Searching Dental E-SourcesDental Informatics   Ebtissam M. Al-Madi   BDS, MSD, Endo, MI, ME
2   Dental Informatics        Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Outline3       Dental Informatics:         Definition         The Discipline of Dental Informatics         The Scope o...
4   Definition of Dental informatics                                                          Section 1          Searching...
Dental Informatics   Dental informatics is the application of    computer and information science to improve    dental pr...
6    The Discipline of Dental    Informatics                                                         Section 2         Sea...
Characteristics of a discipline1.    Core of people who conduct research and publish in the      discipline;        Since...
A research discipline;          Not mere application of              computers(≠IT).      Dental Informatics              ...
9                      Inter-related            Innovations =              Computer programs or           devices = (IT)...
10   Scope of Dental Informatics                                                         Section 3         Searching Denta...
11                Cognitive science:         is a research area that draws on         several fields (such as         psy...
12        Computer science:          is a discipline that           involves the           understanding and           d...
13        Information Science:          is the collection,           classification,           storage, retrieval, and  ...
14        Telecommunications:            Is the science that deals             with communication at a             dista...
15   Dental Informatics Applications                                                          Section 4          Searching...
Dental Informatics Applications   Administrative              Clinical                          Educational             Re...
Fields of DI Research                                                Informatics          Applications17                  ...
18     Applications in Clinical     Dentistry          Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Electronic Oral Health Record19                         EMR                                      EOHR        Reimbursemen...
20   Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
21   Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Endodontics22        Digital radiography refers         to a method of capturing a         radiographic image using a    ...
Viewbox is advanced software for cephalometric analysis. It is used in       Orthodontic Departments around the world. Vie...
3-D Scanning & Milling24     Many Chairside dental      CAD/CAM systems and     Dental Laboratory CAD/CAM     systems use...
Image-guided dental25     implantology        It provides a full 3D view of         the patient’s anatomy, as a         b...
3D-Time Series Analysis   Time series analysis stands for comparing image    data sets from the same person or specimen  ...
Teledentistry27        Conditions that only visual                  using the Internet to         inspection or history ...
   InteractiveMD is a telehealth company that    connects patients with doctors via real-time    videoconferencing, phone...
Teledentistry in Use:                http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/index.cfm?id=1774Searching Dental E Sources...
30     Applications in Dental     education          Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Virtual Patients31        The Virtual Dental Patient (VDP) application         was designed to aid dentists in getting   ...
Manikin-based simulators32        DentSim™, consists of a         manikin with head and         dentoform (plastic teeth)...
33   Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Image guidance simulators34        Image Guided Implantology         (IGI), for teaching, diagnosis,         treatment pl...
Haptic Devices35         Virtual Reality Dental Training System                               (VRDTS).        Aiming for ...
Haptic Devices36         PerioSim Force Feedback Dental                     Simulator        Students guide a stylus on-s...
37   General & Patient Education         Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
38   Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
39   Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
SEARCHING DENTALE-SOURCES
Information types41        Knowledge:          Literature          Clinical trials          Clinical learning        ...
Information needs     (Gorman 1995)42        Unrecognized need          Clinician                  is unaware of informa...
43                    Knowledge                   Information                       Data                      Facts     Se...
44      Create     Evaluate     Analyze     Apply     Understand     Remember        Digital Blooms by Sources- EM F...
45         Although students are presented with massive         amounts of information during their course of study,     ...
Content of Knowledge based information     resources46     1.   Bibliographic: Literature reference databases, or citation...
Differences between Traditional     and Digital Libraries47                  Traditional Libraries                        ...
Issues with digital libraries48        Access:            Digital libraries must ensure documents have             persi...
49   Search strategies                          Have you ever had some                          difficulties searching for...
Planning for Your Search50        Determine your GOAL from search:         Pao’s 4 stages of search (Information Need, Qu...
Background info51     General Search         Google         Wikipedia         Google Books         Youtube            ...
General Search is good for52     finding…        Introductions        Basic Definitions        Location of Reliable inf...
Search Strategies and Tips 153        Using „AND‟ narrows a search: results must include         both terms, e.g.:       ...
Search Strategies and Tips 254        Using „NOT‟ specifies a term must not appear in the         results, e.g.:         ...
Search Strategies and Tips 355        Think before you start – concept map / brain storm        Start with the catalogue...
Too much or too little?56     Too Much Information                    Not enough information          Is your topic too  ...
57     Dental e-Resources               Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
58     Google     www.google.com               Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Getting started59     Type a keyword into the basic search box or     click on “Advanced search” for more searching     op...
