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Transformed Landscapes What lies beneath?



Constance Neely

Constance Neely



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  • Farmer managed natural regeneration – of Fiedherbiaalbida – other tree species. Since 1980’s treeless landscape – millions of farmersNow some 5 million hectares of sorghum and millet farms in Niger – dry season photo…Driver of change – a) long been and other trees - Evergreen agriculture – The shift - policyThe role of research
  • Quality geneticsMore complete germplasm collection & characterizationMore extensive provenance trialsIdentification of superior seed sourcesIdnetify the genes controlling the ‘reverse phenology’ trait in FaidherbiaalbidaPropagation and agronomyBetter propagation and tree establishment methods Determine optimum tree densitiesElucidate optimum soil fertility synergies between organic and inorganic nutrient sourcesCarbon sequestration and climate changeCarbon estimates (soil & above-ground)Methodologies for smallholder carbon projectsStimulate national and international policy supportIntegrate tree seed systems with private sector input dealersInsert evergreen agriculture into integrated soil fertility management & conservation agricultureLink investmentsBuild capacity within national systems to do further R&D on evergreen agriculture
  • Tree savannah
  • Productive inputs; capacity development; mechanism for knowledge sharing among farmer groups
  • Now let’s look through a different set of windows. These are the ecosystem functions. It is all one house but the ecosystem functions are solar energy flow (photosynthesis), mineral or nutrient cycling, biological community dynamics and the water cycle. A clear understanding of these functions and how they work together will be critical to evaluating ways forward for adaptation and mitigation of climate change as well as moving in a direction of carbon finance or payment for environmental services.

Transformed Landscapes What lies beneath? Transformed Landscapes What lies beneath? Presentation Transcript

  • Transformed Landscapes
    What lies beneath?
    Constance Neely
  • Niger: A transformed agricultural landscape –
    5 million hectares of farmer managed natural regeneration
  • Wet season millet production
  • What lies beneath?
    Recognition of the multiple benefits of the Faidherbiaalbida and other multi-purpose species
    Research perfecting propogation methods, density, adaptation to farming systems
    Grassroots village level institutional strengthening – access new knowledge on management systems
    Policies - Niger government reform of forestry laws
    National Agroforestry food security program (Malawi)
    Partnerships and Donor Support
  • Tanzania - ShinyangaNgitili System 500,000 hectares regenerated
  • Ngitili System - Shinyanga
  • What lies beneath?
    Severely degraded lands – due to deforestation (tse-tse fly)
    Shinyanga Soil Conservation project; National Agroforestry Research Centre
    Grass roots leadership - close collaboration between farmers, scientists and local government
    Implementation rooted in government structures allowing efforts to continue beyond project funding cycle
  • Zimbabwe
    Photo credits: A. Savory
    • Planned and controlled grazing
    • Timing not numbers of animals
    • Deep rooted diverse perennial species
    • Full soil cover
    • Prohibit burning
    • Plan for drought in timeand not space
    Photo credits: A. Savory
  • What lies beneath?
    A visionary prepared to challenge paradigms
    Addressing root causes
    Understanding among livestock and wildlife stakeholders
    Relevance to sustainable community development
    Enhancing the value chain
    Capacity development
    Influence on future policies
  • What lies beneath?
    Access to productive inputs
    Agro-ecological approaches
    Investments in capacity development – farmer leaders
    Farmer cooperation (mingas)
    Passing on the gift
    Strong linkages with local and national government
  • Solar Energy Flow
    Nutrient Dynamics
    Photos: C. Leggett
    Ecosystem Processes – managing the beneath…
    Water Cycle
    Biological Community Dynamics
    Photos: C. Leggett
  • Globally Integrated African Soil Information Service (AfSIS)
    Sentinel Site locations stratified by climate
  • Sentinel site surveillance a spatially stratified, hierarchical, randomized sampling framework
    Sentinel site (100 km2)
    16 Clusters (1 km2)
    10 Plots (1000 m2)
    4 Sub-Plots (100 m2)
    randomization to minimize local biases that might arise from convenience sampling
  • Carbon Sequestration Potential of
    Four Land Use Systems
    (Adapted from IPCC, 2000, Swaminathan, 2nd WAC, 2009)
  • Improved Integrated Farming System
    Estimates Using Ex-ACT tool
    ~4.5 Mg CO2-e/Ha/Yr
  • What lies ahead?
    National Investment Strategies – Cross-sectoral coordination and multi-stakeholder processes
    Bridging UN Conventions
    Stronger linkages among research, practice, knowledge sharing and policy
    Urban rural linkages – sustainable food and energy producing landscapes with Local government driving – (home grown…)
    Assessments - Life cycle analysis, farming system and landscape level assessments - mitigation and adaptation potentials