• Slide 78: http://entomology.unl.edu/beekpg/tidings/btid1996/btidap96.htm• Slide 79: http://www.rendementdoorbijen.nl/Nosema-apis-ceranae.html http://www.i- sis.org.uk/honeyBeeOrganicFarming.php http://www.biteback.be/news/detail.php?news_id=4951 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imidacloprid http://www.vn.nl/Archief/Politiek/Artikel-Politiek/Alweer- dubieuze-deskundigen.htm#.T3wkc2JRdIg.twitter• Slide 80: http://g1.globo.com/Noticias/Ciencia/0,,MUL103593-5603,00- CORAIS+ENTRAM+EM+LISTA+NEGRA+DA+EXTINCAO.html http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090513224124.htm• Slide 81: http://www.bertsgeschiedenissite.nl/geschiedenis%20aarde/zee_anemonen.htm http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groot_Barri%C3%A8rerif http://www.reef.crc.org.au/discover/plantsanimals/facts_plantanimal.htm• Slide 82: http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2006/07/awards.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida_Reef http://magblog.audubon.org/what-happens-florida%E2%80%99s-coral-reefs-mangroves-and-seagrass-if- oil-spill-hits http://www.dep.state.fl.us/coastal/programs/coral/threats.htm http://www.fl.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/flCoralReefs.html• Slide 83: http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/chapter_28.htm http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/photos/rainforest-deforestation/• Slide 84: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Daubentonia_madagascariensis_01.jpg http://www.arkive.org/aye-aye/daubentonia-madagascariensis/threats-and-conservation.html http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Daubentonia_madagascariensis.htmlhtt p://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/aye-aye 236
  • 237. • Slide 85: http://zinjanthropus.wordpress.com/category/lemurs/• Slide 86: http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/ http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/chapter_28.htm http://mobot.org/mobot/madagascar/image.asp?relation=B79&nextorder=38&referringcategory=drytropic al http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dikhoornschaap http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ovis_canadensis_0.jpg• Slide 87: http://lynx.uio.no/jon/lynx/obrien-e.htm http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/rice/rgn/vol13/v13p60.html• Slide 88: http://www.otterspecialistgroup.org/Species/Enhydra_lutris.html• Slide 89: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/7750/0• Slide 90: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_urchin http://www.arkive.org/sea-otter/enhydra-lutris/image- G24397.html• Slide 91, 92: http://seagrant.uaf.edu/marine-ed/curriculum/images/stories/grade4/urchin_barrens2.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gray_whale• Slide 93: http://earththeunexplained.blogspot.com/2011/07/global-warming-and-gray-whales.html• Slide 94: http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/service/library/index.php3?docID=94&docHistory%5B%5D=5&docHistory %5B%5D=202&docHistory%5B%5D=361 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bachmans_Warbler• Slide 95: http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_SB15699&res=640 http://www.etoxtr.com/nl/7438.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bachmans_Warbler• Slide 96: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirtlands_Warbler http://www.flickr.com/explore/interesting/2007/06/26/page50/• Slide 97: http://www.sciencefriday.com/newsbriefs/read/133 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fichier:Molothrus_ater_2.jpg• Slide 98: http://www.visualphotos.com/image/1x9106000/american_bison_bison_bison_with_brown- headed http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown-headed_Cowbird• Slide 99: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red-cockaded_Woodpecker http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinus_palustris http://naturechallenge.tamu.edu/bayouregion/files/2011/04/rcw-m-at-cavity.jpg• Slide 100: http://www.pflanzen-im-web.de/pflanzen/saatgut-samen/Zimmer-und- Kuebelpflanzen/Hibiscadelphus-distans-Hawaianischer-Gebirgshibiskus.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscadelphus_distans http://www.arkive.org/hau-kuahiwi/hibiscadelphus- distans/ 237
