What is Sustainable Development?


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  • Quote reference : World Commission on Environment and Development’s (the Brundtland Commission) report Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987) - http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm Notes: “ 'The goal of sustainable development is to enable all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life - without compromising the quality of life for future generations'. This can be achieved either through addressing sustainable development in a generic way or contributing to specific elements such as tackling climate change, creating cleaner, safer, greener and healthier communities, reducing waste and recycling, creating a fairer world, travelling wisely or supporting local food initiatives.” For more information see Sustainable Development resource folder. web references on Sustainable Development : Forum for the Future - http://www.forumforthefuture.org.uk/what-is-sd SD UK - http://www.sustainable-development.gov.uk/ SD commission - http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/ UNESCO SD Education - http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=23279&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html World Bank SD pages - http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/sd.html SD Wiki - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development World Business Council for Sustainable Development - http://www.wbcsd.org SD network - http://www.sd-network.eu/
  • This slide reflects the widely held view that Sustainable Development is about people, the environment and economies.
  • The next few slides will highlight some of the “big hitter” global issues related to sustainable development
  • quote source : UN Human Development Report 2005 - http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005/pdf/HDR05_overview.pdf Notes: When the United Nations created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, signatories proclaimed that all people have the right to education, work, health and well-being. The proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day is one of the headline indicators of the UN Millennium Development Goals. While globally the numbers of people living in extreme poverty are improving more needs to be done. A common method used to measure poverty is based on incomes or consumption levels. A person is considered poor if his or her consumption or income level falls below some minimum level necessary to meet basic needs. This minimum level is usually called the "poverty line". What is necessary to satisfy basic needs varies across time and societies. Therefore, poverty lines vary in time and place, and each country uses lines which are appropriate to its level of development, societal norms and values. Web resources: Human Development reports - http://hdr.undp.org/ MDG - http://www.undp.org/mdg/tracking_targetlist.shtml MDG - http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Default.aspx UNICEF poverty - http://www.unicef.org/mdg/poverty.html
  • quote source : UN Human Development report 2006 - Beyond Scarcity: Power Poverty and the global water crisis http://origin-hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/ From the report: “ Throughout history water has confronted humanity with some of its greatest challenges. Water is a source of life and a natural resource that sustains our environments and supports livelihoods – but it is also a source of risk and vulnerability. In the early 21st Century, prospects for human development are threatened by a deepening global water crisis. Debunking the myth that the crisis is the result of scarcity, this report argues poverty, power and inequality are at the heart of the problem. In a world of unprecedented wealth, almost 2 million children die each year for want of a glass of clean water and adequate sanitation. Millions of women and young girls are forced to spend hours collecting and carrying water, restricting their opportunities and their choices. And water-borne infectious diseases are holding back poverty reduction and economic growth in some of the world’s poorest countries. ” Web resources: Human Development report 2006 - http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006 Water Aid - http://www.wateraid.org/uk/ Europe aid - http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/promotion/sectors/article_1877_en.htm World Water Day - http://www.unwater.org/wwd07/flashindex.html
  • Quote source: United Nations Pre-Johannesburg article - http://www.un.org/jsummit/html/whats_new/feature_story3.html Notes: “ About 2 million people die every year due to diarrhoeal diseases, most of them are children less than 5 years of age. The most affected are the populations in developing countries, living in extreme conditions of poverty, normally peri-urban dwellers or rural inhabitants. Among the main problems which are responsible for this situation are: lack of priority given to the sector, lack of financial resources, lack of sustainability of water supply and sanitation services, poor hygiene behaviours, and inadequate sanitation in public places including hospitals, health centres and schools. Providing access to sufficient quantities of safe water, the provision of facilities for a sanitary disposal of excreta, and introducing sound hygiene behaviours are of capital importance to reduce the burden of disease caused by these risk factors. ” (WHO) Web resources: WHO - http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/en/index.html WHO Meeting the MDG drinking-water and sanitation target: A mid-term assessment of progress - http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2004/en/