Advanced search60     Enter keywords into the various advanced         search fields to narrow the result                S...
Advanced search61     Limit your research to a specific author,           publication or a time period               Searc...
Advanced search62      Find more relevant information by limiting          result to a specific field of a study          ...
Search Result63      Find other paper similar to search result by        clicking on the “Related Articles” link          ...
64     PubMed     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=PubMed                    Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-...
Pubmed-Main page     http://pubmed.gov65                Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Searching66     1.   Type a word or phrase into the query box, including          subject, author and/or journal.     2.  ...
Results list67             Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Accessing Full-Text       Many PubMed citations have links to the full-68      text of articles through PubMed Central    ...
69                     King Saud University                           Library     ScienceDirect     Scopus – Elsevier     ...
70   Open-Access Journals     The Open Dentistry Journal     BMC Oral Health     Dental Research Journal     The Brazilian...
71     Dental Societies     Saudi Dental Society     American Dental Association                Searching Dental E Sources...
Patient Educational Websites72        http://www.healthfinder.gov/prevention/ViewTo         pic.aspx?topicID=47        h...
73   Reference Managers         Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi   Oct-2012
Reference Managers74        Reference management software, citation         management software or personal         bibli...
75        Reference management software collects a much         smaller database, of the publications that have been     ...
When you come to the end of your rope, tie a knot76   and hang on.                                                        ...
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Searching Dental E sources- 491 Den Oct 2012

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This lecture for Dental students studying comprehensive dental course 491 DEN in KSU-CD.
The lecture introduces concepts of dental informatics and methods of searching dental e-sources.
Presented By Ebtissam Al-Madi, Associate professor in Endodontics.

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Searching Dental E sources- 491 Den Oct 2012

  1. 1. Searching Dental E-SourcesDental Informatics Ebtissam M. Al-Madi BDS, MSD, Endo, MI, ME
  2. 2. 2 Dental Informatics Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  3. 3. Outline3  Dental Informatics:  Definition  The Discipline of Dental Informatics  The Scope of Dental Informatics  Dental Informatics Applications Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  4. 4. 4 Definition of Dental informatics Section 1 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  5. 5. Dental Informatics Dental informatics is the application of computer and information science to improve dental practice, research, education and management. A sub-discipline of biomedical informatics Eisner J. The future of dental informatics. Eur J Dent Educ. 1999;3(suppl 1):61-9. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 5
  6. 6. 6 The Discipline of Dental Informatics Section 2 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  7. 7. Characteristics of a discipline1. Core of people who conduct research and publish in the discipline;  Since 1965 approx 3500 authors -2200 articles related to DI and computer applications in dentistry in 420 journals and conferences2. An identifiable body of literature;  Articles in dental journals. J Comp Dentistry. Books; Dental Informatics by Zimmerman in 1992, The global village of dentistry, and Imaging in esthetic dentistry.3. Professional societies and related activities;  Sections within AMIA, IMIA, ADEA, ect4. Educational programs leading to certificate and advanced degrees;  General MI degrees with specialization in DI. Joint Degrees.5. Funded research Programs;  Available as 3rd party funds.cornerstone of T. and H. SPALLEK (2001). Assoc 132: 605-613. Limited. dental practice." J Am Dent "Dental informatics A SCHLEYER, Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 7
  8. 8. A research discipline; Not mere application of computers(≠IT). Dental Informatics Information Technology DI= IT = Development +evaluation of Hardware and software devices toinformation models and computing retrieve and display information applications DI = IT Technologies = research and application in software design conceptualization + development +organization +creation of I & O devices. +relevance + utilization of information Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 8
  9. 9. 9 Inter-related Innovations =  Computer programs or  devices = (IT). DI technology  Incorporate DI in the  technology. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  10. 10. 10 Scope of Dental Informatics Section 3 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  11. 11. 11 Cognitive science:  is a research area that draws on several fields (such as psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and philosophy) to develop theories of perception, thinking, and learning.  Cognitive science relates to information science as we try to understand how information is represented in the human mind.  Computer science relates to information science as try to simulate our mental processes in computing environments.  Biomedicine is replete with complex cognitive processes (such as diagnosis, treatment Schleyer, T. K. (2003). "Dental Informatics: An Emerging planning, and evaluation). Biomedical Informatics Discipline." Adv Dent Res 17:4-8, December, 2003 17: 4-8. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  12. 12. 12  Computer science:  is a discipline that involves the understanding and design of computers and computational processes. Here, the emphasis is not on information, but how it is represented, processed, Schleyer, T. K. (2003). "Dental Informatics: An Emerging Biomedical Informatics Discipline." Adv Dent Res 17:4- manipulated, and E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-20128, December, 2003 17: 4-8. Searching Dental managed in
  13. 13. 13  Information Science:  is the collection, classification, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of recorded knowledge treated both as a pure and as an applied science. Schleyer, T. K. (2003). "Dental Informatics: An Emerging Biomedical Informatics Discipline." Adv Dent Res 17:4-8, December, 2003 17: 4-8. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  14. 14. 14  Telecommunications:  Is the science that deals with communication at a distance.  Transmission of digital images efficiently resulted in new approaches to image compression and transmission.  Another example is aggregating information from many different sources, such as information about Schleyer, T. K. (2003). "Dental Informatics: An Emerging the same patient from Biomedical Informatics Discipline." Adv Dent Res 17:4-8, different healthcare Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 December, 2003 17: 4-8. Searching providers.
