API 530
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

API 530

on

  • 50 views

Fired heater Tube Calculation

Fired heater Tube Calculation

Statistics

Views

Total Views
50
Views on SlideShare
50
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

API 530 API 530 Document Transcript

  • Calculation of Heater-Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries API STANDARD 530 FIFTH EDITION, JANUARY 2003 IS0 13704:2001 (E), PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS NESS IN PETROLEUM REFINERIES INDUSTRIES-CALCULATION OF HEATER TUBE THICK- ERRATA 1, MARCH 1,2004 IS0 13704:2001 TECHNICAL CORRIGENDUM 1 American Petroleum - Institute :rso=-- - - -- HelpingYou Get The Job Done Right."" Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Date of Issue: March 1,2004 Affected Publication: APIStandard530,FifthEdition,January 2003 IS0 13704:2001(E),Petroleumand Natural Gas Industries- Calculationof HeaterTubeThicknessin Petroleum Refìneries ERRATA See attachedpages, IS0 13704:2001,Petroleum and Natural GasIndustries-Calculation of Heater-tube Thickness inPetroleum Refineries, Technical Corrigendum 1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IS0 13704:2001 TECHNICAL CORRIGENDUM 1 Published2004-01-15 INTERNATIONALORGANIZATIONFOR STANDARDIZATION M ~ W A P O f l H A ROPTAHHI~HRno CTAHflAPTHIAUHH .ORGANISATIONINTERNATIONALEDE NORMALISATION Petroleum and natural gas industries -Calculation of heater- tube thickness in petroleum refineries TECHNICAL CORRIGENDUM 1 Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel -Calcul de l’épaisseur des tubes de fours de ratfineriesdu pétrole RECTIFICATIF TECHNIQUE 7 Technical Corrigendum 1 to IS0 13704:2001 was prepared by Technical Committee ISOiTC67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, Subcommittee SC 6, Processing equipment and systems. Coverpage Correct the second element of the Frenchtitle to read: “Calculde l’épaisseur des tubes de fours de ratfineries du pétrole” Page 13 Subclause4.9, Equation(1O) Replace rcl4--2 rci4- Do-I N i = D O (10) ICs 75.180.20 Ref. No. IS0 13704:2001/Cor.l:2004(E) O IS0 2004 -All rights reserved Publishedin SwitzerlandCopyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • IS0 13704.2001/Cor.l:2004(E) with the corrected equation rcl4--2 DO 4--1rcl DO Ni = Page 13 Subclause 4.9, Equation (12) Replace 4-+2rci DO N o = Ycl4- Do+I with the correctedequation rcl4-+2 rci4-+I DO Do N o = 2 0 IS0 2004 -All rights reserved Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Calculation of HeaterTube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries API Standard 530, Fifth Edition,January 2003 IS0 13704:2001 (E), Petroleumand natural gas industries-Calculation of heater tube thick- ness in petroleum refineries American Institute HelpingYou Get The Job Done Right.SM Petroleum -.Eso=- -- --- E - =~ - Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Special Notes API publicationsnecessarilyaddress problems of a general nature.With respectto particular circumstances,local,state, and federal laws and regulationsshould be reviewed. API is not undertakingto meet the duties of employers, manufacturers,or suppliers to warn and properlytrain and equip their employees,and others exposed, concerning health and safety risks and precautions,nor undertakingtheir obligations under local, state, or federal laws. Informationconcerning safety and health risks and proper precautionswith respectto particular materialsand conditionsshould be obtainedfrom the employer, the manufactureror supplier of that material,or the material safety data sheet. Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by implicationor otherwise,for the manufacture,sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publicationbe construed as insuringanyone against liabilityfor infringement of letters patent. Generally,API standards are reviewedand revised, reaffirmed,or withdrawn at least every five years. Sometimesa one-time extension of up to two years will be added to this review cycle. This publication will no longer be in effect five years after its publicationdate as an operativeAPI standard or, where an extension has been granted, upon republication.Status of the publicationcan be ascertainedfrom the API Standards Departmenttelephone (202) 682-8000.A catalog of API publicationsand materials is publishedannually and updatedquarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.20005. This documentwas produced under API standardizationproceduresthat ensure appropriatenotification and participationin the developmental process and is designated as an API standard. Questions concerningthe interpretationof the content of this standard or comments and questions concerningthe proceduresunder which this standardwas developedshould be directed in writing to the director/general manager of the Standards Department,American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W.,Washington, D.C.20005. Requestsfor permissionto reproduceor translate all or any part of the material published hereinshould also be addressed to the director. API standards are publishedto facilitate the broad availabilityof proven,sound engineeringand operating practices.These standards are not intendedto obviate the need for applyingsound engineeringjudgment regarding when and where these standards should be utilized.The formulation and publication of API standards is not intended in any way to inhibitanyone from using any other practices. Any manufacturermarking equipment or materials in conformancewith the marking requirementsof an API standard is solely responsiblefor complyingwith all the applicable requirementsof that standard. API does not represent,warrant, or guarantee that such productsdo in fact conform to the applicable API standard. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or othetwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the Publisher, API Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Copyright O 2003 American Petroleum Institute Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Contents Page Foreword..................................................................................................................................................................... iv Introduction................................................................................................................................................................. v 1 2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Scope .............................................................................................................................................................. 1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 1 Generaldesign information.......................................................................................................................... 3 Information required...................................................................................................................................... 3 Limitations for design procedures .............................................................................................................. 3 Design............................................................................................................................................................. 4 General............................................................................................................................................................ 4 Equationfor stress........................................................................................................................................ 6 Elastic design (lowertemperatures).............................................................................................................. 6 Rupture design (higher temperatures)........................................................................................................... 7 Intermediatetemperature range................................................................................................................... 7 Minimum allowable thickness ...................................................................................................................... 7 Minimum and average thicknesses ............................................................................................................. 7 Equivalenttube metal temperature.............................................................................................................. 8 Return bends and elbows........................................................................................................................... 11 Allowable stresses ...................................................................................................................................... 13 General.......................................................................................................................................................... 13 Elastic allowable stress .............................................................................................................................. 14 Ruptureallowable stress ............................................................................................................................ 14 Ruptureexponent........................................................................................................................................ 14 Yield and tensile strengths......................................................................................................................... 14 Larson-Millerparameter curves ................................................................................................................. 14 Limiting design metal temperature............................................................................................................ 15 Allowable stress curves.............................................................................................................................. 15 Sample calculations .................................................................................................................................... 16 Elastic design............................................................................................................................................... 16 Thermal-stresscheck (for elastic rangeonly)............................................................................................. 17 Rupturedesign with constant temperature.............................................................................................. 20 Rupturedesign with linearly changing temperature............................................................................... 22 Annex A (informative) Estimation of remaining tube life...................................................................................... 26 Annex B (informative) Calculation of maximum radiant section tube skin temperature................................... 30 Annex C (normative) Thermal-stresslimitations (elastic range)......................................................................... 40 Annex D (informative) Calculation sheets .............................................................................................................. 43 Annex E (normative) Stress curves (SI units) ........................................................................................................ 45 Annex F (normative) Stress curves (US customary units) ................................................................................... 84 Annex G (informative) Derivation of corrosion fraction and temperaturefraction .......................................... 124 Annex H (informative) Data sources ..................................................................................................................... 132 Bibliography............................................................................................................................................................ 137 ... 