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  1. 1. <ul><li>an implementation framework for enabling ecodesign and life-cycle thinking in SMEs </li></ul><ul><li>context of research </li></ul><ul><li>study </li></ul><ul><li>key observations </li></ul><ul><li>next stages </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>context </li></ul><ul><li>the challenges of climate change and the use of and access to natural resources are directly linked to how we produce and consume products and services </li></ul><ul><li>to combat climate change the EU has set targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>projections show a doubling of total household consumption in terms of expenditure in the EU-25 by 2030 - leading to significant contributions to greenhouse gasses, pollution, material use, and natural resource depletion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>evolution of environmental policies </li></ul>command & control measures end-of-pipe point source pollution management mitigation integrated product policies products and services product life cycles policy tool boxes combined instruments sustainable consumption & production global markets behaviour change consumption values / lifestyles system changes
  4. 4. <ul><li>aim of this research </li></ul><ul><li>the aim of this study is to understand how national innovation systems and subsequent policy mechanisms can increase the implementation of ecodesign and life-cycle thinking in SMEs </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>objectives </li></ul><ul><li>an examination of empirical evidence concerning the ecodesign and life-cycle thinking implementation-gap in SMEs </li></ul><ul><li>an investigation of incentive (and blocking) mechanisms for eco-innovation within NIS </li></ul><ul><li>an investigation of existing NIS and approaches to integrated policies for eco-innovation </li></ul><ul><li>an evaluation of public sector interventions concerning ecodesign implementation in SMEs </li></ul><ul><li>an elaboration on possible solutions on a national and international level </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>methodology </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>there is a robust rationale for ecodesign interventions in SMEs and these interventions require a systems perspective because ecodesign is a non-linear and interactive process </li></ul><ul><li>different SMEs require different forms of ecodesign intervention because of a number of dynamic defining characteristics (e.g. absorptive capacity, innovation systems) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>rationale for government intervention </li></ul><ul><li>rationales for public intervention are generally found in market and regulatory failure arguments </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. information asymmetries, negative externalities, bounded rationality, principal agent problems etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stern report mentions that “some economists have suggested that people use simple decision rules when faced with complexity, uncertainty or risk.” </li></ul><ul><li>negative externalities = GHG emissions, pollution, waste and other negative effects on the environment whose costs are not always reflected in market prices </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>previous ecodesign interventions </li></ul><ul><li>grants and R&D finance </li></ul><ul><li>regulatory frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>tax & financial incentives </li></ul><ul><li>‘ brokering’ services </li></ul><ul><li>mobility of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>transfer and exploitation of research results </li></ul><ul><li>information diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrator projects </li></ul><ul><li>co-ordination and transparency </li></ul><ul><li>inspiring case examples but low long-term retention or diffusion of ecodesign activities </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>theoretical framework </li></ul>market failure neo-classical economics (Keynes) linear models of innovation addressing inputs & distribution rather than system supporting firms in isolation systems failure evolutionary economics (Joseph Schumpeter) innovation systems knowledge & interactive learning actors, infrastructure and culture networks & completition capacity building frameworks
  11. 11. <ul><li>linear models of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>no difference between capabilities, knowledge and information </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>innovation systems </li></ul><ul><li>“ those elements and relations, which interact in the production, diffusion and use of new and economically useful knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>(Lundvall, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>“ ... a set of institutions whose interactions determine the innovative performance ... of national firms.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Nelson, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>“ it is a system of interconnected institutions to create, store and transfer the knowledge, skills and artefacts which define new technologies.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Metcalfe, 1995) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>analytical framework </li></ul><ul><li>how do you explore ecodesign intervention in the context of an innovation system? </li></ul><ul><li>capacity building framework that explore the internal and external context of ecodesign intervention </li></ul>
  14. 22. <ul><li>key observations (general) </li></ul><ul><li>there is a need for </li></ul><ul><li>different forms of intervention – strategic competencies, capacity building </li></ul><ul><li>an innovation system perspective – knowledge, interaction, (clusters, brokerage, mobility schemes) </li></ul><ul><li>policy instruments that address changes in behaviour for innovation , dealing with strategic, informational, or organisational needs </li></ul><ul><li>greater policy coherence (supply and demand side) with “open borders” </li></ul><ul><li>facilitate higher order innovation (e.g. organisational, managerial and system innovation) </li></ul>
  15. 23. <ul><li>key observations (general) </li></ul><ul><li>there is a need to </li></ul><ul><li>balance a technology focus with other forms of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>provide inspirational platforms that allow for interactive learning </li></ul><ul><li>improve formal and non-formal education systems </li></ul><ul><li>set framework conditions that enable open innovation – and potentially disruptive innovation </li></ul><ul><li>develop social capital </li></ul>
  16. 24. <ul><li>publications </li></ul><ul><li>O'Rafferty, S. & O'Connor, F., 2009. Regional perspectives on capacity building for ecodesign – insights from Wales . In Facilitating Sustainable Innovation through Collaboration: A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective. The Netherlands: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC. </li></ul><ul><li>O'Rafferty, S., O'Connor, F. & Curtis, H., 2009. The creativity gap? – bridging creativity, design and sustainable innovation . In Joint Actions on Climate Change. Aalborg, Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>O'Rafferty, S., Curtis, H. & O'Connor, F., 2009. Capacity for sustainability: the changing contexts of design . In 11th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education. Brighton. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Rafferty, S. O’Connor, F. Cox, I. (2008) Supporting sustainable regional innovation and ecodesign in small to medium enterprises: a discussion on the issue with insights from Wales , Proceedings: Sustainable Consumption and Production: Framework for action, Brussels </li></ul>
  17. 25. <ul><li>next stages </li></ul><ul><li>refine framework </li></ul><ul><li>build evaluation model (ex ante and ex post) </li></ul><ul><li>write up </li></ul>