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Mitigation efforts in Chinese cities

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This presentation gives an overview of urbanisation challenges in China and Wuhan and Chengdu’s low carbon development strategy programmes. It also discusses the low carbon cooperation potential for …

This presentation gives an overview of urbanisation challenges in China and Wuhan and Chengdu’s low carbon development strategy programmes. It also discusses the low carbon cooperation potential for Chinese cities with their German/European partner cities. Lina Li, Consultant International Climate Policies at Ecofys, gave this presentation during the 5th Annual Global Forum on Urban Resilience and Adaptation in Bonn.

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  • 1. Mitigation efforts in Chinese cities and cooperation potential with German/European partners Resilient Cities 2014 -5th Annual Global Forum on Urban Resilience and Adaptation C3 “Climate change adaptation and mitigation in Chinese cities” Lina Li 22/05/2014
  • 2. © ECOFYS | | Cities – GHG emissions globally > Cities are responsible for 50-60% of population, 2/3 of energy consumption, 70-80% GHG emissions 22/05/2014 Name2 Source: UN and WRI
  • 3. © ECOFYS | | Cities – unprecedented evolution of China > After an unprecedented urbanization phase, the number of Chinese urban citizens exceeded Europe's total population 22/05/2014 Name3 Source: Nature
  • 4. © ECOFYS | | Cities – characteristics of cities in China 22/05/2014 Name4 Top 100 cities accounted for 43% of the total energy use, 42% of the electricity consumption and more than 75% of natural gas and LPG consumption in 2006. Source: Nature; Mercator Institute for China Studies; WWF
  • 5. © ECOFYS | | Challenges – impacts of cities in China > Increased pressure on limited natural resources > Air pollution > Traffic congestion > Water pollution > Huge waste cycles > Decreasing mobility > Health impact > Increasing use of energy and GHG emissions 22/05/2014 Name5
  • 6. © ECOFYS | | Solution- Sustainable urbanization 22/05/2014 Name6 Social Equity & Quality of Life  Public health  Universal service access  Accountable governance  Accessibility  Cultural identity Economic Prosperity  Job access  Innovation  Economic growth  Economic resilience Environmental Stewardship  Resource consumption  Waste production  Global emissions  Infrastructure resilience Source: WRI; InnovationCity Ruhr
  • 7. © ECOFYS | | China’s low carbon city/smart/eco city pilots 22/05/2014 Name7 Source: Nature; UNFCCC; Low Carbon Singapore
  • 8. © ECOFYS | | Chinese government policy blueprint “new-type urbanization” 22/05/2014 Name8 Source: Nature
  • 9. © ECOFYS | | Chinese cities in action: Wuhan Background: > Capital city of Hubei Province, high industrialization & urbanization (~65% urban rate) > GDP in 2010 552 billion RMB (per capita 66K RMB), 14.7% increase rate, primary, secondary and tertiary sectors 3.1%, 45.9%, and 51% > National reform pilot city, Yangtze River Open City, national comprehensive reform pilot of developing resource saving and environment friendly society, national low carbon city and province pilots Targets and vision: > 12th FYP (2011 – 2015): – energy intensity reduction by 18%, emissions intensity reduction by19%, forest coverage rate to reach 28% – indicative total energy consumption target of 69 million tce (45% higher 2010 level) – break down targets into districts, large scale industries, and other key sectors > State Council approved the Macro Unban Plan of Wuhan in 2010 – A national historical and cultural city – The central city of central China – The country's major industrial bases, scientific and educational base and integrated transport hub 22/05/2014 Name9 Source: Ecofys
  • 10. © ECOFYS | | Chinese cities in action: Wuhan 22/05/2014 Name10 Buildings Transport Energy Industry Environment Urban dev. Wuhan Potential Actions Source: Ecofys
  • 11. © ECOFYS | | Potential for cooperation: Duisburg & Wuhan 22/05/2014 Name11 Source: Ecofys
  • 12. © ECOFYS | | Potential for cooperation: Financing EE in buildings > China – Provides financial support via governmental top-down channels, mainly as grants to project developers – Subnational governments are mainly implementing, while their leadership increasing > Germany – Provides financial support, mainly as concessional loans (via KfW) and to some extent also grants (via KfW and BAFA) to house owners/buyers – Subnational governments have more ownership and setting own (higher) targets 22/05/2014 Name12 Source: Greenovation Hub&Germanwatch