111 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Foreword IS0 (the International Organizationfor Standardization) is a worldwide federationof national standards bodies (IS0 member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through IS0 technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with SO,also take part in the work. IS0 collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC) on all matters of electrotechnicalstandardization. InternationalStandards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requiresapproval by at least 75 % of the member bodies castinga vote. Attention is drawn to the possibilitythat some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of patent rights. IS0 shall not be held responsiblefor identifyingany or all such patent rights. IS0 13704 was prepared by Technical Committee ISOíTC67, Materials, equipment and ofishore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries,SubcommitteeSC 6, Processingequipment and systems. Annexes C, E and F form an integral part of this International Standard. Annexes A, B, D, G and H are for information only. iv Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Introduction This InternationalStandard is based on API standard 530 1301,fourth edition, October 1996. V Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Petroleumand natural gas industries-Calculation of heater-tube thickness in petroleum refineries 1 Scope This International Standard specifies the requirements and gives recommendationsfor the procedures and design criteria used for calculating the required wall thickness of new tubes for petroleum refinery heaters. These procedures are appropriate for designing tubes for service in both corrosive and non-corrosive applications. These procedures have been developed specifically for the design of refinery and related process fired heater tubes (direct-fired, heat-absorbingtubes within enclosures). These procedures are not intended to be used for the design of external piping. This International Standard does not give recommendations for tube retirement thickness; annex A describes a technique for estimatingthe life remainingfor a heater tube. 2 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this InternationalStandard, the following terms and definitionsapply. 2.1 actual inside diameter inside diameter of a new tube NOTE annex C. Di The actual inside diameter is used to calculate the tube skin temperature in annex B and the thermal stress in 2.2 corrosion allowance additional materialthickness added to allow for materialloss duringthe design life of the component %A 2.3 design life DL operating time used as a basisfor tube design NOTE The design life is not necessarilythe same as the retirementor replacementlife. 2.4 design metal temperature tube metal, or skin, temperature usedfor design NOTE This is determined by calculating the maximum tube metal temperature (TmXin annex B) or the equivalent tube metal temperature (Teqin 2.7) and adding an appropriate temperature allowance (see 2.15). A procedure for calculating the maximum tube metal temperature from the heat flux density is included in annex B. When the equivalent tube metal temperatureis used, the maximum operatingtemperaturecan be higherthan the design metal temperature. Td 2.5 elastic allowable stress oei allowable stress for the elastic range (see 5.2) NOTE See 3.2.3 for informationabout tubes that have longitudinalwelds. 1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 2.6 elastic design pressure Pei maximum pressurethat the heater coil will sustain for short periods of time NOTE This pressureis usually relatedto reliefvalve settings, pump shut-in pressures,etc. 2.7 equivalenttube metal temperature calculatedconstant metal temperature that in a specified period of time produces the same creep damage as does a linearlychanging metaltemperature(see 4.8) Teq 2.8 inside diameter insidediameter of a tube with the corrosion allowance removed; used in the design calculations 0; NOTE removed. The inside diameter of an as-cast tube is the inside diameter of the tube with the porosityand corrosion allowances 2.9 minimumthickness minimum requiredthicknessof a newtube, taking into account all appropriate allowances [see equation (5)] 4li" 2.10 outside diameter outside diameter of a new tube Do 2.11 ruptureallowable stress or allowable stress for the creep-rupture range (see 4.4) NOTE See 3.2.3 for informationabouttubes that have longitudinalwelds. 2.12 rupturedesign pressure Pr maximum operating pressurethat the coil section will sustain during normaloperation 2.13 ruptureexponent n parameter usedfor design in the creep-rupture range See figures in annexes E and F. 2.14 stress thickness thickness, excluding all thickness allowances,calculatedfrom an equation that uses an allowable stress 47 2 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 2.15 temperature allowance part of the design metal temperature that is included for process- or flue-gas maldistribution, operating unknowns, and design inaccuracies TA NOTE metal temperatureto obtainthe design metal temperature(see 2.4). The temperature allowance is added to the calculated maximum tube metal temperature or to the equivalent tube 3 General design information 3.1 Information required The usual design parameters (design pressures, design fluid temperature, corrosion allowance, and tube material) shall be defined. In addition, the following information shall be furnished: a) the design life of the heatertube; b) whether the equivalent-temperatureconcept is to be applied, and if so, furnish the operating conditions at the start and at the end of the run; c) the temperature allowance, if any; d) the corrosionfraction (if differentfrom that shown in Figure 1); e) whether elastic-rangethermal-stresslimits are to be applied. If any of items a) to e) are notfurnished, usethe following applicable parameters: f) a design life equalto 100 O00 h; g) a design metal temperature based on the maximum metal temperature (the equivalent-temperature concept shall not apply); h) a temperature allowance equalto 15 OC (25 OF); i) the corrosionfraction given in Figure 1; j) the elastic-rangethermal-stress limits. 3.2 Limitationsfor design procedures 3.2.1 The allowable stresses are based on a consideration of yield strength and rupture strength only; plastic or creep strain has not been considered. Using these allowable stresses might result in small permanent strains in some applications; however,these small strainswill not affect the safety or operabilityof heatertubes. 3.2.2 No considerations are included for adverse environmental effects such as graphitization, carburization, or hydrogen attack. Limitations imposed by hydrogen attack can be developed from the Nelson curves in API RP 941 1’51. 3.2.3 These design procedures have been developed for seamless tubes. When they are applied to tubes that have a longitudinalweld, the allowable stress values should be multiplied by the appropriatejoint efficiency factor. Joint efficiencyfactors shall not be appliedto circumferentialwelds. 3.2.4 ratio, 6rnin/Do,of less than O, 15).Additional considerations may apply to the design of thicker tubes. These design procedures have been developed for thin tubes (tubes with a thickness-to-outside-diameter 3.2.5 No considerations are included for the effects of cyclic pressure or cyclic thermal loading. 3 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 3.2.6 The design loading includes only internal pressure. Limits for thermal stresses are provided in annex C. Limits for stresses developed by mass, supports, end connections, and so forth are not discussed in this InternationalStandard. 3.2.7 Most of the Larson-Miller parameter curves in 5.6 are not Larson-Miller curves in the traditional sense but are derived from the 100 000-h rupture strength as explained in H.3. Consequently, the curves might not provide a reliableestimateof the rupturestrengthfor a design life that is lessthan 20 O00 h or morethan 200 O00 h. 4 Design 4.1 General There is a fundamental difference between the behaviour of carbon steel in a hot-oil heater tube operating at 300 "C (575 OF) and that of chromium-molybdenum steel in a catalytic-reformer heater tube operating at 600 "C (1 110 OF). The steel operating at the higher temperature will creep, or deform permanently, even at stress levels well below the yield strength. If the tube metal temperature is high enough for the effects of creep to be significant, the tube will eventually fail due to creep rupture, although no corrosion or oxidation mechanism is active. For the steel operating at the lowertemperature,the effects of creep will be non-exictent or negligible. Experienceindicates that in this case the tube will last indefinitelyunlessa corrosion or an oxidation mechanism is active. Since there is a fundamental difference between the behaviour of the materials at these two temperatures, there are two different design considerations for heater tubes: elastic design and creep-rupture design. Elastic design is design in the elastic range, at lowertemperatures, in which allowable stresses are based on the yield strength (see 4.3). Creep-rupture design (which is referredto below as rupture design) is the design for the creep-rupture range, at higher temperatures, in which allowable stresses are basedon the rupturestrength(see 4.4). The temperature that separates the elastic and creep-rupture ranges of a heater tube is not a single value; it is a range of temperatures that depends on the alloy. For carbon steel, the lower end of this temperature range is about 425 "C (800 OF); for Type 347 stainless steel, the lower end of this temperature range is about 590 "C (1 100 OF). The considerations that govern the design range also include the elastic design pressure, the rupture design pressure,the design life and the corrosion allowance. The rupture design pressure is usually less than the elastic design pressure. The characteristic that differentiates these two pressures is the relative length of time over which they are sustained. The rupture design pressure is a long-term loading condition that remains relatively uniform over a period of years. The elastic design pressure is usually a short-term loading condition that typically lasts only hours or days. The rupture design pressure is used in the rupture design equation, since creep damage accumulates as a result of the action of the operating, or long- term stress. The elastic design pressure is used in the elastic design equation to preventexcessive stresses in the tube during periodsof operation at the maximum pressure. The tube shall be designed to withstand the rupture design pressure for long periods of operation. If the normal operating pressure increases during an operating run, the highest pressure shall be taken as the rupture design pressure. In the temperature range near or above the point where the elastic and rupture allowable stress curves cross, both elastic and rupturedesign equations are to be used. The larger value of Srni, should govern the design (see 4.5). A sample calculationthat uses these methods is included in clause 6. Calculation sheets (see annex D) are available for summarizingthe calculations of minimumthickness and equivalenttube metaltemperature. The allowable minimum thickness of a new tube is given in Table I. All of the design equations described in this clause are summarized in Table 2. 4 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • L ô r" s- 0,9 O o m t .-c API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) t C S O.- E 0,85 ô o 0,75 0,65 0,55 0.5 Do is the outside diameter or is the ruptureallowable stress a Note change of scale. L 3 kAis the corrosion allowance pr is the rupturedesign pressure n is the ruptureexponent Figure 1 -Corrosion fraction 5 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 4.2 Equation for stress In both the elastic range and the creep-rupture range, the design equation is based on the mean-diameterequation for stress in a tube. In the elastic range, the elastic design pressure (pel) and the elastic allowable stress (oel)are used. In the creep-rupture range, the rupturedesign pressure(p,) and the ruptureallowable stress (o,)are used. The mean-diameter equation gives a good estimate of the pressure that will produce yielding through the entire tube wall in thin tubes (see 3.2.4 for a definition of thin tubes). The mean-diameter equation also provides a good correlation between the creep rupture of a pressurizedtube and a uniaxial test specimen. It is therefore a good equation to use in both the elastic range and the creep-rupture range [I6],[I8]and [I9].The mean diameter equation for stress is as follows: where o is the stress, expressed in megapascals[pounds per square inch1)]; p is the pressure, expressed in megapascals(pounds per square inch); Do is the outside diameter, expressed in millimetres(inches); Di is the inside diameter, expressed in millimetres (inches), including the corrosionallowance; 6 is the thickness, expressed in millimetres(inches). The equations for the stressthickness (6,) in 4.3 and 4.4 are derivedfrom equation (1). 4.3 Elastic design (lower temperatures) The elastic design is based on preventing failure by bursting when the pressure is at its maximum (that is, when a pressure excursion has reachedpel)nearthe end of the design life after the corrosion allowance has been used up. With the elastic design, 6, and amin(see4.6)are calculatedas follows: where Di” is the inside diameter, expressed in millimetres(inches), with corrosionallowance removed; oel is the elastic allowable stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), at the design metal temperature. The unit “pounds per square inch (psi)” is referred to as “pound-forceper square inch (Ibf/in2)”in IS0 31. 