  15. 15. 15 Dental Informatics Applications Section 4 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  16. 16. Dental Informatics Applications Administrative Clinical Educational Research16 •Practice Management •Electronic Oral health records •Preclinical •Database •Medical Dental (EOHR) •Haptic feedback •Registries interface • simulation training •Computerized billing •Manufacturing •Bibliographic •Terminology and •Insurance form •Video lib nomenclature generation and claims standards processing •Voice Recognition •Labs •Intra-oral cameras and imaging •Patient education & •Patient Risk •E-prescribing •3-D image modeler &Diagnostic decision aids Profiling & predictive modeling assesment •Pre visit preparation •Radiography •Web Portal & blogs •Outcomes •Alerts and reminders •Digital radiography Databases •Secure messaging •Intelligent time series •Recall tracking comparative X-ray analysis •Patient registration and •Decision support •Nano-robotics scheduling •Evidence-based Treatment •After visit summaries Planning •Connectivity to patients •Online ongoing care relationship •Tele-consultation &E Sources- EM Al-Madi Searching Dental referral Oct-2012
  17. 17. Fields of DI Research Informatics Applications17 Basic Research Office Applications Challenges Infrastructure EDR, Outcomes Coding, data Vocabularies, Distributed medical Predictor, structures, high Clinical automated retrieval records, clinical Treatment Planner, performance from repositories trials, teledentistry Clinical Decision computing Support Tool 3-D modeler, X-Ray analyzer, dynamic 3-D modeling, Ontology-based 3-D anatomy neuromuscular Imaging visualization, data reference models and atlases, radiological occlusal simulation, representation classification diagnosis Haptic feedback simulation Biometric nano- Biochips, algorithms Linking genomic and Genetic-based robotics, bioassay Bioinformatics for DNA sequencing, patient data, security, patient records and caries/periodontal patient specific drugs ethics protocols analyzer Data mining, Databases, Integration and citizen-based Public/ searching, data validation of Blogs, web portals, services, social Population analysis theories and information, PHR, networks shared algorithms knowledge discovery knowledge-base Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  18. 18. 18 Applications in Clinical Dentistry Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  19. 19. Electronic Oral Health Record19 EMR EOHR  Reimbursement  Dental reimbursement:  Diagnosis codes (ICD-9) &  Procedure codes only. procedure codes (CPT 4).  Documentation :  Documentation :  Location  Finding  Graphics, templates  Finding  Location  Sequence  Text  Holistic  Treatment:  Procedure implies  Treatment: pathology present.  Roadmap for patient to  Roadmap for dentist follow Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  20. 20. 20 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  21. 21. 21 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  22. 22. Endodontics22  Digital radiography refers to a method of capturing a radiographic image using a sensor, breaking it into an electronic pieces, and presenting and storing the image using a computer.  The sensor receives the analog information and converter (ADC) to converts it to a digital image Digital Radiography  The image is displayed within seconds or minutes on the computer screen in front of the clinician and the patient/client. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  23. 23. Viewbox is advanced software for cephalometric analysis. It is used in Orthodontic Departments around the world. Viewbox can be customized to almost any task. Points, measurements and analyses are not hard-wired, enabling you to go beyond the confines of cephalometric radiographs and perform measurements on any kind of radiograph, photograph or other two- dimensional or 3-D image. Furthermore, sophisticated algorithms are included23 for image enhancement, facilitation of point Al-Madi Oct-2012 morphometric Searching Dental E Sources- EM identification and analys
  24. 24. 3-D Scanning & Milling24 Many Chairside dental  CAD/CAM systems and Dental Laboratory CAD/CAM systems use 3D Scanner technologies to capture the 3D surface of a dental preparation (either in vivo or in vitro), in order to produce a restoration digitally using CAD software and ultimately produce the final restoration using a CAM technology (such as a CNC milling machine, or 3D printer). The chairside systems are designed to facilitate the 3D scanning of a preparation in vivo and produce the restoration (such as a Crown, Onlay, Inlay or Veneer). Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Searching Oct-2012
  25. 25. Image-guided dental25 implantology  It provides a full 3D view of the patient’s anatomy, as a basis for evaluation and functional and aesthetic implant planning.  Accurate examination of bone, muscles and other tissues by switching among them in real-time  Its high image definition facilitates the observation of the anatomical structures, allowing proper and secure planning and reducing all uncertainties during surgery. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  26. 26. 3D-Time Series Analysis Time series analysis stands for comparing image data sets from the same person or specimen taken at different times to show the changes. Image segmentation, rigid registration and a voxel based non-rigid registration as well as 3D visualization, allows a time series analysis based on DICOM CT images. In dentistry the scope of further application ranges from pre- and postoperative oral surgery images (orthognathic surgery, trauma surgery) to endodontic and orthodontic treatment. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 26
