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Unido ceu slides ecodesign centre-foc_3_july2013


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  • 1. guest lecture / workshop on ecodesign at the Green Industry Summer Course organised by Central European University, in partnership with UNIDO   July  2013  
  • 2. ecodesign Dr Frank O’Connor Director @ecodesigncentre @frank_oconnor !
  • 3. to  believe  in  something,   and  not  to  live  it,     is  dishonest.     Mahatma  Gandhi  
  • 4. “… The times of thoughtless design, which can only flourish in times of thoughtless production for thoughtless consumption, are over. We cannot afford any more thoughtlessness.” source:  Dieter  Rams  
  • 5. “… The times of thoughtless design, which can only flourish in times of thoughtless production for thoughtless consumption, are over. We cannot afford any more thoughtlessness.” source:  Dieter  Rams  
  • 6. so what happened between 1976 and 2013?
  • 7. source: we continue to live in a throwaway society. ………… yet there is still no ‘away’.
  • 8.  image source: source:    Edwin  Datschefski  &  United   NaFons  University   …  and  now  98%  of  products  are  thrown      away  within  6  months.  
  • 9.        we  conFnue  to  over  consume.  
  • 10. …  If  everyone  in  the  world  were  to  consume  natural  resources   and  generate  carbon  dioxide  (CO2)  at  the  rate  we  do  in  the  UK,   we‘d  need  three  planets  to  support  us.       source:  WWF  UK,  DEFRA    three  planet  living    factor  ‘X’?  
  • 11. Image  source:  Banksy   we  see  even  more  of  a  disconnect   between  people  …..  and  between   planet  and  people.   ..  and  true  costs  conFnue  not  to  be  accounted  for.  
  • 12.  car  components  
  • 13. source: WHO / BBC source: Harman  speakers  
  • 14.  neodymium   image sources: Harman & wiki  car  speaker   low  carbon  
  • 15.  image source:  polluFon    true  cost  
  • 16.  image source:  toxicity,  health    true  cost  
  • 17. source: / getty images source: Chris Jordan  polluFon    true  cost  
  • 18. source: low  carbon  /  high  on     criFcal  materials  
  • 19. good design. how do we know its good?
  • 20. good design is: innovative useful aesthetic understandable unobtrusive Dieter Rams (from the ’70s) honest long-lasting thorough environmentally friendly as little design as possible
  • 21. 606 Universal Shelving System Designed by Dieter Rams in 1960 and made by Vitsœ ever since
  • 22. source: miscell. web sites iPo^y   real need? banana  guard  
  • 23. can design be good? if it does not consider the key environmental and social impacts along the life cycle?
  • 24. can design be good? if it does not consider the key environmental and social impacts along the life cycle?
  • 25. we  conFnue  to  experience  a   collecFve  unconscious  behaviour  …..   with  catastrophic  unintended   consequences.   good design is a behaviour.
  • 26. we  con6nue  to  experience  a   collec6ve  unconscious  behaviour  …..   with  catastrophic  unintended   consequences.   good design is a behaviour.
  • 27. every design choice has a consequence image  source:    Chris  Jordan   80% of impacts are determined at design stage
  • 28. There are professions more harmful than industrial design, but only a very few of them. And possibly only one profession is phonier. Advertising design, in persuading people to buy things they don‘t need, with money they don’t have, in order to impress others who don‘t care, is probably the phoniest field in existence today. Victor Papanek, Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change, Thames and Hudson, 1984
  • 29. designers interact between industry, users and other actors industry consumers design
  • 30. designers can influence how people consume, use, behave … live. industry consumers design
  • 31. population growth source: engine group and UNFPA source: engine group and UK statistics ageing population a move to cities non-inclusive resource scarcity knowledge loss emerging economies natural disasters  change  
  • 32. emerging economies 1billion of these people are living in slums, squats & unofficial settlements  source: UNHABITAT
  • 34. source:
  • 35. ‘things’ are hopelessly over-rated John Thackara (Social Innovation Expert) @johnthackara
  • 36. social  crimes         !