6 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 4.4 Rupturedesign (higher temperatures) The rupture design is based on preventing failure by creep rupture during the design life. With the rupture design, 6, and hin(see 4.6) are calculatedas follows: h i n = 6a+fcorrkA where or is the rupture allowable stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), at the design metal temperature and the design life; fcorr is the corrosionfraction given as a function of B and n in Figure 1; where n is the rupture exponent at the design metal temperature (shown in the figures given in annexes E and F). The derivation of the corrosion fraction is described in annex G. It is recognized in this derivation that stress is reduced by the corrosion allowance;correspondingly,the rupturelife is increased. This design equation is suitable for heater tubes; however, if special circumstances require that the user choose a more conservative design, a corrosion fraction of unity ucorr= 1) may be specified. 4.5 Intermediatetemperature range At temperatures near or above the point where the curves of oeiand orintersect in the figures given in annexes E and F, either elastic or ruptureconsiderationswill govern the design. In this temperature range, both the elastic and rupture designs are to be applied. The largervalue of aminshall govern the design. 4.6 Minimum allowable thickness The minimum thickness (hin)of a new tube (includingthe corrosion allowance) shall not be less than that shown in Table 1. For ferritic steels, the values shown are the minimum allowable thicknesses of Schedule 40 average wall pipe. For austenitic steels, the values are the minimum allowable thicknesses of Schedule 10s average wall pipe. (Table 5 shows which alloys are ferritic and which are austenitic). The minimum allowable thicknesses are 0,875times the average thicknesses. These minima are based on industry practice. The minimum allowable thickness is not the retirement or replacementthickness of a usedtube. 4.7 Minimum and average thicknesses The minimum thickness (hin)is calculated as described in 4.3 and 4.4. Tubes that are purchasedto this minimum thickness will have a greater average thickness. A thickness tolerance is specified in each ASTM specification. For most of the ASTM specifications shown in the figures given in annexes E and F, the tolerance on the minimum thickness is (+2:) % for hot-finished tubes and (+a)% for cold-drawn tubes. This is equivalent to tolerances on the average thickness of +12,3 % and +9,9%, respectively. The remaining ASTM specifications require that the minimum thickness be greater than 0,875times the average thickness, which is equivalent to a tolerance on the averagethicknessof +12,5 %. 7 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Tube outside diameter I With a (+$) % tolerance, a tube that is purchased to a 12,7 mm (0,500 in) minimum-thickness specification will have the following average thickness: (12,7)(1+0,28/2) = 14,5 mm (0,570 in) To obtain a minimum thickness of 12,7 mm (0,500 in) in a tube purchased to a k 12,5 % tolerance on the average thickness, the average thicknessshall be specified as follows: (12,7) / (0,875) = 14,5 mm (0,571 in) All thickness specifications shall indicate whether the specified value is a minimum or an average thickness. The tolerance used to relate the minimum and average wall thicknesses shall be the tolerance given in the ASTM specification to which the tubes will be purchased. Minimumthickness Ferriticsteel tubes I Austenitic steel tubes Table 1-Minimum allowable thickness of new tubes b I 141,3 I (5,563) I 5,7 I (0,226) I 3,O I (0,117) I 168,3 I (6,625) I 6,2 I (0,245) I 3,O I (0,117) 4.8 Equivalenttube metal temperature In the creep-rupture range, the accumulation of damage is a function of the actual operating temperature. For applications in which there is a significant difference between start-of-run and end-of-run metal temperatures, a design based on the maximum temperature might be excessive, since the actual operating temperature will usually be less than the maximum. For a linear change in metal temperature from start of run (Tsor)to end of run (Teor),an equivalent tube metal temperature (Teq) can be calculated as shown below. A tube operating at the equivalent tube metal temperature will sustain the same creep damage as one that operates from the start-of-run to end-of-run temperatures. where Teq is the equivalent tube metaltemperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit); Tsor is the tube metaltemperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit), at start of run; Teor is the tube metaltemperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit), at end of run; f T is the temperature fraction given in Figure2. The derivation of the temperature fraction is described in annex G. The temperature fraction is a function of two parameters, V and N 8 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) where no is the ruptureexponent at T,,,; AT* (= Teor- Tsor) is the temperature change, expressed in kelvins (degrees Rankine), during operating period, K (OR); Tior = Tsor+273 K (Tsor+460 OR); In is the natural logarithm; AC3 = &or&op is the change in thickness, expressed in millimetres(inches), during the operating period; &orr is the corrosion rate, expressed in millimetresper year (in inches per year); is the durationof operating period, expressed in years; is the initialthickness, expressed in millimetres(inches), at the start of the run; o. is the initial stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), at start of run using equation (1); A is the materialconstant, expressed in megapascals(pounds per square inch). The constantA is given in Table 3. The significance of the materialconstant is explained in G.5. eO o (u t .-CI i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i l -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V = no(AT*/ T&) In (A / o0) e 0,9 t O =o (u Figure 2 -Temperature fraction 9 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Table 2 -Summary of working equations Ilastic design (lower temperatures): ¿hin= 4+&A 3upture design (higher temperatures): 'min = %+fcorr&A (5) vhere 6, is the stress thickness, expressed in millimetres (inches) pel is the elastic design gauge pressure, expressed in megapascals(pounds per square inch) p r is the rupture design gauge pressure, expressed in megapascals(pounds per square inch) Do is the outside diameter, expressed in millimetres (inches) Di" is the inside diameter, expressed in millimetres (inches), with the corrosion allowance removed oei is the elastic allowable stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), at the design metal temperature or is the rupture allowable stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch) at the design metal temperature and design life hinis the minimum thickness, expressed in millimetres (inches), including corrosion allowance &A is the corrosion allowance, expressed in millimetres (inches) fcorr is the corrosion fraction, given in Figure 1as a function of B and n = 6CA n is the rupture exponent at the design metal temperature Iquivalent tube metal temperature: Teq = Tsar + f T (Teor - Tsar) (6) AT * (= Teor- Tsar) is the temperature change, expressed in kelvins (degrees Rankine), during the Tsoris the tube metal temperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit),at the start of the run Teor is the tube metal temperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit), at the end of the run T:,, = Tsor+273 K (Tsor+460 OR) A is the material constant, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch) from Table 3 q-, is the initial stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), at the start of the run using equation (1); A 6 6, is the initialthickness, expressed in millimetres (inches), at the start of the run Nhere operating period = &orrtopis the change in thickness, expressed in millimetres (inches), during the operating period &orr is the corrosion rate, expressed in millimetres per year (inches per year) top is the duration, expressed in years, of the operating period 10 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Table 3 -Material constant for temperature fraction Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy 800HI800HT 1,o3 105 (I ,so I07) 25Cr-20Ni HK40 2,50 105 (3,63 io7) Ia Formerly calledcolumbium, Cb. The temperature fraction and the equivalent temperature shall be calculated for the first operating cycle. In applications that involve very high corrosion rates, the temperature fraction for the last cycle will be greater than that for the first. In such cases, the calculation of the temperature fraction and the equivalent temperature should be basedon the last cycle. If the temperature change from start of run to end of run is other than linear, a judgment shall be made regarding the use of the value offT given in Figure2. Notethat the calculated thickness of a tube is a function of the equivalent temperature, which in turn is a function of the thickness (through the initial stress). A few iterations might be necessary to arrive at the design. (See the sample calculationin 6.4.). 4.9 Return bends and elbows The following design procedure shall be applied to austenitic stainless steel return bends and elbows (see Figure3) located in the firebox and operating in the elastic range. In this situation, the allowable stress does not vary much with temperature. This design procedure may also be applied in other situations, if applicable. 11 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) ro = outer radius ri = inner radius Figure 3 -Return bend and elbow geometry The stress variations in a return bend or elbow are far more complex than in a straight tube. The hoop stresses at the inner radius of a return bend are higher than in a straight tube of the same thickness. In the situation defined above, the minimum thickness at the inner radius might need to be greater than the minimum thickness of the attached tube. Becausefabrication processes for forged return bends generally result in greater thickness at the inner radius, the higher stressesat the inner radius can be sustained without failure in most situations. The hoop stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), along the inner radius of the bend, q,is given by: where rci is the centre line radius of the bend, expressed in millimetres(inches); rm is the mean radiusof the tube, expressed in millimetres(inches); o is the stress, expressed in megapascals(pounds per square inch), given by equation (1). The hoop stress, expressed in megapascals(pounds per square inch), along the outer radius o. is given by: Using the approximation that rm is almost equal to D0/2,equation (7) can be solved for the stress thickness at the inner radius. For elastic design the stress thickness is given by equation (9). 12 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) where Sui is the stress thickness, expressed in millimetres (inches), at the inner radius. oei is the elastic allowable stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), at the design metal temperature. The design metal temperature shall be the estimated temperature at the inner radius plus an appropriate temperature allowance. Using the approximation given above, equation (8) can be solved for the stress thickness at the outer radius. For elastic design the stress thickness is as follows: where Suo is the stress thickness, expressed in millimetres (inches), at the outer radius. 4-+2 N o = DO 4- rci Do +I oei is the elastic allowable stress, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch), at the design metal temperature. The design metal temperature shall be the estimated temperature at the outer radius plus an appropriate temperature allowance. The minimum thickness at the inside radius, Sui, and outside radius, Suo,shall be calculated using equation (9) and equation (11). The corrosion allowance, ¿&-, shall be added to the minimum calculatedthickness. The minimum thickness along the neutral axis of the bend shall be the same as for a straight tube. This design procedure is for return bends and elbows located in the firebox that may operate at temperatures close to that of the tubes. This procedure might not be applicable to these fittings if they are located in header boxes since they will operate at lower temperatures. Other considerations,such as hydrostatic test pressure, could govern the design of fittings located in header boxes. 5 Allowable stresses 5.1 General The allowable stresses for various heater-tube alloys are plotted against design metal temperature in Figures E.l to E.19 in annex E (SI units) and Figures F.l to F.19 in annex F (US customary units). The values shown in these figures are recommended only for the design of heater tubes. These figures show two different allowable stresses, the elastic allowable stress and the rupture allowable stress. The bases for these allowable stresses are given in 5.2 and 5.3 (see also 3.2.3). 13 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 5.2 Elasticallowable stress The elastic allowable stress (o,,)is two-thirds of the yield strength at temperature for ferritic steels and 90 % of the yield strengthat temperature for austenitic steels. The data sourcesfor the yield strength are given in annex H. If a different design basis is desired for special circumstances, the user shall specify the basis, and the alternative elastic allowable stress shall be developedfrom the yield strength. 