  • 238. • Slide 101: http://www.arkive.org/hau-kuahiwi/hibiscadelphus-woodii/• Slide 102: http://dailyorganism.blogspot.com/2011_06_01_archive.html• Slide 103: http://parrotpapagaios.blogspot.com/2010/04/ararinha-azul-macaw-cyanopsitta-spixii.html• Slide 104: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Quaternary_prehistoric_birds http://lyricsdog.eu/s/moa%20nalo http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2007/Aug/07/ln/hawaii708070352.html• Slide 105: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moa http://listas.20minutos.es/lista/lista-de-animales- extinguidos-segunda-parte-264392/ http://whyfiles.org/shorties/moa.html• Slide 106: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haast%27s_Eagle• Slide 107: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant_bird http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olifantsvogels http://www.enciclopedino.it/Famiglie%20uccelli.asp?Ordine=Struzioniformi• Slide 108: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwartair• Slide 109: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O%27ahu_tree_snail http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dofaw/cwcs/Conservation_need.htm http://www.jaxshells.org/0430uu.htm• Slide 110: http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/Collection/CPC_ProfileImage.asp?FN=536c• Slide 111: http://www.mtsn.tn.it/russulales-news/tx_photos.asp?index=6152 http://www.inbo.be/content/page.asp?pid=EN_POL_NAT_SPE_redlist• Slide 112, 113: http://advocacy.britannica.com/blog/advocacy/2008/03/the-javan-rhinoceros-a- status-report-and-possible-management-strategy/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Javan_Rhinoceros http://www.worldofwildlife.nl/leefgebied-neushoorn.html• Slide 114, 115: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usambara_Mountains http://www.utalii.com/Tanga/Amani_Forest.htm http://africanadrenalin.co.za/utc/usumbara_moutains_and_amani_nature_reserve.htm http://www.dumaexplorer.com/amani.php• Slide 116: http://articles.sfgate.com/2010-05-07/bay-area/20887998_1_blue-butterfly-mission-blue- san-francisco-recreation http://simplify-your-life.com/blog/?p=1522 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Bruno_elfin_butterfly http://en.goldenmap.com/San%20Bruno%20elfin%20butterfly http://www.mountainwatch.org/san- bruno-elfin-butterfly/ http://www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/potd/2006/02/sedum_spathulifolium.php 238
  • 239. • Slide 117: http://www.parks.org.il/BuildaGate5/general2/data_card.php?Cat=~25~~989817747 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubian_Ibex http://rhamphotheca.tumblr.com/post/13863011938/wildlifecollective-nubian-ibex-capra-nubiana• Slide 118: http://www.pbase.com/image/86517307 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubian_Nightjar http://www.angelfire.com/ga/wheatear/issite.html• Slide 119: http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/california_floristic/Pages/default.aspx http://jimburnsphotos.com/pages/californiacondor.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequoiadendron• Slide 120: http://hackingfamily.com/flora_&_fauna/Madagascar/MadagascarF%26F.htm http://news.mongabay.com/2006/1123-madagascar.html• Slide 121: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Brookesia&species=minima http://afrol.com/countries/madagascar/news• Slide 122: http://tropicaplante.over-blog.com/article-adansonia-madagascariensis-70078090.html http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baobab• Slide 123: http://blog.morgaine-lefaye.net/archives/tags/baobab http://www.scribd.com/doc/10522153/The-Baobabs• Slide 124: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fretkat http://bushwarriors.wordpress.com/2011/01/21/iucn- species-of-the-day-fossa/ http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/5760/0• Slide 125: http://www.bhutantourpackage.com/about-bhutan/bhutan-ecology.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_panda http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musteloidea http://www.arkive.org/red-panda/ailurus-fulgens/• Slide 126: http://www.arkive.org/snow-leopard/panthera-uncia/image-G1308.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snow_leopard http://www.bhutantourpackage.com/about-bhutan/bhutan- ecology.shtml• Slide 127: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/West-Ghats http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teak http://www.panoramio.com/photo/20556814 http://saturn.strandls.com/speciespage/images/resources/Litsea%20oleoides/litsoleo_12.jpg• Slide 128: http://endangeredfriends.blogspot.com/2008/04/purple-frog-nasikabatrachus.html http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/West-Ghats http://www.arkive.org/purple-frog/nasikabatrachus- sahyadrensis/#text=Threats• Slide 129: http://www.arkive.org/asian-elephant/elephas-maximus/ http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/West- Ghats 239