  27. 27. Teledentistry27  Conditions that only visual  using the Internet to inspection or history is consult with an expert. needed for interpretation This consultation could  Oral medicine be:  Chronic Facial Pain  direct (between the patient and the expert)  Assisting patients with concerns:  indirect (between the patient‟s doctor and the  Trauma expert).  Finding a dentist  Phone call to expert  Specific organizations with  Fax charts and records urban and rural centers:  Internet: scanned image,  MOH, KFSH, MOD, ect digital image, and audio transfer of requests Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  28. 28.  InteractiveMD is a telehealth company that connects patients with doctors via real-time videoconferencing, phone, and secure email, MDLiveCare is an on-demand telehealth company that provides patients with remote access via video, phone, and secure email to board certified doctors and licensed therapists. Virtual Hospitals of the future?? Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 28
  29. 29. Teledentistry in Use:  http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/index.cfm?id=1774Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 29
  30. 30. 30 Applications in Dental education Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  31. 31. Virtual Patients31  The Virtual Dental Patient (VDP) application was designed to aid dentists in getting acquainted with the teeth anatomy, the handling of drilling instruments and the challenges associated with the drilling procedure.  The VDP simulator allows the user to :  view/manipulate a 3-D head and oral cavity model constructed using anatomical data,  adapt the model to the characteristics of specific patient using either facial photographs or 3D data,  animate it using an MPEG-compatible facial animation player and  perform virtual tooth drilling within the oral cavity using a Phantom haptic device to control the drilling tool.  Drilling is performed on 3D volumetric/surface models of teeth, obtained from cross sections of real teeth. Model adaptation using two facial Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012 photographs
  32. 32. Manikin-based simulators32  DentSim™, consists of a manikin with head and dentoform (plastic teeth), a dental hand-piece and a light, an infrared camera and two computers. The manikin head and the hand-piece contain infrared emitters that are tracked by the infrared camera. Using this optical tracking system to trace the movements of a hand piece, the simulator scores the accuracy of a students cavity preparation in a manikin’s synthetic tooth. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  33. 33. 33 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  34. 34. Image guidance simulators34  Image Guided Implantology (IGI), for teaching, diagnosis, treatment planning and placement of implants. Providing a particular patient’s CAT scan, the simulator allows the patient and the virtual model image to be coordinated during the actual surgery. If the computer recognizes that the surgeon is making a serious deviation from the treatment plan during the actual surgery, the computer will stop the hand-piece and the surgeon will need to override the computer to continue. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  35. 35. Haptic Devices35 Virtual Reality Dental Training System (VRDTS).  Aiming for cavity preparation, the software simulates a set of dental instruments.  Using VRDTS dental students work with a virtual decayed tooth and learn to probe it for diagnosis, use a drill to prepare a tooth for cavity repair, fill the prepared cavity with amalgam and carve the amalgam to match the original tooth contour. Unlike plastic teeth, VRDTS enables the student to feel the difference between enamel, dentin, caries, amalgam and pulp throughout the procedure.  The students operation can be tracked precisely in real time, providing quantifiable feedback to both student and teacher.  Lastly, since the entire process is virtual, the student has the ability to zoom, rotate and even cut the tooth in cross section to better understand the process. VRDTS offers the student the opportunity to practice procedures as often as needed, with no additional cost for materials. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  36. 36. Haptic Devices36 PerioSim Force Feedback Dental Simulator  Students guide a stylus on-screen that resembles an explorer They can feel life-like tactile sensations as they navigate through various procedures.  Students can access PerioSim via the Internet. A realistic 3-D human mouth is shown in real-time, and the user can adjust the model position, viewpoint and transparency level.  The system allows instructors to create short scenarios of periodontal procedures, which can be saved and replayed at any time. The 3-D component permits students to replay from any angle, so the user can observe different views of the placement of the instrument and gingival relationships during a procedure, Steinberg said.  The recorded file is an actual representation of the original scenario, which offers great training potential.  The program also allows for a second playback mode, where an instructor leadsE Sources- EM Al-Madi Searching Dental Oct-2012 the trainee through the program. By simply holding onto the haptic stylus, the trainee