5.3 Rupture allowable stress The rupture allowable stress (or)is 100 % of the minimum rupture strength for a specified design life. Annex H defines the minimum rupture strength and provides the data sources. The 20 000-h, 40 000-h, 60 000-h and 100 000-h rupture allowable stresses were developed from the Larson-Miller parameter curves for the minimum rupture strength shown on the right-handside of Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19). For a design life other than those shown the corresponding ruptureallowable stress shall be developed from the Larson-Miller parameter curves for the minimum rupturestrength(see 5.6). If a different design basis is desired, the user shall specify the basis, and the alternative rupture allowable stress shall be developed from the Larson-Miller parameter curves for the minimum or average rupture strength. If the resulting rupture allowable stress is greater than the minimum rupture strength for the design life, the effects of creep on the tube design equation should be considered. 5.4 Rupture exponent Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) show the rupture exponent (n) as a function of the design metal temperature. The rupture exponent is used for design in the creep-rupture range (see 4.4). The meaning of the ruptureexponent is discussed in H.4. 5.5 Yield and tensile strengths Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) also show the yield and tensile strengths. These curves are included only for reference.Their sources are given in annex H. 5.6 Larson-Miller parameter curves On the right-hand side of Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) are plots of the minimum and average 1O0 000-h rupture strengths against the Larson-Miller parameter. The Larson-Miller parameter is calculated from the design metaltemperature (Td)and the design life (~DL)as follows. When Td is expressed in degrees Celsius: When Td is expressed in degrees Fahrenheit: (Td +460) (CLM+ lg ~ D L )X 1 The Larson-Millerconstant CLMis stated in the curves. (See H.3 for a detaileddescription of these curves). The plot of the minimum rupture strength against the Larson-Miller parameter is included so that the rupture allowable stress can be determined for any design life. The curves shall not be used to determine ruptureallowable stresses for temperatures higher than the limiting design metal temperatures shown in Table 4 and Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19). Furthermore,the curves could give inaccurate rupture allowable stresses for times less than 20 O00 h or greater than 200 O00 h (see H.3). The curves for minimum and average rupture strength can be used to calculate remaining tube life, as shown in annex A. 14 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Materials 5.7 Limitingdesign metal temperature Limitingdesignmetal Lowercritical temperature Type or grade temperature The limiting design metal temperature for each heater-tube alloy is given in Table 4. The limiting design metal temperature is the upper limit of the reliability of the rupture strength data. Higher temperatures, ¡.e. up to 30 OC (50 OF) below the lower critical temperature, are permitted for short-term operating conditions, such as those that exist during steam-air decoking or regeneration. Operation at higher temperatures can result in changes in the alloy's microstructure. Lower critical temperatures for ferritic steels are shown in Table 4. Austenitic steels do not have lower critical temperatures. Other considerations may require lower operating-temperature limits such as oxidation, graphitization, carburization, and hydrogen attack. These factors shall be considered when furnace tubes are designed. Carbonsteel Table 4 -Limiting design metal temperature for heater-tube alloys "C (OF) "C (OF) B 540 (1 000) 720 (1 325) 9Cr-1Mo-V steel 18Cr-8Nisteel 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo steel T91 orP91 650 a (1 2009 830 (1 525) 304 or 304H 815 (1 500) - - 316 or 316H 815 (1 500) - - C-%Mo steel I T I orP1 I 595 I (1 100) I 720 I (1 325) 1%Cr-%Mo steel I TI1 orP11 I 595 I (1 100) I 775 I (1 430) 2 x 0 - 1Mo steel I T22 or P22 I 650 I (1 200) I 805 I (1 480) 3Cr-1Mo steel I T21 orP21 I 650 I (1 200) I 815 I (1 500) 5Cr-%Mo steel I T5orP5 I 650 I (1 200) I 820 I (1 510) 5Cr-%Mo-Si steel I T5borP5b I 705 I (1 300) I 845 I (1 550) 7Cr-%Mo steel I T7orP7 I 705 I (1 300) I 825 I (1 515) 9Cr-1Mo steel I T9orP9 I 705 I (1 300) I 825 I (1 515) 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo steel I 316L I 815 I (1 500) I - I - 18Cr-1ON¡-Ti steel I 321 or321H I 815 I (1 500) I - I - 18Cr-1ONi-Nbsteel I 347 or347H I 815 I (1 500) I - I - Ni-Fe-Cr I Alloy800H/800HT I 985a I (1 800a) I - I - 25Cr-20Ni I HK40 I 1 O I O a I (1850a) I - I - a This is the upper limit on the reliabilityof the rupture strength data (see annex H); however, these materialsare commonly used for heatertubes at highertemperatures in applicationswhere the internal pressure is so low that rupturestrength does not governthe design. 5.8 Allowable stress curves Figures E.l to E.19 provide the elastic allowable stress and the rupture allowable stress in SI units for most common heater-tubealloys. Figures F.l to F.19 show the same data in US customaryunits. The sources for these curves are providedin annex H. The figure number for each alloy is shown in Table 5. 15 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Figurenumber E.l (F.l) Alloy Low-carbonsteel (A 161, A 192) I E.2 (F.2) I Medium-carbon steel (A 53B, A 106B, A 210A-1) E.4a(F.4) E.5a(F.5) I E.3 (F.3) I C-%Mo 1%Cr-%Mo 2 x 0 - 1Mo Ferriticsteels E.6a(F.6) 30-1Mo E.7a(F.7) 5Cr-%Mo I E.8 (F.8) I 5Cr-%Mo-Si E.ga(F.9) E.lOa(F.10) 7Cr-%Mo 90-1Mo I E.ll (F.ll) I 9Cr-1Mo-V E.15 (F.15) E.16 (F.16) Austeniticsteels I E.12 (F.12) I 180-8Ni (304 and 304H) 18Cr-1ONi-Ti(321) 180-1ONi-Ti (321H) I E.13(F.13) I 160-12Ni-2Mo (316 and 316H) E.19 (F.19) I E.14 (F.14) I 160-12Ni-2Mo (316L) 25Cr-20Ni (HK40) I E.17(F.17) I 18Cr-1ONi-Nb (347 and 347H) I E.18(F.18) I Ni-Fe-Cr (Alloy 800H/800HT) 6 Sample calculations 6.1 Elasticdesign The following example illustrates the use of design equations for the elastic range. Suppose the following information is given (the US customary unit conversions in parenthesesare approximate): Material = 18Cr-IONi-Nb,Type 347 stainlesssteel D O Pei Td %A = 168,3 mm (6,625 in) = 6,2 MPa gauge (900 psig) = 425 OC (800 OF) = 3,2 mm (0,125 in) From Figure E.17 (SI units)or Figure F.17 (US customaryunits): oei = 125 MPa (18 250 psi) = 140 MPa (20 200 psi) OY 16 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Using equations (2) and (3): = 4,O mm (62) (168,3) 2(125)+ 6,2 6, = Srni, = 4,O +3,2 In US customaryunits: = 7,2 mm = 0,159 in (900) (6,625) 2(18250) + 900 6, = Srni, = 0,159 +0,125 = 0,284 in This design calculationis summarized in the calculationsheet in Figure4. CALCULATIONSHEET SI units (UScustomaryunits)I I Heater Plant Refinery I Coil Material Type 347 I Calculationof minimumthickness Outside diameter, mm (in) Design pressure, gauge, MPa (psi) Maximum or equivalentmetaltemperature, "C (OF) Temperatureallowance, "C (OF) Design metal temperature, "C (OF) Design life, h Allowable stress at Td, FiguresE.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19), MPa (psi) Stress thickness,equation (2) or (4), mm (in) Corrosionallowance, rnm (in) Corrosionfraction, Figure 1, II = Minimum thickness, equation (3) or (5),rnm (in) B = ASTM Spec. A 213 Elasticdesign Do = 168,3 (6,625) Pel = 672 (900) Tmax = TA = Td = 425 (800) - sel = 125 (18 250) S,= 4,04 (0,159) ScA = 3,2 (0,125) - hin= 7,2 (0,284) Rupturedesign Figure 4 -Sample calculation for elastic design 6.2 Thermal-stress check (for elastic range only) The thermal stress, O , in the tube designed according to 6.1 shall be checked using the equations given in annex C as follows: a = 1,81 x 10-5 K-I (10,05 x 10-6 "R-I ) (thermal expansion coefficient taken from Table C-3 of reference [20] of the Bibliography); = 1,66 x IO5 MPa (24,l x IO6 psi) (modulus of elasticity taken from Table C-6 of reference [20] of the Bibliography); E v = 0,3 (Poisson's ratio value commonly used for steels); 17 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) qo = 63,l kW/m2[20 O00 Btu/(h-ft2)](assumed heat flux density); 4 = 20,6 W/(m-K)[ I1,9 Btu/(h-ft-"F)](thermalconductivitytaken from Table 1 of reference [21]). Using equation (C.2): 1,81) (1,66) (63,l) (168,3) .=['4 (1 -0,3) ][ (20,6) ] = 553,2 MPa In US customary units: 110,05) (24,l) (20 000) (6,625) .=[(4 (1 - 0,3) ][ (11,9) (12) The thickness calculated in 6.1 is the minimum. The average thickness shall be used in the thermal-stress calculation. The average thickness (see 4.7) is calculatedas follows: (7,2) (1 +0,14) = 8,2 mm In US customary units: (0,284) (1 +0,14) = 0,324 in The actual inside diameter is calculated as follows: Di = 168,3 - 2(8,2) = 151,9 mm y = 168,3/151,9 = 1,108 wherey is the D,,/Di,ratio of outside diameter to actual inside diameter. In US customary units: Di = 6,625 - 2(0,324) = 5,977 in y = 6,625/5,977 = 1,108 The term in brackets in equation (C.l) is calculated as follows: ln(l,lO8)-I = 0,106 2(1,108) (1,108)2-1 Using equation (C.l), the maximumthermal stress, oTmax,is calculatedas follows: OTmax = (553,2) (O, 106) = 58,6 MPa 18 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) In US customary units: OTmax = (8,026 x IO4)(0,106) = 8 508 psi The limits for this stress for austenitic steels are given by equations (C.4) and (C.6), in which the yield strength is 140 MPa (20 200 psi). OT liml = [2,7 -0,9(1,108)] (140) = 238 MPa In US customary units: OT liml = [2,7 - 0,9(1,108)] (20 200) = 34 400 psi OT lim2 = (1,8) (20 200) = 36 360 psi Since the maximum thermal stress is less than these limits, the design is acceptable. If a thicker tube is specified arbitrarily (as Schedule 80s might be in this example), the actual average tube thickness shall be used in calculating the thermal stress and its limits as follows: The inside diameter of a 6-in Schedule 80s tube is as follows: Di = 146,3 mm therefore Y = 168,3/146,3 = 1,150 In US customary units: Di = 5,761 in Y = 6,625/5,761 = 1,150 The term in brackets in equation (C.1) is calculated as follows: In (1,150) - I=0,146 2 (1,150)2 (1,150)2- 1 Using equation (C.I), the maximum thermal stress is calculated as follows: 19 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 I IS0 13704:2001 (E) In US customary units: OTmax = (8,026 x IO4)(0,146) = 11 718 psi The average thickness of this tube is 11,O mm (0,432 in), so the minimum thickness is calculated as follows: =9,6 mm 11o6 .-A 1+0,14 min - In US customary units: O,432 1+0,14 amin=-=0,379 in Using equation (C.7), the stress is calculated as follows: In US customary units: The thermal-stress limit based on the primary plus secondary stress intensity is calculated using equation (C.9). Using the values above, this limit is calculated as follows: oTiiml = (2,7 x 140)-(1,15 x 51,2) = 319,l MPa In US customary units: oTliml = (2,7 x 20 200) - (1,15 x 7 416) = 46 O10 psi The thermal-stress ratchet limit is calculated using equation (C.12). In this case, the limit is as follows: In US customary units: The thermal stress in the thicker tube is well below these limits. 