  • 240. • Slide 130: http://www.ecoelements.co.uk/gg/chile/chileflora.html http://www.archeauxplantes.org/phototheque/Puya-alpestris-781.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_of_Chile• Slide 131: http://www.pacsoa.org.au/palms/Jubaea/chilensis.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jubaea http://www.ecoelements.co.uk/gg/chile/chileflora.html• Slide 132: http://bart-laurens.nl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=31&Itemid=32 http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/178687/0/biblio http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/southamerica/chile/explore/chiles-slideshow.xml• Slide 133: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectacled_bear http://www.worldlandtrust- us.org/index.php?page=choco http://www.superstock.com/stock-photos-images/4141-2790 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banded_Ground_Cuckoo http://www.sapayoa.com/Stock/LATEST- ADDITIONS/17356093_q6bZLz/7/1546071171_M4F6Dbs#1635829855_2qfrpcK http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=74 http://www.visualphotos.com/image/1x8348080/andean_or_spectacled_bear_tremarctos_ornatus• Slide 134: http://jardinbotanicolamanigua.tumblr.com/post/2473245701/pava-del-baudo http://www.worldlandtrust.org/news/2009/10/habitat-protection-in-choc-forests.htm http://www.worldlandtrust-us.org/index.php?page=choco http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poison_dart_frog• Slide 135: http://carnivora.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=feline&action=display&thread=916 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguar• Slide 136: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/evolution/sixth-major- extinction1.htm http://www.endangeredspecieshandbook.org/dinos_plants.php• Slide 137: http://www.globaltrees.org/awacachi.htm http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/45488/0/links http://www.eoearth.org/article/Western_Ecuador_moist_forests• Slide 138: http://www.arkive.org/harpy-eagle/harpia-harpyja/image-G53124.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpy_Eagle http://www.eoearth.org/article/Western_Ecuador_moist_forests• Slide 139: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0163_full.html http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/amazon/vision_amazon/models/amazon_exped itions/juruena_national_park/daily_logs/?72600/Juruena-Harpy-eagle-watching-and-visits-to-Alta- Floresta-and-Apiacas 240
  • 241. • Slide 140: http://www.visualphotos.com/image/1x9118387/brazilian_tapir_tapirus_terrestris_in_the http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0163_full.html http://www.sciencephoto.com/meSlide/385362/enlarge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amacayacu_National_Park• Slide 141: http://ibc.lynxeds.com/photo/pavonine-quetzal-pharomachrus-pavoninus/male-bird-perched• Slide 142: http://www.msxlabs.org/forum/hayvan-turleri/240222-cuce-ipek-maymunu-callithrix- pygmaea.html http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pygmy_marmoset http://www.arkive.org/pygmy-marmoset/cebuella-pygmaea/#text=Description• Slide 143: http://www.unique-southamerica-travel-experience.com/amazon-pink-river-dolphin.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_river_dolphin http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/10831/0• Slide 144: http://fromzoomy.blogspot.com/2007/12/short-eared-dog-and-yagua-people.html http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0163_full.html• Slide 145: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Forest http://www.jokisaari.net/brasil/pics/brazil_veg_1977.jpg• Slide 146: http://mpjbiologo.blogspot.com/2010/10/veja-alguns-dos-animais-mais-ameacados.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Forest• Slide 147: http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explorecomp.jsf?xsys=SE&id=1242215 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maned_sloth• Slide 148: http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20cotedivoire.htm http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/project/projects/index.cfm?uProjectID=CI0004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ta%C3%AF_National_Park http://www.foundalis.com/bio/zoo/zebra.htm http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duikers_%28zoogdieren%29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_chimpanzee http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8086000/8086246.stm• Slide 149: http://jblancetilla.org/terminalia_superba.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_superba http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ta%C3%AF_National_Park http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/products/afdbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=1632• Slide 150: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fynbos http://home.worldonline.co.za/~cpjones/pollination.htm 241