  • 37. air  pollu6on  kills  3  million   people  each  year,  mostly  in   poor  countries     source: WHO / BBC  responsibility      polluFon  
  • 38.  responsibility      polluFon  
  • 39. between  100  and  1000  species   become  ex6nct  each  year,   because  their  habitats  are   changing  or  being  destroyed.       source: UK Government  responsibility      degradaFon  
  • 40. Image  responsibility    so  much  waste  
  • 41. over  1  billion  people  do  not   have  access  to  clean  drinking   water     source: UNDP  responsibility      access  to  water  
  • 42. 80%  of  all  disease  in  developing   countries  is  caused  by   consump6on  of  contaminated   water     source: WHO  responsibility      access  to  water  
  • 43. 3800children die each day from diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene water access  source: UN / flickr  responsibility      access  to  water  
  • 44.  responsibility      health  
  • 45.   illustraFon:  Nathan  Halle^  
  • 46. what would the design brief for the industrial revolution look like? design a system of production that: 1.  puts billions of pounds of toxic material into the air, water and soil 2. measures prosperity by activity, not legacy 3. requires thousands of complex regulations to keep people and natural systems from being poisoned too quickly 4. produces materials so dangerous that they will require constant vigilance from future generations 5. results in gigantic amounts of waste 6. puts valuable materials in holes all over the planet, where they can never be retrieved 7. erodes the diversity of biological species and cultural practices source: William McDonough and Michael Braungart in Penny Allen (ed) (2001) Metaphors for Change: partnership, tools and civic action for sustainability, Sheffield: Greenleaf: 68 – from a presentation by Dr. Emma Dewberry to the Ecodesign Centre & partners in 2008
  • 47. wisdom knowledge through practice over time foolishness source: from a presentation by Dr. Emma Dewberry to the Ecodesign Centre & partners in 2008
  • 48. ‘commandments  of     industrialised  society’     1)  create  more  desire  (perceived  needs)   2)  thou  shalt  consume  (=  good  life)     culture  of  consumpFon    -­‐  devaluing  of  culture     source:  Henry  1949  cited  in  Jones  1987  
  • 49.  we  ALL  have  to  change  
  • 50. us businesseducation policy design
  • 51. us businesseducation policy design
  • 52. the  single  biggest  problem  in   communicaFon  is  the  illusion  that  it   has  taken  place.     George  Bernard  Shaw         image source:
  • 53. source:  Nathan  HalleP  
  • 54. images:  Apple  products,   Harman,  miscell.  sites   1988 1993 2013 2009 2006 !  reflecFons  on  my  journey  
  • 55. our mission is to make ecodesign happen through collaboration along the life cycle
  • 56. eco-strategies: ecodesign is an approach to designing products and services that aims to reduce environmental impacts over the full life cycle. eco-innovation is an approach to innovation that leads to a reduction in environmental impacts through targeted technological, organisational or institutional mechanisms. source:  EU  Eco-­‐innova6on  Ac6on  Plan  website:  hPp://  
  • 57. ecodesign  thinking  considers  the   materials,  processes  &  pracFces  of  a   organisaFon.  It  can  idenFfy  layers  of   waste  but  also  layers  of  value  
  • 58. effecFve  ecodesign  thinking  is  open,   process-­‐oriented,  mulFdisciplinary  and   cross-­‐funcFonal,  involving   people  as   well  as   stuff  
  • 59. it’s  a  way  of  thinking  and  doing  to   saFsfy  real  societal  needs  in  a   responsible  way      