6.3 Rupture design with constant temperature A modification of the example in 6.1 illustrates how the design equations are used for the creep-rupture range. Suppose the tube described in 6.1 is to be designed for the following conditions: 20 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) T,j = 705 OC (1 300 OF). tDL = 1O0 O00 h. pr = 5,8 MPa gauge (840 psig). From Figure E.17 (SI units) or Figure F.17 (US customary units). or= 37,3 MPa (5 450 psi) Using equation (4): = 12,l mm (58) (168,3) 2(37,3) +5,8 6, = In US customaryunits: =0,474 in (840) (6,625) 2(5 450) + 840 6, = From this, - 0,264 3 2 12,l B = L - In US customaryunits: From Figure E.17 (SI units) or Figure F.17 (US customary units) n = 4,4 Usingthese values for B and n,use Figure 1to obtain the following corrosion fraction: f&r = 0,558 Hence, using equation (5), amin = 12,l +(0,558 x 3,2) = 13,9 mm In US customaryunits: amin = 0,474 +(0,558 x O, 125) = 0,544 in To confirm that this is an appropriate design, the elastic design is checked using the elastic design pressure instead of the rupturedesign pressure. Usingequations (2) and (3) with the conditions given above: oei = 113 MPa = 4 3 mm (62) (168,3) 2(113) + 6,2 6, = 21 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) amin= 4 3 +3,2 = 7,7 mm In US customary units: oei = 16400 psi =0,177 in - (900) (6,625) - 4.7 2(16 400) + 900 &in = 0,177 +0,125 = 0,302 in Since aminbased on rupture design is greater, it governs the design. This design calculationis summarized on the calculationsheet in Figure 5. CALCULATIONSHEET SI units (US customary units) Heater Plant Refinery Coil Material Type 347 Calculationof minimumthickness Outside diameter, mm (in) Design pressure, MPa (psi) gauge Maximumor equivalent metal temperature, "C (OF) Temperatureallowance, "C (OF) Design metal temperature, "C (OF) Design life, h Allowable stress at Td , Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19), MPa (psi) Stress thickness, equation (2) or (4), mm (in) Corrosion allowance, rnm (in) Corrosionfraction, Figure 1, n = 4,4 B = 0,264 Minimumthickness, equation (3) or (5),rnm (in) ASTM Spec. A 213 Elasticdesign Do = 168,3 (6,625) Pei -- 6,2 (900) Tmax = TA= Td = 705 (1 300) - sei = 113(16 400) Su= 4 3 (0,177) ¿&A = 3,18 (0,125) - hin= 7,67 (0,302) Rupturedesign Do = 168,3 (6,625) Pr = 5,8 (840) Tmax = TA= Td = 705 (1 300) tDL= 100000 q = 37,3 (5 450) Su= 12,O (0,474) ¿&A= 3,18 (0,125) 0,558- fcorr - hin= 13,82 (0,544) Figure 5 -Sample calculation for rupture design (constant temperature) 6.4 Rupture design with linearlychangingtemperature Suppose the tube described in 6.3 will operate in a service for which the estimated tube metal temperature varies from 635 OC (1 175 OF) at the start of run to 690 OC (1 275 OF) at the end of run. Assume that the run lasts a year, duringwhich the thickness will change about 0,33 mm (0,013 in). Assume that the initial minimum thickness is 8,O mm (0,315 in); therefore, using equation (I), the initial stress will be as follows: 22 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) In US customaryunits: At the start-of-run temperature, no = 4,8. From Table 3, A is 1,23 x 106 MPa (1,79 x IO8 psi). The parameters for the temperature fraction are therefore as follows: V =4,8(&) In [1,23x10658,, ]= 2,9 N = 4,8(-)0,33 = 0,2 In US customaryunits: From Figure2,fT = 0,62, and the equivalenttemperature is calculatedusing equation (6) as follows: Tq = 635 +(0,62 x 55)= 669 "C In US customaryunits: Teq = 1 175+(0,62 x 100) = 1 237 OF A temperature allowance of 15 "C (25 OF) is added to yield a design temperature of 684 "C (1 262 OF), which is rounded up to 685 "C (1 265 OF). Using this temperature to carry out the design procedure illustrated in 6.3 yields the following: amin = 9,9 +(0,572 x 3,2) = 11,7 mm In US customaryunits: 60 = 0,388 in Srni, = 0,388 +(0,572 x O,125) = 0,460 in This thickness is differentfrom the 8,O mm (0,315-in)thickness that was initiallyassumed. Using this thickness, the stress is calculated as follows: 23 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) In US customary units: With this stress, the temperature-fraction parameters V and N becomethe following: N = 4,8(%) = 0,l In US customary units: 1,79 x I O 8 V = 4,8 - (1s35) In[ 5629 ]=3'0 N = 4,8(-) = 0,l Using these values in Figure 2, f T = 0,62, the value that was determined in the first calculation. Since the temperature fraction did not change, further iterationis not necessary.This design calculation is summarized in the calculationsheet in Figure 6. 24 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) CALCULATIONSHEET SI units (US customary units) Heater Plant Refinery Coil Material Type 347 ASTM Spec. A 213 Calculationof minimumthickness Outsidediameter, mm (in) Design pressure, MPa (psi)gauge Maximumor equivalent metaltemperature, "C (OF) Temperature allowance, "C (OF) Design metaltemperature, "C (OF) Design life, h Allowable stress at Td, Figures E.l to E.19, (Figures F.l to F.19) MPa [psi] Stress thickness, equation (2) or (4), mm (in) Corrosion allowance, mrn (in) Corrosionfraction, Figure 1, n = 4 3 B = 0,322 Minimumthickness, equation (3) or (5),rnm (in) Calculationof equivalenttube metaltemperature Elasticdesign Rupturedesign 168,3 (6,625) 5,8 (840) 669 (1 237) 15 (25) 685 (1 265) 100O00 46,6 (6 750) 9,85 (0,388) 3,18 (0,125) 0,572 11,68 (0,460) Duration of operating period, years Metal temperature, start of run, "C (OF) Metal temperature, end of run, "C (OF) Temperature change during operating period, K (OR) Metal absolutetemperature, start of run, K (OR) Thicknesschange during operating period, rnm (in) Assumed initialthickness, mm (in) Correspondinginitialstress, equation (I), MPa (psi) Material constant, Table 3, MPa (psi) Ruptureexponent at TsorFigures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) Temperature fraction, Figure 2, V =2,9 N = 0,2 Equivalent metaltemperature, equation (6), "C (OF) - top - Gor = Teor = AT* = 1,O 635 (1 175) 690 (1 275) 55 (100) 908 (1 635) 0,33 (0,013) 8,OO (0,315) 58,l (8413) 1,23 x 1O6 (1,79 x 1O*) 4,8 0,62 669 (1 237) Figure 6 -Sample calculation for rupture design (changing temperature) 25 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Annex A (informative) Estimation of remaining tube I¡fe A.l General Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) and the considerations made in annex G have applications other than for the design of new tubes. They can also be used to help answer re-rating and retirement questions about existing tubes that have operated in the creep-rupture range. This annex describes how tube damage and remaining life can be estimated. Because of the uncertainties involved in these calculations, decisions about tube retirement should not be based solely on the results of these calculations. Other factors such as tube thickness or diameter- strain measurementsshould be primaryconsiderations in decisions about tube retirement. There are three primaryareas of uncertainty in these calculations. First, it is necessaryto estimate the accumulated tube damage (the life fraction used up) based on the operating history, ¡.e. the influence from the operating pressure, the tube metal temperature, and the corrosion rate, of the tube. The uncertainties in these factors, particularlythe temperature, can have a significanteffect on the estimate. Second, knowledgeof the actual rupture strength of a given tube is not precise. The example calculation in A.2 demonstratesthe effects of this uncertainty. Finally, it is necessary to consider the tube damage rule as described in G.2. However, as mentioned in G.2, the limitationsof this hypothesis are not well understood. In spite of all these uncertainties,the estimation that is made using the procedure described in this annex might provide information that will assist in making decisions about tube re-ratingand retirement. The essence of this calculation procedure can be outlined as follows. The operating history is divided into periods of time in which the pressure, metal temperature, and corrosion rate are assumed constant. For each of these periods, the life fraction used up is calculated. The sum of these calculated life fractions is the total accumulated tube damage. The fraction remaining is calculated by subtracting this sum from unity. Finally, the remaining life fraction is transformed into an estimateof the expectedlife at specifiedoperating conditions. A.2 Estimation of accumulatedtube damage Since the concepts requiredto estimate damage are developed elsewhere in this International Standard, they are not repeated here. The calculation procedure can best be explained by working through an example. For this example, the following conditions are assumed: Material = 18Cr-1ONi-Nb (type 347) stainless steel Outside diameter = 168,3 mm (6,625 in) Initialminimum thickness = 6,8 mm (0,268 in) It is also assumed that the operating history of the tube can be approximated as shown in Table A.1. (The SI conversions are approximate.) The operating periods need not be of uniform length. In an actual heater, neither the operating pressure nor the metaltemperature is uniform. Nonetheless,for this calculation, they are assumed to be uniform during each period. The values chosen for each period should representtypical values. The choice of the length of the operating period will depend on the extent of the variation of the pressureand temperature. It is necessary to approximate the operating history for the tube thickness. This history can usually be developed from thickness measurementsmade before the initial start-up and during routine heater-tube inspections. For all of these estimates. it is assumed that the outside diameter remains constant. 26 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Table A.l -Approximation of the operating history a “a” is the international unit symbol for “year”. This information can be used to calculate the life fractions shown in Table A.2. For tube undergoing corrosion, an equation similar to equation (G.8) can be developed for the life fraction; however, this is not necessary since sufficient accuracy can be achieved for this calculation by using the average stress for each period (that is, the average of the stress at the beginningand at the end of the operating period). The minimum and average Larson-Miller values in Table A.2 are determined from the average stress using the Larson-Millerparameter curves for minimum and average rupturestrength in Figures E.l to E.17. For this example, Figure E.17 was used. With these Larson-Miller values and the metal temperature for each period, the expression for the Larson-Miller parameter was solved for the rupture time. This expression is at the top of Figures E.l to E.19. Since this expression gives the rupture time in hours, the value needs convertingto years. The resulting times based on the minimum rupture strength and the average rupturestrengthare shown in Table A.2. The following example illustrates how to calculate the minimum-strength rupture time, t,, for the first operating period.The equation to be solved is as follows: 19,06 = (649 +273)(15+Igt,) x IO-3 In US customaryunits: 34,32 = (1 200 +460)(15+ Igt,) x IO-3 or Igt, = 5,67 t, = 4,73 x IO5 h = 54,O a The life fractions are simply the duration of the operating period divided by the rupturetime that correspondsto that period. Using the minimum-strength rupture time calculated above, the fraction for the first line in Table A.2 is 1,3/54,0 = 0,02. The accumulated damage is the sum of the fractions. The effect of the uncertainty about the rupture strength is evident in Table A.2. If the actual rupturestrength of this tube is in the lower part of the scatter band (near the minimum rupture strength), then 64 % of the tube life has been used. If the actual strength is in the middle of the scatter band (near the average rupture strength), then only 23 % of the tube life has been used. If the actual rupture strength is higher, even less of the tube life has been used. The effect of the uncertainty about the operating temperature can also be evaluated. Suppose the actual metal temperature of this tube were 5 OC (9 OF) higher than that shown in Table A.1. To estimate the effect of this difference, the life-fraction calculations in Table A.2 have been made with the slightly higher temperature. The correspondingaccumulated damage fractions are 0,81 and 0,28, respectively. These should be compared with the values 0,64 and 0,23, which were calculatedfirst. 27 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Operating period 1 2 3 4 Table A.2 -Life fractions for each period Average stress MPa psi 48,52 (7045) 54,91 (7973) 56,66 (8213) 68,78 (9985) Larson-Millervalues averageminimum Rupturetime based on minimum strength "C I (OF) I "C Life fraction 0,02 0,05 0,14 0,43 I Accumulateddamage = I 0,64 Rupturetime basedon average strength Life fraction 0,05 0,15 0,23 A.3 Estimation of remainingtube life As in A.2, this calculation procedure is best explained using an example. The example used is summarized in Tables A.l and A.2. The life fraction remainingfor this tube is as follows: Minimum rupture strength: 1- 0,64 = 0,36 Average rupturestrength: 1- 0,23 = 0,77 These fractions should be convertedto the expected life underthe specified operating conditions. The following relatedquestions can be asked at this point: a) What is the estimated life at a given operating pressure, metaltemperature, and corrosion rate? b) For a specified operating pressure and corrosion rate, what temperature limit should be imposed for the tube to last a minimum period of time? c) How much should the operating pressure or metal temperature be reduced to extend the expected life by a given percentage? Not all of these questions are answered in this annex, but the method used to develop the answers should be clear from the following example. Forthis example, the expected operating conditions are as follows: Operatinggauge pressure = 4,27 MPa (620 psi) Metaltemperature = 660 OC (1 220 OF) Corrosion rate = 0,33 mm/a (0,013 ida) From these values a table of future-lifefractions can be developed as shown in Table A.3 for the minimum rupture strength and in Table A.4 for the average rupture strength. As before, the average stress is the average of the stressesat the beginning and end of each operating period. Since the tube in the example is undergoing corrosion, the life estimation should be calculated in steps. For this example, a I-year step was used. As can be seen from the two tables, the estimated life of this tube is between 1,5 a and 4 3 a. If the rupture strength were in the upper part of the scatter band (above the average rupture strength), the estimated life would be even longer. 