  • 242. • Slide 151: http://www.aiaccproject.org/working_papers/Working%20Papers/AIACC_WP24_von_Maltitz.pdf• http://www.capeorchids.co.za/pollination.htm http://wildcliff.org/fauna/fynbos- fauna_relationship.html• Slide 152: http://freeimagefinder.com/tag/nature.html http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/FopjyTjbYpzmm_0MpGCAKQ http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Papio_ursinus.html• Slide 153: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceylon-olifant http://www.biolib.cz/en/image/id49254/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lankan_Elephant http://www.lanka.com/sri-lanka/flora-and-fauna- 947.html• Slide 154: http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?enlarge=0000+0000+0811+3001 http://www.arkive.org/red-faced-malkoha/phaenicophaeus-pyrrhocephalus/image-G18733.html http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/30824/0• Slide 155: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080218172312.htm http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/30824/0• Slide 156: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0146_full.html http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Koompassia+excelsa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumatran_Rhinoceros• Slide 157: http://www.inventivecomputing.com/apis_dorsata.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apis_dorsata http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0146_full.html• Slide 158: http://rezakhusnul.blogspot.com/• Slide 159: http://tl.bestpicturesof.com/sun%20bear http://shaggygod.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=sunbear&action=display&thread=142• Slide 160: http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explorecomp.jsf?xsys=SE&id=63517 http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/borneo_forests/about_borneo_forests/borneo_a nimals/ http://www.earthwatch.org/exped/reynolds.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borneo http://borneanwildcat.blogspot.com/p/focal-species.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_elephant http://tsjok45.multiply.com/photos/photo/484/55• Slide 161: http://www.pawsforwildlife.co.uk/borneo_pygmy_elephant.php 242
  • 243. • Slide 162: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=40135 http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0816-moses_borneo.html• Slide 163: http://cris-a.hubpages.com/hub/rare-and-wild http://archive.fieldmuseum.org/philippine_mammals/species/SP_88.asp http://www.nationsencyclopeSlide.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Philippines-FLORA-AND-FAUNA.html http://www.arkive.org/tamaraw/bubalus-mindorensis/image-G28471.html http://post.jagran.com/300-new-species-of-flora-fauna-found-in-philippines-1309518464 http://www.ecologyasia.com/news-archives/2010/jun-10/mb_100603_1.htm http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamaroe• Slide 164: http://cris-a.hubpages.com/hub/rare-and-wild http://131.230.176.4/imgs/pelserpb/r/Rafflesiaceae_Rafflesia_manillana_14532.html http://www.arkive.org/rafflesia/rafflesia-manillana/#text=Status http://www.parasiticplants.siu.edu/Rafflesiaceae/Raff.lobta.page.html http://www.rafflesialobata.org/publication_&_meSlide_release.html• Slide 165: http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/about15564.html http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filipijnse_vliegende_kat http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Flying_Lemur http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Eagle http://carnivora.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=aves&action=display&thread=3357&page=1• Slide 166: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Caledonia_rain_forests http://croixdusud.info/bio_eng/zoo_eng.php http://www.endemia.nc/faune/fiche.php?code=144 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagu• Slide 167: http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/cyatheales/Interesting http://www.virusphoto.com/13059- parc-des-grandes-fougeres-de-nouvelles-caledonie.html http://www.croixdusud.info/bio_eng/anx_flora_eng/cyathea_eng.php• Slide 168: http://www.rbge.org.uk/science/genetics-and-conservation/Molecular- Ecology/araucaria_conservation http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araucaria_columnaris• Slide 169: http://newcaledoniangeckos.com/6.