  • Quote source: Department for International Development (DFID) - http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/mdg-factsheets/childmortalityfactsheet.pdf Notes: “ In some poor countries, one child in 11 dies before its fifth birthday - that’s more than ten times the rate of children dying every year in wealthy countries like the UK. Nearly 11 million young children die each year, mostly from preventable illnesses such as diarrhoea and malaria. They could be saved by better nutrition, care and medical treatment. That’s why one of the Millennium Development Goals is to reduce the mortality rate of under-fives by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Worldwide, the proportion of children under the age of five dying has fallen by nearly 20% in the last two decades. But despite progress in some regions, rates in many poorer countries remain high. On current trends, the mortality rates for under-fives are estimated to drop by less than a quarter by 2015. Progress is slowest Sub-Saharan Africa, where death rates have actually gone up in some countries between 1990 and 2000. Armed conflicts, growing populations, a lack of investment in health services and the spread of HIV /AIDS are all contributing to this situation, with a number of countries now experiencing more than 200 deaths in children under five per 1,000 live births.” (DFID) Web resources: UNICEF - http://www.unicef.org/mdg/childmortality.html BBC Child mortality 'at record low' - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6992401.stm DFID - http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/mdg-factsheets/childmortalityfactsheet.pdf
  • Quote source: Lebensministerium/ SERI http://www.materialflows.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=28&Itemid=44 Notes: “ Providing for the well-being of a still growing world population within the limits of a finite planet is the key challenge for our future. Many people still need more natural resources – just to meet basic needs. Yet, nature’s life support systems are already overburdened. This ecological overshoot is deepening: soil erosion, deforestation, species extinction, CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere and extreme weather events, stressed freshwater sources, fossil fuel constraints, destruction of the ozone layer and failing fisheries. They are all measurable effects of liquidating rather than stewarding natural capital. If we want to maintain – and in many places improve – human well-being, society will have to learn to live on fewer resources, for example by reducing demand or by using resources much more efficiently. Any resources we use will end up as waste, causing environmental problems such as climate change, air and water pollution, and the destruction of biodiversity. This is, however, not only an environmental concern: the overuse of resources is also a problem for economic stability, international security, social equity, international cooperation, and peaceful coexistence.” (SERI) Web resources: UNEP – resource consumption - http://www.vitalgraphics.net/waste/html_file/14-15_consumption_appetite.html SERI - http://www.seri.at/documentupload/pdf/consensus_statement.pdf United Nations - http://www.vitalgraphics.net/waste/download/waste1415.PDF DEFRA / WUPPERTAL - http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/waste/research/download/mfaressum.pdf UK CEED - http://www.ukceed.org/resource-efficiency/index.php
  • Quote source: BBC / WHO - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4086809.stm Notes: “ Emissions from fossil fuel and biomass burning account for most energy-related air pollution in most parts of the world. Energy related emissions are released through the entire spectrum of energy activities, from upstream emissions during fossil fuel extraction and production to end-use emissions from fossil fuels burned for transport, heating, cooking and the like. A wide range of gaseous and particulate compounds have adverse impacts and can be considered air pollutants – including particulate matter (PM), tropospheric (surface) ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) (together known as nitrogen oxides or NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), harmful levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), organic compounds and metals. Particulates are further defined by their diameter – smaller particulates of diameters less than ten micrometres (µm) (called PM10) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5) can penetrate deeper into the human lung and do more health damage. ” Web resources: WWF - http://www.panda.org/news_facts/education/high_school/homework_help/webfieldtrips/air_pollution/index.cfm UNEP - http://www.unep.org/geo/yearbook/yb2006/055.asp WHO - http://www.who.int/heca/infomaterials/air_pollution.pdf DEFRA - http://www.defra.gov.uk/Environment/airquality/index.htm
  • Quote source: Forum for the Future / BT - http://www.btplc.com/Societyandenvironment/Reports/Archivedreports/Onlinedebates/JustValuesdebate/Just_values.pdf Notes: “ Corals and seaweed have joined the ranks of threatened species, and more apes and reptiles are now facing extinction according to the World Conservation Union, which warns of a "global extinction crisis". The conservation group's annual Red List of threatened species, published today, found that the extinction crisis had escalated in the last year with 16,306 species now at the highest levels of extinction threat, equivalent to almost 40% of all species in the survey. A quarter of all mammals, a third of all amphibians and one in eight birds on the 2007 IUCN Red List are in jeopardy. More than 180 species have been added since 2006 to the ranks of those classified as endangered, critically endangered or vulnerable. ” (http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/sep/12/internationalnews.greenpolitics) Web resources: WWF - http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/species/publications/index.cfm Convention on Biological Diversity - http://www.cbd.int/default.shtml IUCH Red List - http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlist2007/index_redlist2007.htm Department of Environment New South Wales - http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx
  • Quote source: Direct Gov pages – Nature under threat http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Environmentandgreenerliving/Greenerlivingaquickguide/Oureffectontheplanet/DG_064399 Notes: From the time when humans first occupied Earth and began to hunt animals, gather food and chop wood, they have had an impact on biodiversity. Over the last two centuries, human population growth, overexploitation of natural resources and environmental degradation have resulted in an ever accelerating decline in global biodiversity. Species are diminishing in numbers and becoming extinct, and ecosystems are suffering damage and disappearing. Biodiversity - short for biological diversity - means the diversity of life in all its forms – the diversity of species, of genetic variations within one species, and of ecosystems. Web resources: World Conservation Union - http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/red_list_2004/Extinction_media_brief_2004.pdf Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species - http://www.ukcites.gov.uk/default.asp United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/ The Environmental Investigation Agency - http://www.eia-international.org/ WWF conservation pages - http://www.wwf.org.uk/core/wildlife/factsheets.asp Guardian conservation pages - http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/conservation