  • 60. recent Ecodesign Centre briefings & outputs •  Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) •  Critical Materials (CRM) •  survey of European Design Centres •  Eco-innovation •  baseline study on resource hungry products Visit:
  • 61. snapshot of current collaborative work in Europe
  • 62. @LCAtogo
  • 63. Bio-based plastics PhotoVoltaics Electronics PCBs Semi-conductors Smart Textiles Industrial Machines Sensors
  • 64. @cycLEDeer
  • 65. designing an eco-innovation framework for SMEs and larger businesses (project focuses on LEDs) @cycLEDeer
  • 66. shifting the innovation spectrum: incremental/technological - radical/systems source:  OECD  eco-­‐innova6on  framework  hPp://­‐  innova6on.htm  
  • 67. collaborative eco-innovation design manufacture materials use reuse assembly refining recycling collection
  • 68. ww.braun-­‐   Service model Servicability service-life production / consumption demonstrating eco-innovation
  • 69. a way forward
  • 70. image: Jesse Stewart /
  • 71. managing resources requires a deeper system understanding
  • 72. managing resources requires a whole new way of doing business & governance
  • 73. responsible business require shifting our mindset from ‘supply chains’ to ‘supply circles’
  • 74. source: Nathan Hallett every  product   tells  a  story  J  
  • 75. "Sonicare Elite 7000 produced at 11 locations and in five time zones, comprised of 38 components, parts supplied by Japan, France, China and Malaysia, materials and production in Austria, Sweden, assembly in Philippines and United States, when fully assembled and packaged in Seattle the components have travelled a full 27,880 kilometres, two thirds of the Earth's circumference. source: SPIEGEL Magazine
  • 76. source: Warwick Business School published in The Guardian, 26th June 2013
  • 77. image  source:  Fuse  /  GePy   life cycle / systems thinking circular economy
  • 78. extract from a paper on materialism by Alwyn Jones, 1987 this type of thinking is not new!
  • 79. source: adapted from Danish Design Council ecodesign
  • 80. common  ecodesign  strategies  /   approaches  /  tools  
  • 81. design for…. full life cycles life cycles, nutrient cycles, material selection, cradle to cradle image source: mc donagh / braungart
  • 82. design for…. fair & just production health and safety, employees rights, unions, forced labour, child labour, discrimination, source: martin charter / CFSD
  • 83.   …...individuals  act  primarily  on  issues  that  impact  their   personal  well-­‐being,  their  family,  and  their  immediate   community.     Unless  those  needs  are  tended  to,  most  individuals   won't  commit  to  causes  that  promise  to  benefit  the   world  at  large.       Catherine  Greener   source: WHO / BBC
  • 84. invesFgate  the     internal  and  external   drivers  for  packaging,   product  or  service  (re) design.     these  drivers  could   include  legislaFon,   customers,  new   technology,   compeFFon.     assess  the   environmental   impacts  of  the   packaging  and   product.       map  the  life  cycle  so   you  understand   where  these  impacts   occur.  idenFfy  where   materials  and  energy   is  used  and  where   waste  is  produced.   select  ecodesign   strategies  that  will   allow  designers  to   tackle  the  main   environmental   impacts.     explore  the   compromises  and   trade-­‐offs.  involve   others  from   markeFng,  sales,   producFon,   purchasing.   develop  a  clear  brand   and  markeFng   strategy  to  reflect  and   communicate  the   environmental   improvements.     consider  how  the   packaging  will  impact   upon  the  brand.   rethink   assess   communicate  design   1.   2.   3.   4.  