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhacodactylus• Slide 170: http://ncnousvoila.blogspot.com/2011/05/visite-au-parc-forestier-16-avril-11.html• Slide 171: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=2735&m=1• Slide 172: http://www.worldwildlife.org/science/ecoregions/item1847.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atriplex http://www.arkive.org/woma-python/aspidites-ramsayi/image- G82233.html#text=Range 243
  • 244. • Slide 173: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinifex http://www.exploroz.com/Forum/Topic/82994/Wildflowers_PhotosMarble_Gum_- _Eucalyptus_gongylocarpa.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasive_species_in_Australia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nullarbor_Plain http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/RJ10001 http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/sa/ibra-nullarbor.html• Slide 174: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~nhi708/classify/animalia/chordata/mammalia/marsupialia/marsupialia.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Hairy-nosed_Wombat http://www.golf.com/courses-and- travel/18-holes-par-71-850-miles-worlds-longest-golf-course• Slide 175: http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/mediterranean/Pages/default.aspx http://www.flickr.com/photos/53809283@N04/5373790850/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iberian_Lynx• Slide 176: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iberian_Lynx http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/mediterranean/Pages/default.aspx http://www.slideshare.net/psaura/lynx-270454• Slide 177: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arbutus_unedo http://www.geographylists.com/jordan_ajloun.html• Slide 178: http://drajaysharma.blogspot.com/2011/04/biodiversity-hotspots.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_hotspot• Slide 179: http://www.mexicanfauna.com/keelbilledtoucan.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramphastos http://www.questconnect.org/mexico_flora.htm http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20mexico.htm http://explorebiodiversity.com/Mexico/Pages/Habitats/rainforest1.htm http://www.mangoverde.com/wbg/picpages/pic102-31-1.html http://fotos.infojardin.com/subida- imagenes/images/bwy1245845862p.jpg• Slide 180 – 181: http://news.mongabay.com/2011/0615-hance_lcts_xinguriver.html http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/J4337_IRN_Factsheet_3.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belo_Monte_Dam http://amazonwatch.org/news/2012/0213-urgent-chief- raoni-and-the-kayapo-under-attack• Slide 182: http://www.internationalrivers.org/latin-america/patagonia http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2070816,00.html http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/10/chile-hidroaysen-dam-project-approved- patagonia_n_859833.html http://tolweb.org/Hippocamelus/50962• Slide 183: : http://www.geo.uu.nl/ngv/geonieuws/geonieuwsnr.php?nummer=5 http://www.baikal- center.ru/en/books/element.php?ID=1506 http://www.arkive.org/baikal-seal/pusa-sibirica/image- G33386.html 244
  • 245. • Slide 184: http://www.bww.irk.ru/baikalfauna/baikalinvertebrates.html http://members.fortunecity.com/natuur/bai1.htm http://baikallake.atspace.com/water%20plants.htm• Slide 185: http://buitenland.nieuws.nl/549695 http://www.sras.org/environmental_policy_and_politics_lake_baikal• Slide 186: http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0813-angkor_wat.html http://www.roadtoangkorinn.com/about-cambodia.php http://www.rainforestconservation.org/rainforest- primer/3-rainforests-in-peril-deforestation/f-consequences-of-deforestation/9-difficulty-of-reforestation http://www.canbypublications.com/siemreap/srtonlesap.htm• Slide 187: http://khmerization.blogspot.com/2011/01/government-of-cambodia-declares-new.