Transformed Landscapes What lies beneath?


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Constance Neely

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  • Farmer managed natural regeneration – of Fiedherbiaalbida – other tree species. Since 1980’s treeless landscape – millions of farmersNow some 5 million hectares of sorghum and millet farms in Niger – dry season photo…Driver of change – a) long been and other trees - Evergreen agriculture – The shift - policyThe role of research
  • Quality geneticsMore complete germplasm collection & characterizationMore extensive provenance trialsIdentification of superior seed sourcesIdnetify the genes controlling the ‘reverse phenology’ trait in FaidherbiaalbidaPropagation and agronomyBetter propagation and tree establishment methods Determine optimum tree densitiesElucidate optimum soil fertility synergies between organic and inorganic nutrient sourcesCarbon sequestration and climate changeCarbon estimates (soil & above-ground)Methodologies for smallholder carbon projectsStimulate national and international policy supportIntegrate tree seed systems with private sector input dealersInsert evergreen agriculture into integrated soil fertility management & conservation agricultureLink investmentsBuild capacity within national systems to do further R&D on evergreen agriculture
  • Tree savannah
  • Productive inputs; capacity development; mechanism for knowledge sharing among farmer groups
  • Now let’s look through a different set of windows. These are the ecosystem functions. It is all one house but the ecosystem functions are solar energy flow (photosynthesis), mineral or nutrient cycling, biological community dynamics and the water cycle. A clear understanding of these functions and how they work together will be critical to evaluating ways forward for adaptation and mitigation of climate change as well as moving in a direction of carbon finance or payment for environmental services.
  • Transformed Landscapes What lies beneath?

    1. 1. Transformed Landscapes What lies beneath? Constance Neely
    2. 2. Niger: A transformed agricultural landscape – 5 million hectares of farmer managed natural regeneration
    3. 3. Wet season millet production
    4. 4. What lies beneath? • Recognition of the multiple benefits of the Faidherbia albida and other multi-purpose species • Research perfecting propogation methods, density, adaptation to farming systems • Grassroots village level institutional strengthening – access new knowledge on management systems • Policies - Niger government reform of forestry laws • National Agroforestry food security program (Malawi)
    5. 5. Tanzania - Shinyanga Ngitili System 500,000 hectares regenerated
    6. 6. Ngitili System - Shinyanga
    7. 7. What lies beneath? • Severely degraded lands – due to deforestation (tse-tse fly) • Shinyanga Soil Conservation project; National Agroforestry Research Centre • Grass roots leadership - close collaboration between farmers, scientists and local government • Implementation rooted in government structures allowing efforts to continue beyond project funding cycle
    8. 8. Zimbabwe Photo credits: A. Savory
    9. 9. • Planned and controlled grazing • Timing not numbers of animals • Deep rooted diverse perennial species • Full soil cover • Prohibit burning • Plan for drought in time and not space Photo credits: A. Savory
    10. 10. What lies beneath? • A visionary prepared to challenge paradigms • Addressing root causes • Understanding among livestock and wildlife stakeholders • Relevance to sustainable community development • Enhancing the value chain • Capacity development • Influence on future policies
    11. 11. What lies beneath? • Access to productive inputs • Agro-ecological approaches • Investments in capacity development – farmer leaders • Farmer cooperation (mingas) • Passing on the gift • Strong linkages with local and national government • Productivity
    12. 12. Photos: C. Leggett Ecosystem Processes – managing the beneath… Photos: C. Leggett Solar Energy Flow Biological Community DynamicsWater Cycle Nutrient Dynamics
    13. 13. Sentinel Site locations stratified by climate Globally Integrated African Soil Information Service (AfSIS)
    14. 14. • randomization to minimize local biases that might arise from convenience sampling Sentinel site surveillance a spatially stratified, hierarchical, randomized sampling framework Sentinel site (100 km2) 16 Clusters (1 km2) 10 Plots (1000 m2) 4 Sub-Plots (100 m2)
    15. 15. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Four Land Use Systems (Adapted from IPCC, 2000, Swaminathan, 2nd WAC, 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Agroforestry Grazing management Forest management Cropland management PotentialCarbonSequestrationby2040 (MtCy-1)
    16. 16. Improved Integrated Farming System -20000 -15000 -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 CO2-e Mg Estimates Using Ex-ACT tool~4.5 Mg CO2-e/Ha/Yr
    17. 17. What lies ahead? • National Investment Strategies – Cross-sectoral coordination and multi-stakeholder processes • Bridging UN Conventions • Stronger linkages among research, practice, knowledge sharing and policy • Urban rural linkages – sustainable food and energy producing landscapes with Local government driving – (home grown…) • Assessments - Life cycle analysis, farming system and landscape level assessments - mitigation and adaptation potentials