  • 85. ecodesign tools qualitative quantitative analysis/strategydetaileddesign/launch stakeholder assessment rules of thumb market analysis ECO-Indicator applied ethnography material selection benchmarking carbon footprint Life Cycle Assessment checklists / LiDS Wheel MET Matrix guidelines / standards Life Cycle Costing strategy tools driver analysis
  • 86. design for…. low impact materials recycled, recyclable, bio materials, compatibility, compostable, renewable, sustainable image source: inhabitat, Worn Again, Moscardino, Remarkable, Sony
  • 87. design for…. eco-packaging natural, returnable, reusable, multifunction, biodegradable
  • 88. design for…. renewable power human powered, solar, wind, bio, re-chargeable image source: Philips, Freeplay, Solio
  • 89. image source: Panasonic design for…. disassembly recycling, servicing, end-of- life, upgrade, lean manufacturing, cleaner production, down-cycling, material segregation,
  • 90. design for…. durability longevity, durability, desire image source: dualit, kitchenaid
  • 91. design for…. product systems returnable, remanufacture, re-use, closed-loop, end-of-life, product-service-system image source: RSA
  • 92. a  marketable  set  of  products  and   services  capable  of  fulfilling  a  user’s   need         (Goedkoop  et  al.)   product  service     systems  
  • 93. …  also  known  as  a  funcFon  oriented   business  model  (e.g.  Xerox)       product  service     systems  
  • 94. hire   lease  /  service   consumer   goods   cooperaFve   full  ownership   shared   (adapted from Cooper et al.) individual   no  ownership   responsible     business  models   product  service     systems  
  • 95. product  service     systems  
  • 96. source: ser_is_snarkish product  service     systems  
  • 97. source: London Bus Museum
  • 98. source: design21, Lifestraw lifestraw  
  • 99. source: Droog, Tejo Remy
  • 100. @Orangebox_Ltd
  • 101. Cradle to Cradle “remake the way we make things” thinking about the materials we use, how our products are designed and assembled, and their cycles of use with our customers. No matter how good your products are, there comes a time when their first useful life comes to an end. In considering product life cycles Cradle to Cradle asks us to re-think the commonplace approach of “take, make & waste” and this prompted us to act. During the early stages of the design of Ara we established a relationship with one of Cradle to Cradle’s authors, renowned industrial chemist Micheal Braungart. Throughout the development we have been working with EPEA, Micheal’s C2C organisation based in Hamburg. We’ve always very carefully considered the materials that we use in our products but our aim in working with EPEA is to ensure that what we’re using is truly safe, for humans and the environment alike, and successful in technical cycles of reuse. This means looking in much more detail at every chemical ingredient in the materials we use; to determine which inhibit this aim and need to be substituted or remove as a result. Cradle to Cradle is an approach to design which looks to make us truly environmentally effective, by developing products for closed loop systems in which all the materials used are safe and beneficial - either to biodegrade naturally or to be fully recycled into high quality materials for subsequent product generations, again and again. In order for us to maximise the value of the materials used in your chair we’d like to get them back once you’ve finished with them. It’s pretty simple, all you need to do is visit our website at Returning your ARA at ‘End of Life’ Armsupportthat’sthereonlywhenyouneedit. Ourgoalwastodesignanewarmpadthatwasmorecomforta thanever,usingmaterialsthatcouldbesegregatedeasilyandrecyc moreeffectively.ThetraditionalPUisreplacedbyaflexiblepolym withaseparateinsertmadefromrecycledfoam.Theresultis armrestthat’srobust,easytouseandprobablythemostcomforta we’veevermade. Dosomethingreallysimple;makethechairbase100% recyclable. Notthemostcomplicatedpartonataskchair,granted,butweas ourselvesthequestion-somelookmuchbetterthanothersbut plasticchairbasesareprettymuchthesame,aren’tthey?Wellin sensetheyare,andwithveryfewexceptionstheyallhaveam collarmouldedintotheplastictostopthegasliftcreepingthroug thebase.Greatfornotdraggingyourchairacrossthecarpetbut notsogreatwhenyoucometorecycleit,asthecollarcanbever difficulttoremove. Smartdesignandcarefulmaterialselectionhasenabledustocre abasewithoutacollarinsert.Asimplepointbutunlikealmost otherplasticbasesoursis100%recyclable.Andrestassuredwe testeditlikemad. Weknowthatpeoplecomeinallshapesandsizes.That’swhy smartengineeringinsidethemechanismmeanstheridecanbe tunedandbalancedtoyourpreciseneeds,usingadjustment controlsthatareeasytooperateandlabelledclearly. disassembly takeback, reuse cradle to cradle, collaboration Ara: ecodesign = good design @Orangebox_Ltd