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarus_Crane http://www.roadtoangkorinn.com/about-cambodia.php• Slide 188-189: http://brazilinhotpants.wordpress.com/2011/06/10/in-the-amazon-2-6-billion-trees- already-eliminated/• Slide 190: http://www.organicconsumers.org/monsanto/roundup.cfm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsanto http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2011/03/the-battle- for-biodiversity-monsanto-and-farmers-clash/73117/ http://www.xtywebworks.ns.ca/Don%27t%20Eat%20This%20Shit.html http://hgroen.wordpress.com/2011/05/01/vraagtekens-bij-verantwoord-soja-van-monsanto/ http://feww.wordpress.com/2008/04/• Slide 191: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-17062806 http://www.worldpressphoto.org/photo/2012brentstirtonnas1-kl?gallery=2634• Slide 192: http://impreso.milenio.com/node/8555164 http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0310_full.html• Slide 193: http://www.arkive.org/madagascar-periwinkle/catharanthus-roseus/image-G55644.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catharanthus_roseus• Slide 194: http://www.flickr.com/photos/plsc100/317309402/in/photostream http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/1983/9241541636_%28part2%29.pdf• Slide 195: http://www.helpfulhealthtips.com/azadirachta-indica-information-uses-and-benefits/ http://www.paghat.com/neemworship.html http://www.anthemis.nl/aromabasis/neem.htm http://www.fao.org/forestry/49410/en/nga/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azadirachta_indica• Slide 196: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanum_quitoense http://www.latin-wife.com/Colombian- Flowers-/Solanum-quitoense-lulo.asp http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_mangosteen http://www.anerbas.com/myrasplace/ 245
  • 246. • Slide 197: http://www.tfljournal.org/article.php/20070821145316291/print http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winged_bean• Slide 198: http://www.cnseed.org/maca-seed-lepidium-meyenii.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maca_%28plant%29 http://www.incyst.com/2011/04/from-peru-with- love-maca-amaranth.html• Slide 199: http://www.maria-brazil.org/lencois_maranhenses.htm http://www.anthemis.nl/aromabasis/babassu.htm http://www.pbs.org/journeyintoamazonia/plants.html• Slide 200: http://amarantohoy.blogspot.com/2011/01/amaranto-amaranthus-caudatus.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranth http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1398&page=139 http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=62957:amaranthus- tricolor-l&catid=365:a http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus_cruentus• Slide 201: http://www.ebsqart.com/Artist/Lisa-Morgan/862/Art-Portfolio/The-Rose-and-the- Amaranth/79642/ http://• Slide 202: http://eco-antropologia.blogspot.com/2009/01/flora-actual-de-la-pampa-del- tamarugal.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prosopis_tamarugo http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb2/AFTPDFS/Prosopis_tamarugo.pdf http://www.springerlink.com/content/l24168ql0k1qm722• Slide 203: http://www.fundacionbiodiversa.org/pdf/Mario/P.lewyana%20account%202009.pdf http://portalplaneta.weebly.com/especies-en-peligro.html http://gogreenasap.blogspot.com/2008/09/mini-project-3-endangered-species.html http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/17823/0• Slide 204: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babiroessa%27s http://m- tsyganov.livejournal.com/367919.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babirusa• Slide 205: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iguana http://burchfamilyontour.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/iguanas-and-islands/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesser_Antillean_Iguana http://www.arkive.org/lesser-antillean- iguana/iguana-delicatissima/#text=Habitat• Slide 206: http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0532e/A0532e03.htm http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/envalueapp/studydetail.asp?id_study=378 http://www.abc.net.au/rural/content/2011/s3386781.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cupua%C3%A7u http://www.montosogardens.com/theobroma_grandiflorum.htm 246 http://www.go2peru.com/allpahuayo_mishana.htm