28 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) "C (OF) - - 18,66 (33,60) 18,53 (33,35) 18,37 (33,07) 18,22 (32,80) For tubes that are not undergoing corrosion, estimating the life is easier. The rupture life is calculated as above from the anticipatedstress and temperature.The estimated remaining life is simplythe fraction remainingmultiplied by the rupturelife. In these cases, tables such as Tables A.3 and A.4 are not required. a - 11,4 8 2 5,5 3,8 The example given above describes a way to answer Question a), posed at the beginning of this clause: What is the estimated life for a specified set of operating conditions? Question b), concerning the temperature limit that should be imposed for a specified pressure, corrosion rate, and minimum life, can be answered as follows. The pressure and corrosion rate can be used to calculate an average stress from which a Larson-Miller value can be found using the curves in Figures E.l to E.19. With this value and a rupture life calculated by dividing the required life by the remaining life fraction, the Larson-Miller parameter equation can be solved for the maximum temperature.The other questions can be answered in similar ways. MPa - 74,99 80,87 87,74 95,84 Table A.3 -Future life fractions, minimum strength (Psi) - (1O 896) (11 753) (12 752) (13 932) Time 4 4,5 18,07 Table A.4 -Future life fractions, average strength (32,53) 2,6 Minimumthickness rnrn 4,83 4,50 4,17 3,84 3,51 I 3,35 I (0,132) Average stress I 102,76 I (14 940) Rupture time Minimum Larson-Miller value Fraction - 0,09 0,12 0,18 0,26 0,19 Remaining fraction 0,12 -0,07 I 29 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Annex B (informative) Calculation of maximum radiant section tube skin temperature B.l General This annex provides a procedure for calculating the maximum radiant section tube metal (skin) temperature. Correlations for estimating the fluid-film heat-transfer coefficient are given in B.2. A method for estimating the maximum local heat flux density is given in B.3. The equations used to calculate the maximum tube skin temperature and the temperature distribution through the tube wall are described in B.4. The sample calculationin B.5 demonstratesthe use of these equations. B.2 Heat-transfer coefficient A value necessary for calculating the maximum tube metal temperature is the fluid heat-transfer coefficient at the insidewall of the tube. Although the following correlationsare extensively used and accepted in heater design, they have inherent inaccuracies associated with all simplified correlations that are used to describe complex relationships. For single-phase fluids, the heat-transfer coefficient is calculated by one of the two equations below, in which Re is the Reynolds number and Pr is the Prandtl number. No correlation is included for the heat-transfer coefficient in laminar flow, since this flow regime is rare in process heaters. There is inadequate information for reliably determiningthe inside coefficient in laminar flow for oil in tube sizes that are normallyused in process heaters. From reference [35], for liquidflow with Re > 1O 000: 0,14 From reference [36], for vapour flow with Re >I5 000: Yf,Tb cpYf,Tb Af,Tb Pr = where KI is the heat-transfer coefficient, in W/(m2-K)[Btu/(h4t2-"F)],for the liquid phase; KV Af,Tb is the heat-transfer coefficient, in W/(m2-K)[Btu/(h4t2-"F)],for the vapour phase; is the thermalconductivity, in W/(m-K)[Btu/(h-ft2-"F)],of fluid at bulk temperature; Di is the inside diameter, expressed in metres (feet), of the tube; 30 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) pf,Tb pf,Tw Tb TW qnA cP is the absolute viscosity, in Pa-s[Ib/(ft-h)],of fluid at bulk temperature; is the absolute viscosity, in Pa-s[Ib/(ft-h)],of fluid at wall temperature; is the absolute bulk temperature, expressed in kelvins (degrees Rankine), of vapour; is the absolute wall temperature, expressed in kelvins (degrees Rankine), of vapour; is the areic mass flow rate, in kg/(m2-s)[ib/(ft2-h)],of the fluid; is the specific heat capacity, in J/(kg-K)[Btu/(lb-OR)],of the fluid at bulk temperature. All of the material properties except p fTw are evaluated at the bulk fluid temperature. To convert absolute viscosity in millipascal-secondsto pounds per foot per hour, multiply pf,Twby 2,42. For two-phaseflows, the heat-transfer coefficient can be approximated using the following equation: K2p= KIWI +Kvwv where K2p WI WV is the heat-transfer coefficient, in W/(m2-K)[Btu/(h.ft2-"F)],for two phases; is the mass fraction of the liquid; is the mass fraction of the vapour. The liquid and vapour heat-transfer coefficients,KIand K,,, should be calculated using the mixed-phaseareic mass flow rate but using the liquid and vapour material properties, respectively. NOTE In two-phase flow applications where dispersed flow or mist flow regimes occur due to entrainment of tiny liquid droplets in the vapour (e.g. towards the outlet of vacuum heaters), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated using the correlationfor vapour phase using equation (B.2), based on the total flow rate, ratherthan approximatedby equation (B.5). B.3 Maximum local heat flux density The average heat flux density in the radiant section of a heater (or in a zone of the radiant section) is equal to the duty in the section or zone divided by the total outside surface area of the coil in the section or zone. The maximum local heat flux density at any point in the coil can be estimated from the average heat flux density. The maximum local heat flux density is used with the equations in B.4 to calculate the maximum metal temperature. Local heat flux densities vary considerably throughout a heater because of nonuniformities around and along each tube. Circumferentialvariations result from variations in the radiant heat flux density produced by shadings of other tubes or from the placement of the tubes next to a wall. Conduction around the tubes and convection flows of flue gases tend to reduce the circumferential variations in the heat flux density. The longitudinal variations result from the proximity to burners and variations in the radiant firebox and the bulk fluid temperatures. In addition to variations in the radiant section, the tubes in the shock section of a heater can have a high convective heat flux density. The maximum heat flux density at any point in a coil can be estimated as follows: qR,max = Fcir FLFTqR,ave + qconv where qR,max is the maximum radiant heat flux density, in W/m2[Btu/(h.ft2)],for the outside surface; Fei, is the factor accountingfor circumferential heat-flux-densityvariations; 31 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) FL is the factor accountingfor longitudinalheat-flux-densityvariations; FT is the factor accountingfor the effect of tube metaltemperature on the radiant heat flux density; qR,ave is the average radiantheat flux density, in W/m2[Btu/(h.ft2)],for the outside surface; qconv is the average convective heat flux density, W/m2 [Btu/(h.ft2)],for the outside surface. The circumferentialvariationfactor, Fcir,is given as a function of tube spacing and coil geometry in Figure B.1. The factor given by this figure is the ratio of the maximum local heat flux density at the fully exposed face of a tube to the average heat flux density around the tube. This figure was developed from considerations of radiant heat transfer only. As mentioned above, influences such as conduction around the tube and flue gas convection act to reduce this factor. Since these influences are not included in this calculation, the calculated value will be somewhat higher than the actual maximum heat flux density. The longitudinal variation factor, FL, is not easy to quantify. Values between 1,O and 1 3 are most often used. In a firebox that has a very uniform distribution of heat flux density, a value of 1,0 can be appropriate. Values greater than 1 3 can be appropriate in a firebox that has an extremely uneven distribution of heat flux density (for example, a long or a tall, narrow firebox with burnersin one end only). The tube metal temperature factor, FT, will be less than 1,0 near the coil outlet or in areas of maximum tube metal temperature. It will be greater than 1,O in areas of lower tube metal temperatures. For most applications, the factor can be approximatedas follows: FT =[ Tg,aver*44 -Ttmr*44 ]Tg,ave -Ttm,ave where Ti,ave is the average flue-gas temperature, expressed in kelvins (degrees Rankine), in the radiantsection; T& is the tube metal temperature, expressed in kelvins (degrees Rankine), at the point under consideration; T&,ave is the average tube metal temperature, expressed in kelvins (degrees Rankine), in the radiant section. The convective heat flux density in most parts of a radiant section is usually small compared with the radiant heat flux density. In the shock section, however, the convective heat flux density can be significant; it should therefore be added to the radiant heatflux density when the maximum heat flux density in the shock section is estimated. B.4 Maximumtube metal temperature In addition to the heat-transfer coefficient and the maximum heat flux density, the temperature profile of the fluid in the coil is necessary for calculating the maximum tube metal temperature in the radiant section of the heater. This profile, which is often calculated by the heater supplier, defines the variation of the bulk fluid temperature through the heater coil. For operation at or near design, the design profile can be used. For operation significantlydifferent from design, a bulk temperature profileshall be developed. Once the bulk fluid temperature is known at any point in the coil, the maximum tube metal temperature can be calculated as follows: 32 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) D O qR,maxacoke ( DO ]ke = &ke Di - acoke Do -4,ave qR,maxat,ave atm AT,, = (B.9) (B.lO) (B.ll) where Tmax Tbf ATff ATcoke ATtw qR,max Kff D O Di ¿%coke &oke 4,ave Atm is the maximumtube metaltemperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit); is the bulk fluid temperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit); is the temperature difference across the fluid film, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit); is the temperature difference across coke or scale, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit); is the temperature difference across the tube wall, expressed in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit); is the maximum radiant heat flux density, in W/(m2-K)[Btu/(h-ft2-"F)],for the outside surface; is the fluid-film heat-transfer coefficient, in W/(m2-K)[Btu/(h-ft2-"F)]; is the outside diameter, expressed in metres (feet), of the tube; is the inside diameter, expressed in metres(feet), of the tube; is the coke and/or scale thickness, expressed in metres (feet); is the thermal conductivity of coke or scale, in W/(m2-K)(Btu/h-ft-"F); is the average tube thickness, expressed in metres (feet); is the thermal conductivity, in W/(m-K)[Btu/(h-ft-"F)],of the tube metal. In equations (B.lO) and (B.II), the denominators within the parentheses are the mean diameters of the coke layer and tube, respectively. The effect of coke or scale on the tube metal temperature can be estimated using equation (B.1O). The thermal conductivity of the tube material used in equation (B.ll) should be evaluated at the average tube wall temperature. For cast tubes, the nominal as-cast thickness should be usedfor St,,, in equation (B.ll). 33 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) L .- Lo 3 2 1.5 1 t c 1 2 2,5 3 Centreline nominaltube spacing/tubeoutside diameter Key 1 Curve 1 = double row against wall, triangular spacing 2 Curve 2 = double row with equal radiationfrom both sides and two diameters betweenrows, equilateralspacing 3 Curve 3 = single row againstwall 4 Curve 4 = single rowwith equal radiationfrom both sides These curves are valid when used with a tube-centre-to-refractory-wall spacing of 1,5 times the nominal tube diameter. Any appreciable variation from this spacing should be given special consideration. NOTE 1 These curves do not take into considerationthe convection heat transfer to the tubes, circumferential heat transfer by conductionthrough the tube wall, or variations in heat flux density in differentzones of the radiantsection. NOTE 2 These curves are based on the work of H. C. Hottel, as reportedon page 69 of reference[35]. Figure B.l -Ratio of maximum local to average heat flux 34 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001 (E) 6.5 Sample calculation The following sample calculation demonstrates how to use the equations given in the previous clauses. NOTE significantfigures used in the dimensionconversions. Differences in results between SI and US customary calculations for dimensionless numbers are due to the In the heater under consideration, the medium carbon steel tubes are in a single row against the wall. Other aspects of the heater configuration are as follows: Tube spacing = 203,2mm (= 0,667ft = 8,Oin); Do= 114,3mm (= 0,375ft = 4 3 in); St,,, = 6,4mm (= 0,0208ft = 0,25in); Di = 101,6mm (= 0,333ft = 4,Oin); Stoke = O mm (O in); Atm = 42,2W/(m-K)[24,4Btu/(h-ft-"F)]at an assumed tube metal temperature of 380 "C (720OF). The flow in the tubes is two-phase with 10% mass vapour. Other operating conditions are as follows: Flow rate (total liquid plus vapour) = 6,3kg/s (50O00 Ib/h) Tb = 271 "C(520OF). qR,ave -- 31 546W/m2[IOO00 Btu/(h-ft2)] The properties of the liquid at the bulk temperature are as follows: Pa-s[4,84Ib/(h-ft)]pf,n = 2,Ox Af,n = 0,1163W/(m-K)[0,0672 Btu/(h.ft-"F)] Cp,f = 2847J/(kg.K) [0,68Btu/(lb-"F)]. The properties of the vapour at the bulk temperature are as follows: pV,,, = 7,Ox Av,n = 0,0346W/(m-K) [0,020Btu/(h-ft-"F)] Pa-s[0,017Ib/(ft-h)]. cp,. = 2394J/(kg.K) [0,572Btu/(lb-"F)]. From the inside diameter, the flow area is equal to 8,107x IO-3 m2(0,0873fi2),Using the total flow rate: qnA = 6,3/(8,107xIO-3) = 777,lkg/(m2-s) In US customary units: qnA = (50 000/0,0873) = 573 x IO5 Ib/(h-ft2) The Reynolds number [equation (B.3)] is as follows: 35 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001 (E) For liquid In US customary units: Re = 4,84 For vapour In US customary units: The Prandtl number [equation (B.4)] is as follows: For liquid = 49,O (2 847) (0,002) 0,116 3 Pr = In US customary units: = 49,O (O,68) (484) 0,067 2 Pr = For vapour In US customary units: = 0,486Pr = 0,020 Assume that for the liquid 0,14 [E)=1,1 Assume that for the vapour 36 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001 (E) These assumptions will be checked later. Using equation (B.I), K I = 0,023[%) (3,94 x 104)0~8(49,0)0~33(1,1) = 4 3 3 . 