  • Quote source: DEFRA - http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/ministers/speeches/david-miliband/dm070202.htm Notes: “ c limate change is a personal and local issue as well as a national and European one. The choices we make as consumers, as businesses, as local electors shape the transport, waste, and planning decisions that impact on greenhouse gases. We are depleting our natural resources at a far faster rate that we are replenishing them. We need instead to move towards a one-planet economy and one planet living – where there is balance between what we give and what we take. ” (DEFRA) Web resources: WWF - http://www.wwf.org.uk/oneplanet/ophome.asp One Planet Wales - http://assets.panda.org/downloads/25700_wwf_report_e.pdf One Planet Living - http://www.oneplanetliving.org/ Bioregional - http://www.bioregional.com/programme_projects/opl_prog/OPL%20broch%20single%20page.pdf
  • Quote reference : Cardiff’s ecological footprint - http://archive.cardiff.gov.uk/SPNR/strategic_planning/New_strategic_planning/Sustainability/PDFs/footprint-eng-compressed.pdf Notes: “ Ecological footprinting is a new technique which national, regional and local governments can use to measure the environmental impact of their population on nature. An ecological footprint calculates how much land area is required for an average citizen for everything they consume (products and resources) and produce (waste and emissions) per year.” (See Cardiff’s ecological footprint report below) The ecological footprint has been adopted as a sustainability indicator by the Finnish, Swiss, Wales and Northern Ireland governments 'carbon Footprint' has been adopted as a shorthand for the amount of carbon (usually in tonnes) being emitted by an organization or activity. NOTE: ecological Footprinting has a number of criticisms due to specific measurements and the potential for apparent un-sustainable practices getting better results Web resources: Cardiff’s ecological footprint - http://archive.cardiff.gov.uk/SPNR/strategic_planning/New_strategic_planning/Sustainability/PDFs/footprint-eng-compressed.pdf Footprinting network - http://www.footprintnetwork.org Eartday footprinting - http://www.earthday.net/ Best foot forward - http://www.bestfootforward.com/ Recent DEFRA study on ecological footprinting - http://www.defra.gov.uk/science/project_data/DocumentLibrary/EV02024/EV02024_5880_FRP.pdf
  • Notes: This is a common representation of sustainable development illustrating the three elements. It can be used to show how we need to take account of all three elements and how sustainable development can be seen as an attempt to achieve a balance between the environmental, the social and the economic concerns. If we achieve a balance between environmental and social priorities, we can have a more healthy world; if we balance economic needs with environmental limitations, we become more efficient; if we address the imbalances between society and economics, we get a fairer world. Get all three in better balance and we become more sustainable.
  • What is Sustainable Development?

    1. 2. 1. sustainable development <ul><li>key learning objective : understand sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>definitions </li></ul><ul><li>why it is important </li></ul>
    2. 3. what is sustainable development?
    3. 4. Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Brundtland Report, 1987 “ “
    4. 5. societies it is about developing economies + companies + that can be sustained on social, economic and environmental terms
    5. 6. sustainable development is about social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
    6. 7. sustainable development is about environmental protection being at the centre of everything we do
    7. 8. sustainable development is about ensuring employment and economic security for everyone
    8. 9. sustainable development is about the prudent use of the earth’s natural resources
    9. 10. Sustainability proves the point of design thinking in that it suggests that one consider the materials, processes, and practices that a business employs. It is essential that business is able to see the layers of value that are created and the layers of waste. Design is the tool to analyze this . James P. Hackett, president and CEO of Steelcase Inc. , 2007 “ “
    11. 12. reason no.1 we live in an unequal world
    12. 13. over 1 billion people live on less than $1 a day source: UNDP
    13. 14. over 1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water source: UNDP
    14. 15. 80% of all disease in developing countries is caused by consumption of contaminated water source: WHO
    15. 16. currently over 10 million children die each year before their fifth birthday source: UK Department for International Development
    16. 17. reason no.2 the ecological systems of the world are under stress
    17. 18. over the past two decades global resource extraction grew from 40 billion tons in 1980 to 55 billion tons in 2002 source: Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management / SERI
    18. 19. air pollution kills 3 million people each year, mostly in poor countries source: WHO / BBC
    19. 20. 25% of mammal species, 12% of bird species and 34% of fish species are under threat of extinction source: World Summit on Sustainable Development / European Commission
    20. 21. between 100 and 1000 species become extinct each year, because their habitats are changing or being destroyed. source: UK Government
    21. 22. what about the UK?
    22. 23. “ If everyone in the world were to consume natural resources and generate carbon dioxide (CO2) at the rate we do in the UK, we'd need three planets to support us” WWF UK
    23. 24. The ecological footprint of Cardiff, is 125 times the city’s area. source: WWF
    24. 25. sustainable development is about moving towards ‘one planet living’
    25. 26. we become more sustainable when we balance environmental, social and economic concerns environmental economic social
    26. 27. The only businesses around in 20 years time will be green and sustainable businesses Richard Branson, Virgin, 2008 “ “