  • 247. • Slide 207: http://www.edie.net/news/news_story.asp?id=12061&title=Amazon+reforestation+begins http://allisonleahy.com/post/13879619925/brazilian-forest-code-reform-will-devastate-the-amazon http://blogs.cfr.org/oneil/2011/06/03/from-the-forest-to-brasilia-brazils-fight-over-the-amazon/ http://www.treehugger.com/corporate-responsibility/dutch-bank-to-offer-carbon-credits-to-brazilian- farmers.html http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1412098/brazil_launches_large_reforestation_program_in_a mazon/ http://replantingtherainforests.org/site/index.php/Our-Methods• Slide 208: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangrove http://www.indiawaterportal.org/node/18960 http://lighthouse-foundation.org/index.php?id=191&L=1 http://www.globalrestorationnetwork.org/database/case-study/?id=27 http://www.indiawaterportal.org/node/18960• Slide 209: http://www.pbase.com/image/112317519 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greta_oto• Slide 210: http://landsurveyorsunited.com/group/gis• Slide 211: http://www.brisbaneinsects.com/pchew_brisbane/Termites.htm http://www.agefotostock.com/en/Stock-Images/Rights-Managed/BWI-BLWS209400 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Termite• Slide 212: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/compound-eye/2011/11/07/naskreckis-relics-argues- for-a-conservation-ethic-rooted-in-evolutionary-history/• http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/frog-guarding- froglets.html• Slide 213: http://en.microcosmaquariumexplorer.com/wiki/Baba_Dioum http://www.cefns.nau.edu/Academic/CSE/umeb/KatrinaTso.shtml• Slide 214: http://www.icp.ucl.ac.be/~opperd/parasites/onch1.html http://www.ciesin.org/docs/008- 129/008-129.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merck_%26_Co.• Slide 215: http://www.seringalguapimirim.com.br/seringal_02.htm http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1510/is_n64/ai_7906267/ http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/seringueiros-defend-rainforest-amazonia• Slide 216: http://www.amazonia-andina.org/en/content/sustainable-livelihoods-western-amazon http://www.amazonia-andina.org/en/content/hablemos-de-casta%C3%B1• Slide 217: http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5518986_can-save-amazon-rain-forest.html http://rainforests.mongabay.com/1011.htm• Slide 218: http://tsachopen.blogspot.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yanesha%27_people 247
  • 248. • Slide 219-224: http://landscapeandurbanism.blogspot.com/2010/05/ecological-urbanism- introduction-part-2.html http://urbanhabitat.org/climatejustice?page=1 http://theurbanfarmer.ca/cuba-programs/ http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/article2624715.ece?homepage=true http://www.adaptation-fund.org/page/photo-contest-winners-announced http://www.aabc.co.in/inSlide/1703-adopt-mixed-cropping-climate-resilient-farming- swaminathan.html http://agrilinks.kdid.org/library/farm-scale-management-practices-improve- productivity-and-resilience http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/znassen/Interesting http://mauimike6.wordpress.com/2009/07/27/mauis-prickly-pear-cactus-opuntia-ficus-indica/ http://www.imagejuicy.com/images/plants/o/opuntia/27/• Slide 221: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community-supported_agriculture http://www.planetizen.com/node/31263• Slide 225: http://dps.plants.ox.ac.uk/bol/helena http://www.kew.org/science- conservation/save-seed-prosper/millennium-seed-bank/projects-partners/partner-regions/uk- overseas-territories/st-helena/MSB-UKOTs-StHelena.htm• Slide 226: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabian_Oryx http://www.arkive.org/arabian-oryx/oryx- leucoryx/• Slide 227: http://www.greeniacs.com/GreeniacsArticles/Wildlife/Importance-of-Biodiversity.html http://savingspecies.org/wp- content/uploads/2010/10/tropical_deforestation_biodiversity_map_web.jpg• Slide 228: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/18777435 http://costa-rica- guide.com/travel/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=339&Itemid=562 http://www.savenature.org/content/adopt_acre/Guanacaste http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_and_subtropical_dry_broadleaf_forests http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-throated_Magpie-Jay• Slide 229: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olive_ridley_sea_turtle http://seapics.com/gallery/Reptilia/Testudines/Cryptodira/Chelonioidea/Cheloniidae/olive- ridley-sea-turtle-search.html http://www.savenature.org/content/adopt_acre/Guanacaste• Slide 230: http://www.ranchohumo.com/en/one-day-tour/birds-island.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anhinga• Background: http://wallpaper-wide.ru/en/preview.php?hd=2156 / 248
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  • 253. Couldn’t have made it without the aid of… Mom, dad, my sisters and brothers, my friends For their contribution either to the dutch or english chapters: Gosse Bereklauw Herwig Blockx Joris Bortels Doreen Angela De Greef Wouter Joris Frederic Kusseler Jozef Van Assche Peter Vanvinckenroye …you always got the words flowing 253

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