  • 102. do: more for less part reduction (25% less weight), disassembly, dematerialisation & material streamlining@Orangebox_Ltd
  • 103. do: supply chain a local supply chain has reduced manufacturing costs, allowed for closer working relationships with suppliers and has reduced environmental impacts through energy reduction at the transport stage (a direct saving on average of 20% on the cost of components = £280,000 saving) @Orangebox_Ltd
  • 104. do: responsible design estimated that £750,000 will be saved annually on the do range alone as a direct result of the ecodesign led approach employed as part of core business strategy. @Orangebox_Ltd
  • 105. @Orangebox_Ltd
  • 106. product design the ‘environment’: •  true cost •  consumption •  business model •  infrastructure •  education •  procurement •  people •  LCA, etc. image source:
  • 107. good  design  consideraFons     considera6on  of  full  life  cycle  /  system  /  true  cost     no  shi[  between  stages  of  life  cycle  /  LCA     design  for  transformaFve  use  cycles     design  for  new  models  of  business  &  un-­‐ownership   1  
  • 108. ecodesign  criteria     long-­‐life     non-­‐toxic       localise     renewable  energy   2  
  • 109. good  business  consideraFons     adaptable  supply  circles  instead  of  chains     transparency,  honesty  &  openness  (traceability)     true  collabora6on  through  empathy  &  extending  trust     framework  to  build  capacity  &  competencies   3  
  • 110. innovaFon  through  mindset  changes  –   think  …     ‘resource’  instead  of  ‘waste’     ‘need’,  ‘use’  instead  of  ‘consume’     how  to  transform  ‘stuff’  &  not  destroy       wider  life  cycle  /  ‘circular  economy’  team       4  
  • 111. do  not  accept     ‘that’s  the  way  it  is’  
  • 112. generic first steps decide not to stay where you are find something you love, believe in, are passionate about take responsibility, lead don’t be afraid to fail learn from your mistakes understand your own role ensure you are contributing, relevant
  • 113. generic first steps clearly define your values set a clear vision, mission seek to understand, empathise, trust focus on building capacity ‘walk the talk’ keep it simple, do it now
  • 114. do  not  accept     ‘that’s  the  way  it  is’  
  • 115. a  world  where   responsible  design  &   business  is  the  norm  
  • 116. designed,  made,   remade  ….     passport source: Habufa
  • 117. our  responsibility  is  no  longer  to   acquire,  but  to  be         Rabindranath  Tagore      
  • 118. to  be…  We  cannot  just  be  by   ourselves  alone.  We  have  to   inter-­‐be  with  every  other  thing.         Thich  Nhat  Hanh  
  • 119. a  journey  of  a  thousand  miles   must  begin  with  a  single  step.         Lao  Tzu   !
  • 120. today  is  one  step  ………..                  good  luck!   !
  • 121. support reading - personal viewpoint Can design be good? be-good/ Why we cannot accept bad design design Being design frank-oconnor-eng/
  • 122. thanks: @WelshGovernment @UNIDO @ceuHungary @ecodesigncentre colleagues & you.   @LCAtogo   @cycLEDeer     @frank_oconnor  
  • 123. sample activities to undertake !
  • 124. consider  why  disposal  is  such   a  large  part  of  many  product   stories.     and  why  we  choose  to   purchase  these  products.   !
  • 125.   consider  what  products  lend   themselves  to  product   service  systems?   !
  • 126. choose  a  product  to  ecodesign?       explain  your  choice  (of  product)   and  approach  (i.e.  key  strategies).   !
  • 127. choose  an  item  of  clothing  and   map  out  its  story  /  life  cycle?     how  would  you  re-­‐ecodesign?     explain  your  decision  making.   !
  • 128. what  is  the  one  thing  you   would  do  to  make  ecodesign   happen?     !
  • 129. what  is  the  one  thing  you   would  do  to  make  responsible   business  happen?     !
  • 130. consider  the  role  of:   § government?   § industry?   § educaFon?   in  an  world  where  responsible   design  &  business  is  the  norm.       !
  • 131. choose a product sketch circle(s) of use include key stages identify key actors select a life cycle strategy consider role of: government, business, education and design !