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  • 1.
    • an implementation framework for enabling ecodesign and life-cycle thinking in SMEs
    • context of research
    • study
    • key observations
    • next stages
  • 2.
    • context
    • the challenges of climate change and the use of and access to natural resources are directly linked to how we produce and consume products and services
    • to combat climate change the EU has set targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % by 2020
    • projections show a doubling of total household consumption in terms of expenditure in the EU-25 by 2030 - leading to significant contributions to greenhouse gasses, pollution, material use, and natural resource depletion.
  • 3.
    • evolution of environmental policies
    command & control measures end-of-pipe point source pollution management mitigation integrated product policies products and services product life cycles policy tool boxes combined instruments sustainable consumption & production global markets behaviour change consumption values / lifestyles system changes
  • 4.
    • aim of this research
    • the aim of this study is to understand how national innovation systems and subsequent policy mechanisms can increase the implementation of ecodesign and life-cycle thinking in SMEs
  • 5.
    • objectives
    • an examination of empirical evidence concerning the ecodesign and life-cycle thinking implementation-gap in SMEs
    • an investigation of incentive (and blocking) mechanisms for eco-innovation within NIS
    • an investigation of existing NIS and approaches to integrated policies for eco-innovation
    • an evaluation of public sector interventions concerning ecodesign implementation in SMEs
    • an elaboration on possible solutions on a national and international level
  • 6.
    • methodology
  • 7.
    • hypotheses
    • there is a robust rationale for ecodesign interventions in SMEs and these interventions require a systems perspective because ecodesign is a non-linear and interactive process
    • different SMEs require different forms of ecodesign intervention because of a number of dynamic defining characteristics (e.g. absorptive capacity, innovation systems)
  • 8.
    • rationale for government intervention
    • rationales for public intervention are generally found in market and regulatory failure arguments
    • e.g. information asymmetries, negative externalities, bounded rationality, principal agent problems etc.
    • Stern report mentions that “some economists have suggested that people use simple decision rules when faced with complexity, uncertainty or risk.”
    • negative externalities = GHG emissions, pollution, waste and other negative effects on the environment whose costs are not always reflected in market prices
  • 9.
    • previous ecodesign interventions
    • grants and R&D finance
    • regulatory frameworks
    • tax & financial incentives
    • ‘ brokering’ services
    • mobility of personnel
    • transfer and exploitation of research results
    • information diffusion
    • demonstrator projects
    • co-ordination and transparency
    • inspiring case examples but low long-term retention or diffusion of ecodesign activities
  • 10.
    • theoretical framework
    market failure neo-classical economics (Keynes) linear models of innovation addressing inputs & distribution rather than system supporting firms in isolation systems failure evolutionary economics (Joseph Schumpeter) innovation systems knowledge & interactive learning actors, infrastructure and culture networks & completition capacity building frameworks
  • 11.
    • linear models of innovation
    • no difference between capabilities, knowledge and information
  • 12.
    • innovation systems
    • “ those elements and relations, which interact in the production, diffusion and use of new and economically useful knowledge”
    • (Lundvall, 1992)
    • “ ... a set of institutions whose interactions determine the innovative performance ... of national firms.”
    • (Nelson, 1993)
    • “ it is a system of interconnected institutions to create, store and transfer the knowledge, skills and artefacts which define new technologies.”
    • (Metcalfe, 1995)
  • 13.  
  • 14.
    • analytical framework
    • how do you explore ecodesign intervention in the context of an innovation system?
    • capacity building framework that explore the internal and external context of ecodesign intervention
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • key observations (general)
    • there is a need for
    • different forms of intervention – strategic competencies, capacity building
    • an innovation system perspective – knowledge, interaction, (clusters, brokerage, mobility schemes)
    • policy instruments that address changes in behaviour for innovation , dealing with strategic, informational, or organisational needs
    • greater policy coherence (supply and demand side) with “open borders”
    • facilitate higher order innovation (e.g. organisational, managerial and system innovation)
  • 23.
    • key observations (general)
    • there is a need to
    • balance a technology focus with other forms of innovation
    • provide inspirational platforms that allow for interactive learning
    • improve formal and non-formal education systems
    • set framework conditions that enable open innovation – and potentially disruptive innovation
    • develop social capital
  • 24.
    • publications
    • O'Rafferty, S. & O'Connor, F., 2009. Regional perspectives on capacity building for ecodesign – insights from Wales . In Facilitating Sustainable Innovation through Collaboration: A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective. The Netherlands: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC.
    • O'Rafferty, S., O'Connor, F. & Curtis, H., 2009. The creativity gap? – bridging creativity, design and sustainable innovation . In Joint Actions on Climate Change. Aalborg, Denmark.
    • O'Rafferty, S., Curtis, H. & O'Connor, F., 2009. Capacity for sustainability: the changing contexts of design . In 11th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education. Brighton.
    • O’Rafferty, S. O’Connor, F. Cox, I. (2008) Supporting sustainable regional innovation and ecodesign in small to medium enterprises: a discussion on the issue with insights from Wales , Proceedings: Sustainable Consumption and Production: Framework for action, Brussels
  • 25.
    • next stages
    • refine framework
    • build evaluation model (ex ante and ex post)
    • write up