  37. 37. 37 General & Patient Education Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  38. 38. 38 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  39. 39. 39 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  40. 40. SEARCHING DENTALE-SOURCES
  41. 41. Information types41  Knowledge:  Literature  Clinical trials  Clinical learning  Patient information  Demographic information  Patient history  Clinical examination Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  42. 42. Information needs (Gorman 1995)42  Unrecognized need  Clinician is unaware of information need or knowledge deficit  Recognized need  Clinician aware of need but may or may not pursue it  Pursued need  Information seeking occurs but may or may not be successful.  Satisfied need  Information seeking successful. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  43. 43. 43 Knowledge Information Data Facts Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  44. 44. 44 Create Evaluate Analyze Apply Understand Remember Digital Blooms by Sources- EM Fisher, 2009 Searching Dental E Mike Al-Madi Oct-2012
  45. 45. 45  Although students are presented with massive amounts of information during their course of study, more often than not, students graduate with gaps in their knowledge.  Accessing recent online information is very important to help clinicians and students answer questions that might arise during their clinical practice. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  46. 46. Content of Knowledge based information resources46 1. Bibliographic: Literature reference databases, or citations or pointers to the medical literature. Ex. Medline Or Web catalogs: Web pages consisting of links to other web pages and sites. Ex: www.Healthfinder.gov 2. Full text content: Online versions of books and periodicals, and websites 3. Databases/Collections: Information housed in Database management systems. They can be further categorized into information types:  Image databases  Genomics databases  Citation databases  EBM databases  Other databases Example: Entrez system: (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Entrez) 4. Aggregations: Collections of content from the first 3 categories. Developed for all kinds of users from consumers, to clinicians to scientists. Ex. Medline plus (www.medlineplus.gov) Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  47. 47. Differences between Traditional and Digital Libraries47 Traditional Libraries Digital libraries Acquisition and maintenance of collections Acquisition and maintenance of collections Cataloging and classification of items in Cataloging and classification of items in collection to make them more accessible to collection to make them more accessible to users. users. Serving as a place where individuals can go to Seeking of information online can be easier or seek information with assistance, including harder (depending on level of computer skills, information on computers. searching skill and distractions) Providing work or studying space (particularly No limitation on space to work can be an in universities). advantage and disadvantage. Information in multiple copies (replaceable) Although multiple users can access at once. Copies are constantly changing Less worry about Quality of publications Internet publishing may not always be quality Items are static (easier cataloging and stable Cataloging is more difficult due to changing archiving) nature, and access to entire journal is lost when subscription is terminated. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  48. 48. Issues with digital libraries48  Access:  Digital libraries must ensure documents have persistent identifiers (URL), so that if the document moves, it is still obtainable.  Interoperability:  Ensure that resources with heterogeneous metadata can be accessed.  Intellectual property:  Establishment of who owns the information.  Preservation:  Life expectancy of Storage material type and longevity  Changes in technology of storage media Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  49. 49. 49 Search strategies Have you ever had some difficulties searching for information using the internet ?? Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  50. 50. Planning for Your Search50  Determine your GOAL from search: Pao’s 4 stages of search (Information Need, Question, Request) How to translate that into clinical/research needs.  Determine the SCOPE of the search: Decide on the comprehensiveness of answer, and level of evidence needed (RCT, systemic review, case report?).  Identify the KEY WORDS or concepts: From previous articles, or alternative expressions  Determine the DATABASE you need to search in (General, Organization, Journal, ect) Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  51. 51. Background info51 General Search  Google  Wikipedia  Google Books  Youtube Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  52. 52. General Search is good for52 finding…  Introductions  Basic Definitions  Location of Reliable information  List of references  Numerical data Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  53. 53. Search Strategies and Tips 153  Using „AND‟ narrows a search: results must include both terms, e.g.:  Dental AND “Online Information”  Using „OR‟ broadens a search: results can include either term, e.g.:  Planning OR Management  Benefits OR Strengths OR Advantages  Dental OR “Online information” Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  54. 