8 ( 7 ]Af,Tb Using equation (B.2) K , = 0 , 0 2 1 ( 7 ) ( 1Af,Tb ,I2 x 107)0~8(0,486)0~4(0,91) = 6 242(--) Af,Tb Hence K I =433,8(:;i: l)= 497 w1m2 -K K , = 6 242( ')= 2 126 W/m2 .K 0,101 6 In US customary units: = 8 7 3 Btu/h-ft2-OF ( 0,333 1K I =433,8 K , = 6 2 4 2 ( E ) = 375 Btulh.ft2.OF 0,333 The two-phase heat-transfer coefficient can then be calculated using equation (B.5): K2p = (0,9O)KI+ (O,IO)K, = (0,90)(497)+ (O, 10)(2 126) = 659,9W/(m2-K) In US customaryunits: K2p = (0,90)(87,5)+(0,10)(375) = 116,3 Btu/(h.ft2-"F) The ratio of tube spacing to tube diameter is as follows: 203,2 114,3 -= 1,78 37 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) In US customary units: From Figure B.l, Fci, = 1,91. Assume that for this heater, FL = 1,1, FT = 1,0, and qconv= O (that is, there is no convective heat flux density at this point). Usingequation (B.6) = 66 278 W/m2 In US customary units: = 21 O10 Btü/(h-ft2) The temperature difference through each part of the system can now be calculated. From equation (B.9) for the fluid film 66278 114,3 =113K ATfi = (~ 659,9) (1016) In US customary units: 21010 0,375 =2030R ATfi= ~ - (116,3) (0,333) From equation (B.ll) for the tube wall In US customary units: 0,375 - 0,020 81=IgoR ATtw = [(21 OIO)(O,O~O8'1 [24,4 Using equation (B.8), the maximumtube metaltemperature is as follows: Tmm= 271 + 113+ 11 = 395 OC In US customary units: Tmm= 520 +203 + 19 = 742 O F Checking the assumed viscosity ratio, at the oil-film temperature calculated above, 270 + 113 = 383 OC (520 + 203 = 723 OF), the viscosity 1,l mPa-s(2,66 Ib/ft). So, for the liquid: [Pf,Tb]"I4 = (0,0020,0011 = (1,82)O1~~= 1,O9 Pf,Tw 38 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) In US customary units: 0,14 =(1,82)0114= 1,og For the vapour: ($1 = (270383++273273) = (O, 83) = O,9I In US customary units: ($1 =(520723++460460) Oi5 = (O,83)Ol5= O,gI Both values are close to the values assumedfor the calculation of 4 andK,, so no additional work is needed. The mean tube-wall temperature is as follows: 11 2 270 +113+-= 388 "C In US customary units: 19 2 520+203+-=732 "F This is close to the temperature assumed for the tube conductivity, so no additional work is required. 39 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Annex C (normative) Thermal-stress limitations (elastic range) C.l General In heater tubes, the thermal stress of greatest concern is the one developed by the radial distribution of temperature through the thickness. This stress can become particularly significant in thick stainless steel tubes exposed to high heat flux densities. There are two limits for thermal stress; both are described in paragraphs4-134 and 5-130 of reference [21]. These limits apply only in the elastic range; in the rupture range, an appropriate limit for thermal stress has not been established. C.2 Equation for thermal stress The following equation gives the maximumthermal stress in a tube: where 2 (l-v) 4 (l-V) a is the coefficientof thermal expansion; E is the modulus of elasticity; v is Poisson's ratio; AT is the temperature difference across tube wall; y isDo/Di,ratio of outside diameter to actual inside diameter; qo is the heat flux densityon outside surface of tube; As is the thermal conductivityof the steel. The material properties a,E, v, and 5 shall be evaluated at the mean temperature of the tube wall. The average wall thicknessshall also be used in this equation (see 4.7). C.3 Limits on thermal stress The limitation on primary plus secondary stress intensityin paragraph4-134 of reference [21] can be approximated for thermal stress as follows (see C.4 for the derivation). Forferritic steels 40 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) For austenitic steels where ou is the yield strength. The thermal-stress ratchet limit in paragraph 5-130 of reference [21] can be approximated for thermal stress as follows (see C.5 for derivation). For ferritic steels For austenitic steels Both the primary plus secondary stress limit ( o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ )and the thermal-stress ratchet limit (uTlim2)shall be met if the tube is designedfor the elastic range. C.4 Derivation of limits on primary plus secondary stress intensity The limit on primary plus secondary stress intensitycan be expressed symbolically as oPl+ Opb + o ~ ~ ~< 30,. For this application, o ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~is the maximumcircumferentialthermal stress, uTrnaxigiven by equation (C.1). From reference [21], for tubes with an internalpressure: where oPlis the local primarymembranestress; Opb is the primarybending stress; pel is the elastic design pressure. y is the ratio of outside to actual inside diameter (=D,/Di). If op, is the primarymembranestress intensitygiven by equation (C.7), op, = -Pei (2--I )=-Pei (e)2 2 y - I Itcan then be easilyshown that, to a first approximationand providing an upper bound In reference [21], o, is the allowable membranestress intensity. For ferritic steels above about 340 OC (650 OF), o, is equal to two-thirds of the yield strength, ou,so 30, = 20. For austenitic steels above about 260 OC (500OF), o, is 90 % of ou,so 30, = 2,70y. Heatertubes usuallyoperate above these temperatures. Combining all of this, the primary plus secondary stress intensity limit on thermal stress can be expressed as follows. 41 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) For ferritic steels uT,iiml = 2oy - W p m For austenitic steels uT,limlis the maximum value permitted for the thermal stress up For ferritic steel heatertubes designed accordingto this InternationalStandard: For austenitic steel tubes opm< o,900y The thermal-stress limit can therefore be approximated as follows. (C.10) (C.11) For ferritic steels For austenitic steels uT,iiml = (297- 0390~)oy The limits expressed by these equations are simple and appropriate. If the thermal stress is less than this limit, the design is appropriate. If the thermal stress exceeds the limit given by these equations, then, the more exact form of equations (C.8) or (C.9) shall be used with the primary membrane stress intensity given by equation (C.7). Also, if the tube thickness is arbitrarily increased over the thickness calculated in 4.3, then the primary membrane stress intensity shall be calculated using the actual average thickness, and equation (C.8) or equation (C.9) shall be used to calculate the thermal-stress limit. C.5 Derivation of limits on thermal-stress ratchet The limit set to avoid thermal-stress ratchet can be expressedas follows I2I]: (C.12) For ferritic steels, o= ou.For austenitic steels above about 260 OC (500 OF), o= 13 (0,9 ou) = 1,35 ou.As before, opmis derived from equation (C.7). Using equation (C.10) or equation (C.ll), this limit can be approximated as follows. For ferritic steels uT,,iim2 = 1933 oy For austenitic steels As with the limits developed in C.4, these limits are approximate. If the thermal stress exceeds this limit or if the tube thickness is arbitrarily increased, the exact limit expressed by equation (C.12) shall be used with the primary membrane stress intensity given by equation (C.7). 42 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Annex D (informative) Calculation sheets This annex contains calculation sheets that are useful in aiding and documenting the calculation of minimum thickness and equivalent tube metal temperature. Individual sheets are provided for calculations in SI units or in US customary units. These calculation sheets may be reproduced. IS0 13704 CALCULATIONSHEET SI units Heater Plant Refinery Coil Material ASTM Spec. Calculationof minimumthickness Outsidediameter, mm Design pressure, MPa (gauge) Maximumor equivalent metaltemperature, "C Temperature allowance, "C Design metaltemperature, "C Design life, h Allowable stress at Td,Figures E.l to E.19, MPa Stress thickness, equation (2) or (4), mm Corrosion allowance, mrn Corrosionfraction, Figure 1, n = Minimumthickness, equation (3) or (5),rnm B = Calculationof equivalenttube metaltemperature Elasticdesign Rupturedesign -Duration of operating period, years top - Metal temperature, start of run, "C Tsor = Metal temperature, end of run, "C Teor = Temperature change during operating period, K AT = Metal absolutetemperature, start of run, K TS,, = Thicknesschange during operating period, rnm Assumed initialthickness, mm % = Correspondinginitialstress, equation (I), MPa 00 = Material constant, Table 3, MPa A = Ruptureexponent at TSor1Figures E.l to E.19 no = A6 = Temperature fraction, Figure 2, V = N = f T = T =eqEquivalenttube metal temperature, equation (6),"C 43 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) IS0 13704 CALCULATIONSHEET (US customary units) Heater Plant Refinery Coil Material ASTM Spec. Calculationof minimumthickness Outside diameter, inches Design pressure, psi (gauge) Maximum or equivalent metaltemperature, "F Temperatureallowance, "F Design metaltemperature, "F Design life, h Allowable stress at Td,Figures F.l to F.19, psi Stress thickness, equation (2) or (4), inches Corrosion allowance, inches Corrosionfraction, Figure 1,n = Minimumthickness, equation (3) or (5),inches B = Calculationof equivalenttube metaltemperature Elasticdesign Rupturedesign Duration of operating period, years Metaltemperature, start of run, "F Metaltemperature, end of run, "F Temperaturechange during operating period, "R Metal absolute temperature, start of run, "R Thicknesschange during operating period, inches Corresponding initialstress, equation (1), psi Material constant, Table 3, psi top = Tsor = Teor = AT = TS,, = A6 = To =Assumed initialthickness, inches 0 0 = A = no =Rupture exponent at TSor1, Figures F.1to F.19 Temperaturefraction, Figure 2, V = N = f T = T = eqEquivalenttube metal temperature, equation (6),"F 44 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Annex E (normative) Stress curves (SI units) Stress curves, given in SI units, are presented in Figures E.l to E.19. 45 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • X h J o 13) + .Lr - O Cu o vh r- Cu + API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Edw ‘SSôJJS o c o r - u ) v i 4 m O 0 0 0 o o o O t o o o o o o o ON N N ~ 0 0 0 0o o o O 7 0 o o r - u ) vi 4 m N O N c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m c o ~u) vi 4 m N O O N 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o t n w r - u ) vi 4 m N 7 O O 4 O vi m O O m O vi N 46 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specifiedminimumtensile strength 2 Tensilestrength 3 Specifiedminimumyield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress,oel 6 Ruptureallowablestress,o, 7 Limitingdesignmetaltemperature 8 Minimumrupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabovethis stress Figure E.l -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 161 and ASTM A 192 low-carbon steels 47 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) O N (r> b N vh + edw ‘SSaJJs O 0 0 0 o o o O O 0 0 0 o o o O - . t m c o i - v 3 In a m N ~ 0 0 0 0o o o O . - m w i - u i vi a m N 4N N O N c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m w r - o ui 4 m N 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O = m c o i - u i vi 4 m N O O * O In m O O m O In N O O N 48 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Specified minimum tensile strength Tensile strength Specified minimum yield strength Yield strength Elasticallowablestress, o,i Ruptureallowablestress, o, Limitingdesign metaltemperature Minimum rupturestrength Average rupturestrength Elasticdesign governsabove this stress Figure E.2 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 53 Grade B (seamless), ASTM A 106 Grade B and ASTM 210 Grade A-I medium-carbon steels 49 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O Cu o r- Cu vh + API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘CCaJJS 0 0 0 0 0 o o O t o o o o o o o ON O ~ F U ~ V Iif m if N zoo0 o o o o O O , O W F U ~ VI if m N F N N W F W F c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o c n m ~D VI if m N O N O F O 0 0 0 o o o o O O Q W P D VI if m N - O O if O VI m O O m O VI N O O N 50 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Specified minimum tensile strength Tensile strength Specified minimum yield strength Yield strength Elasticallowablestress, Oe1 Ruptureallowablestress, o, Limitingdesign metaltemperature Minimum rupturestrength Average rupturestrength Elasticdesign governsabove this stress Figure E.3 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 161 TI, ASTM A 209 T I and ASTM A 335 P I C-%Mo steels 51 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) l?dw ‘CSaJJS m o ~ r * o m 4 m O 0 0 0 o o o O t o o o o o o o ON 4 N N N O N CO F c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m c o p o m 4 m N F !dn‘CCaJJS O F O 7 O 0 0 0 o o o o O o m a o r * a m s m N F O m 4 O O s O VI m O O m O VI N O O N 52 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. Figure E.4 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 200 T I1, ASTM A 213 T I1 and ASTM A 335 P I1 I%Cr-%Mo steels 53 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) O cv 0 b cv v- + h”W N N O N 00F vaF e g o o 0 0 o o o O . - m a o ~ va VI 4 m N 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m m ~va VI 4 m N 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m m ~va VI 4 m N F O F O VI 4 O O 4 O VI m O O m O VI N 54 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. Figure E S -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 200 T22, ASTM A 213 T22 and ASTM A 335 P22 2%Cr-1Mo steels 55 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O cv (*> b cv vh + 4 N N N O N W 7 c API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘SSaJJs O 0 0 0 o o o O O 0 0 0 o o o O t m c o r - w m 3 m N g o o 0 0 o o o O . - m w r - w m 3 m N z 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m c o r - w m 3 m N z0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o o c o r - w m 4 m N .