  • 13. © ECOFYS | |13 Best practice example – Green Transport in Wuhan > Green transport development since 2008 – To achieve a healthy, safe, efficient and environmentally friendly transport system in Wuhan …”public transport + slow travel (walk/bicycle)” pattern – 2013 Wuhan became the national pilot city on Bus Municipality and Green Low Carbon Development Source: Ecofys; Wuhan Transportation Planning and Design Institute – Supportive policies ● Construction and optimal adjustment of bus and rail networks and station facilities ● Strengthen low-carbon energy transportation e.g. LNG buses, new energy buses and ferry transportation ● Promote smart transportation ● Promote slow travel pattern e.g. bicycles and walking ● Green transport in new areas 22/05/2014
  • 14. © ECOFYS | | > Degree of efficiency (scores 1-6: the higher the number the stronger the measure) 14 Best practice example - Green Transport in Wuhan Assessment matrix Effective direction (target group) Effectivedirection(technical) Public Households / private investors Industry Administration Other stakeholders Energy efficiency 4 4 1 3 Renewable energy 1 1 1 1 Low carbon 3 3 1 3 Changing activity 5 5 1 5 Other (live quality) 5 5 - - 22/05/2014 Source: Ecofys
  • 15. © ECOFYS | |15 Best practice example - Green Transport in Wuhan SWOT Analysis Internalfactors Strengths  Government-Business-Public working together  Strong policy and financial support from the government – central and local  Long term perspective and planning  Multiple benefits generation (social, environmental, economic)  Benefiting all citizens of the society and even more so for the poor Weakness  Large construction projects need vast amount financial investment  Integration of different mode of transport in design and operation  Potential to enhance house prices in the city due to large scale infrastructure External factors Opportunities  The trend of low carbon and green development of cities and ambition of Wuhan in this regards  Higher requirement for living quality and better transport Threats  Private car purchasing and using still grow rapidly Improvements  Sustain and expand source and size of finance  Careful and effective planning and multi-department/institution cooperation  Enhance efficiency and reduce cost (with regular cost benefit analysis taking into account multiple benefits)  Awareness raising for citizens and integrate green transport into their life style  Effective stakeholder engagement Best practice example 22/05/2014 Source: Ecofys
  • 16. © ECOFYS | | Best practice example - Inventory of Building Stock in Hamburg 16 22/05/2014 Source: Ecofys
  • 17. © ECOFYS | | Visualization and mapping Map of building typology - cutout inner city area 22/05/2014 Source: Ecofys
  • 18. © ECOFYS | | Conjunction of socio-demographic & energy analysis 22/05/2014 Source: Ecofys
  • 19. © ECOFYS | | Recommendations > Develop CO2/energy inventories with clear sector review of current status, mitigation potentials, key barriers and solutions/technologies to use > Set a target trajectory beyond the five year planning phases, e.g. mid- term or long-term targets (2030, 2040, 2050) > Implement, evaluate and enhance actions in key sectors > Integrate across sectors, enhance institutional coordination and diversify policy tools > Sustain and expand source and size of finance and more efficiently support (e.g. result-based, end-users) > Inform, engage and incentivize stakeholders > Knowledge transfer and cooperation between Chinese and German/European cities (best practices/tool sharing, joint program, stakeholder engagement/exchange) 22/05/2014 Name19
  • 20. © ECOFYS | | Build greener cities together! 22/05/2014 Name20
  • 21. © ECOFYS | | Thank you! Ecofys Germany GmbH Lina Li Am Wassermann 36 50829 Cologne Germany T: +49 (0)221 27070-103 E: l.li@ecofys.com W: www.ecofys.com 22/05/2014 Name21
  • 22. © ECOFYS | | BACKUP SLIDES 22/05/2014 Name22
  • 23. © ECOFYS | | Chinese cities in action - Chengdu - Capital of Sichuan province, economic hub in western China (no. 8 mega city of China) - High industrialization and urbanization phase (~47% urban rate) - GDP 555 billion RMB (per capita 48.5 K RMB) in 2010 in which primary, secondary (industry/construction) and tertiary sectors accounting for 5.1%, 44.7%, and 50.2% - National urban and rural comprehensive reform pilot zone, Renewable Energy Demonstration City and national innovate city pilot - Targets and vision: - Low-Carbon Work Program 2010, Five Year Plans and sectorial policies - By 2015 reduce energy intensity by 16%, and energy consumption per unit of industrial added value by 23.5%, non-fossil min. 31% in energy mix, reduce consumption of public buildings by 3% (2015) - World Modern Garden City 22/05/2014 Name23
  • 24. © ECOFYS | | Chinese cities in action 22/05/2014 Name24 Buildings Transport Energy Industry Environment Urban dev. Chengdu Potential Actions
  • 25. © ECOFYS | | Potential for cooperation 22/05/2014 Name25
  • 26. © ECOFYS | | Energy information at district level - Wilhelmsburg Map of district heat net and connected buildings
  • 27. © ECOFYS | | Selection of priority areas for pilot projects Quartier Harburg, Rotbergkamp – decentral heating solutions 22/05/2014