54. Search Strategies and Tips 254  Using „NOT‟ specifies a term must not appear in the results, e.g.:  Cancer NOT oral  When searching for phrases, enclose using: “….. ” , e.g.:  “ Lung Cancer”  “ Behavioral Economics ” Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  55. 55. Search Strategies and Tips 355  Think before you start – concept map / brain storm  Start with the catalogue – database – internet (or at least use all of the tools)  Develop a search strategy and be prepared to change it!  Record all the details of all your references as you go You will need this information for your in text citations and reference lists  Remember one useful book / article leads to others  References (back in time)  Cited By (forward in time) Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  56. 56. Too much or too little?56 Too Much Information Not enough information  Is your topic too  Is your search too broad? specific?  Narrow your topic  Check your spelling! using more specific  Use TRUNCATION and terms OR operators  Use AND, NOT  Are you looking in the  Use date limiters / right place search limiters  Maybe there isn‟t much on the topic Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  57. 57. 57 Dental e-Resources Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  58. 58. 58 Google www.google.com Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  59. 59. Getting started59 Type a keyword into the basic search box or click on “Advanced search” for more searching options Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  60. 60. Advanced search60 Enter keywords into the various advanced search fields to narrow the result Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  61. 61. Advanced search61 Limit your research to a specific author, publication or a time period Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  62. 62. Advanced search62 Find more relevant information by limiting result to a specific field of a study Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  63. 63. Search Result63 Find other paper similar to search result by clicking on the “Related Articles” link Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  64. 64. 64 PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=PubMed Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  65. 65. Pubmed-Main page http://pubmed.gov65 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  66. 66. Searching66 1. Type a word or phrase into the query box, including subject, author and/or journal. 2. Combine search terms with connector words: “AND”, “OR” or “NOT” using upper case letters. 3. Use * at the end of the word (e.g., mimic*) if you want to search for different endings of mimic, mimicking, mimics, etc. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  67. 67. Results list67 Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  68. 68. Accessing Full-Text Many PubMed citations have links to the full-68 text of articles through PubMed Central Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  69. 69. 69 King Saud University Library ScienceDirect Scopus – Elsevier Blackwell Synergy Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  70. 70. 70 Open-Access Journals The Open Dentistry Journal BMC Oral Health Dental Research Journal The Brazilian Dental Journal The Internet Journal of Dental Science Contemporary Clinical Dentistry Saudi Dental Journal Directory of open access journals Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  71. 71. 71 Dental Societies Saudi Dental Society American Dental Association Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  72. 72. Patient Educational Websites72  http://www.healthfinder.gov/prevention/ViewTo pic.aspx?topicID=47  http://www.dentalsite.com/  http://www.simplyteeth.com/  http://www.dentalhealth.org.uk/  http://www.askapatient.com/  http://www.floss.com Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  73. 73. 73 Reference Managers Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  74. 74. Reference Managers74  Reference management software, citation management software or personal bibliographic management software is software for scholars and authors to use for recording and utilizing bibliographic citations (references).  Once a citation has been recorded, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies, such as lists of references in scholarly books, articles and essays. Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  75. 75. 75  Reference management software collects a much smaller database, of the publications that have been used or are likely to be used by a particular author or group, and such a database can easily be housed on an individuals personal computer.  Ex.  Open Source: Aigaion · Bebop · BibDesk · Bibus · Connotea · I, Librarian · JabRef · Pybliographer · refbase · refdb · Referencer · Wikindx · Zotero · J!Research  Retail: Biblioscape · Bookends · EndNote · Mendeley · Papers · ProCite · Reference Manager · RefWorks · Sente  Web Based: Aigaion · Bebop · CiteULike · Connotea · GradeGuru Citation Manager · I, Librarian · Mendeley · refbase · refdb · BibSonomy · J!Research Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
  76. 76. When you come to the end of your rope, tie a knot76 and hang on. Franklin D. Roosevelt ealmadi@ksu.edu.sa Searching Dental E Sources- EM Al-Madi Oct-2012
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