- O m 3 O O 3 O m m O O m O m N O O N 56 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. Figure E.6 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 200 T21, ASTM A 213 T21 and ASTM A 335 P21 3Cr-IMO steels 57 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • c? zX CJ) + - b (v + 2W edn ‘CCaJlS 0 0 0 0 0 o o O t o o o o o o o NO , Q I W F O V I 4 m API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) U N N N O N W 7 wF g o o 0 0 o o o O . - O W F O VI 4 m N O F e O F O 0 0 0 o o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O 0 0 0 o o o o O O O W F O VI 4 m <u O Q I W F U ~ VI 4 m N F F !dw‘SSaJJS O VI 4 O O 4 O VI m O O m O VI N O O N 58 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. Figure E.7 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 200 T5, ASTM A 213 T5 and ASTM A 335 P5 5Cr-%Mo steels 59 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Bdw 'SSaJJS O 0 0 0 o o o O OO 0 0 0 o o o O ~ 0 0 0 0o o o O t O C O F 8 0 VI 3 M N - O O D F D vi 3 M N 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O O O D F 80 VI 4 M N F 'CCaJJS O O F O vi 80 o-- 60 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress Figure E.8 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213 T5b and ASTM A 335 P5b SCr-%Mo-Si steels 61 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • 4 N N N O N 00 7 D 7 c API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘CCaJ$S O 0 0 0 o o o O 0 4 3 F D V I 4 M t o o o o o o o ON O O r- 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 F D VI 4 M N 7 edw ‘ssaJ$s 62 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. Figure E.9 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 200 T7, ASTM A 213 T7 and ASTM A 335 P7 7Cr-%Mo steels 63 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘CCaJJS O 0 0 0 o o o O g ~ o o o o oo o ON r m c o ~ v 3vi 4 m zoo0 o 7 m w F v3 O 0 o O v i 4 m N 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m c o 1 c u ) vi 4 m <v 7 edw ‘ssaJ$s 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O g m w ~ v 3vi 4 m N O O r- O vi v3 64 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. Figure E.10 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 200 T9, ASTM A 213 T9 and ASTM A 335 P9 9Cr-1Mo steels 65 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O o o r- Cu vh + 2v API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Edw ‘SSôJJS 0 0 0 0 0 o o O t o o o o o o o ON . O Q ~ F O V I 4 m N m O m Qi N 80 N zoo0 o o o o O O . - O W F V J VI 4 m N F c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o c n c a ~80 VI 4 m N O 0 0 0 o o o o O O Q W P D VI 4 m N F O - O VI 80 O O 80 O VI VI O O VI O VI 4 O O 4 O VI m O O m O VI N O O N 66 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress Figure E.ll -Stress curves (SIunits) for ASTM A 200 T91, ASTM A 213 T91 and ASTM A 335 P91 9Cr-1Mo-V steels 67 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • (7 sX + h”v N N O N W API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘SSaJIS O O D F W I ~ 4 m O 0 0 0 o o o O t o o o o o o o ON g o o 0 0 o o o O . - O W F W VI 4 m N c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O ~ W FD rn 4 m N -!dw ‘SSaJIS O 7 O O mO 7 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O ~ W F W VI 4 m N 7 O In W O O W O In In O O In O In 4 O O 4 O In m 68 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE Above 538"C, the stress values for type 304apply only if carbon content is 0,04% or higher. Figure E.12 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 types 304 and 304H (18Cr-8Ni)stainless steels 69 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘SSaJJS m w 1 * - v 3 m 4 m O 0 0 0 o o o O t o o o o o o o ON N N c g o o 0 o o o o O .-mcor*v3 m 4 m N 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m c o ~w m 4 m N O 0 0 0 o o o o O o m w ~ wm 4 m N F O F O VI v3 O O W O VI m O O VI O VI 4 O O 4 O VI m O O o m F 70 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE Above 538 "C, the stress values for type 316 apply only if carbon content is 0,04% or higher. Figure E.13 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 types 316 and 316H (16Cr-12Ni-2Mo) stainless steels 71 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) l?dw 'CCôJJS m " o ~ ~ 3 mif m 0 0 0 0 0 o o O t o o o o o o o ON ~ 0 0 0 0o o o O . - ~ O O F D m if m N N N O N "o D F c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O ~ O D I * - D m if m N o m c a ~D m if m N F F !dn'CCôJJS o m F 72 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress Figure E.14 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213 and ASTM A 312 type 316L (16Cr-12Ni-2Mo) stainless steels 73 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • X (u N API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘SSaJIS O 0 0 0 o o o O O 0 0 0 o o o O N g o o 0 0 o o o O O .-mcnr-- o m 4 m N F 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O ~ C O P - o m 4 m N ?d&aJ$S 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m m ~o m 4 m N F S 9) u) a, .- o 74 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE Above 538 "C, the stress values for type 321 apply only if carbon content is 0,04% or higher. Figure E.15 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 type 321 (18Cr-ION¡-Ti) stainless steels 75 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • + N N O N 00 API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘SSaJIS ~ O D F ~ )m 4 m O 0 0 0 o o o O t o o o o o o o ON g o o 0 0 o o o O . - m c a ~ u) m 4 m N u) F c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m c c . ~ ~m 4 m N F !dw‘SSaJJS 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o m w ~ u )m 4 m N F S w u) a, .- o o m F 76 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metal temperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress Figure E.16 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 type 321H (18Cr-ION¡-Ti)stainless steels Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • + API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) edw ‘CCaJJS 0 1 w r - o ui 4 m O 0 0 0 o o o O ~ o o o oo o o NO N N ~ 0 0 0 0o o o O . - m w r - o VI 4 m N O N c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 1 w r - o vi 4 m N O O m0 0 0 0 0 o o o O ~ r n w r - u ï vi 4 m N CIc O O D O ln vi O O ln O ln 4 O O 4 O ln m 78 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE Above 538 "C, the stress values for type 347 apply only if carbon content is 0,04 % or higher. Figure E.17 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 types 347 and 347H (18Cr-ION¡-Nb) stainless steels 79 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) UI N 4 N O O 00 O In P O O P O m u3 O O 80 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 2 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 3 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 4 Minimum rupturestrength 5 Average rupturestrength Elasticallowablestress greater than 1O0 MPa NOTE The averagegrain size correspondsto ASTM No. 5 or coarser. Figure E.18 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM B 407 UNS NO8810 and UNS NO8811 alloys 800H and 800HT (Ni-Fe-Cr) stainless steels 81 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) + h”v a N 4 N N Cu O N Co O In Co O O Co O O r- O In D O O 82 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 2 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 3 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 4 Minimum rupturestrength 5 Average rupturestrength Elasticallowablestress greater than 1O0 MPa Figure E.19 -Stress curves (SI units) for ASTM A 608 Grade HK40 (25Cr-20Ni)stainlesssteels 83 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001 (E) Annex F (normative) Stress curves (US customary units) Stress curves, given in US customary units, are presented in Figures F.l to F.19 84 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) (Blank page) 85 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • c? zX o) + - O N n O (o d v + I2v 00 M u) M 4 M N M O M 00 N u) N c API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Zu!/d!y ‘SS~JIS O I C O F u ) VI 4 M N soCOF u) VI 4 M N ~ 0 0 0 0o o o O 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 F u ) VI 4 M N l- l- l- 0 - 0 0 F u) VI 4 M Nl- O O u) O O VI O O 4 O O M 86 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.l -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 161 and ASTM A 192 low-carbonsteels 87 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O cv O CD d v- + t2v i API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) u) M 4 M N M O M u) N O O u) O O Ul O O 4 O O m 88 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as a kilo “pound-forceper square inch in IS0 31 Figure F.2 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 53 Grade B (seamless), ASTM A 106 Grade B and ASTM 210 Grade A-I mediumcarbon steels 89 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O cv O CD d v- + API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001 (E) 00 m W m 4 m N m O m Co N i O O F O O D O O LI O O 4 O O m 90 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.3 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 161 TI, ASTM A 209 T I and ASTM A 335 P I C-%Mo steels 91 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O (v n O (o W d + 2W N 4 O 4 ao M u) M 4 M N M O M API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O o o O F u ) In 4 M N F A o o v - h U O O F O O u) O O In O O 4 O O M 92 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE 1 Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.4 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 200 T I1, ASTM A 213 T I1 and ASTM A 335 P I1 I%Cr-%Mo steels 93 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O cv O CD d U- i API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) O 4 00 m W m 4 m N m O m O O 00 O O F O O W O O VI O O 4 O O m 94 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE 1 Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.5 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 200 T22, ASTM A 213 T22 and ASTM A 335 P22 2%Cr-1Mo steels 95 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O N O (o d Wh + API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) O 4 CO m o m 4 m N m O m i 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o c n a o ~o m 4 m N .u!/d!y 'SS~JJS O O CO O O *- O O o O O m O O 4 O O m 96 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE 1 Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.6 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 200 T21, ASTM A 213 T21 and ASTM A 335 P21 3Cr-IMO steels 97 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • i API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) N 4 OD M u) M 4 M N M -0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O a O D P u) VI 4 M N .u!/d!y ‘SS~JJS O O Ca O O r- O O u) O O VI O O 4 O O M 98 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE 1 Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.7 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 200 T5, ASTM A 213 T5 and ASTM A 335 P5 5Cr-%Mo steels 99 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • 4 N 4 O 4 w M 80 M 4 M N M -0 0 0 0 0 o o o O 0 0 0 0 F 80 VI 4 M N F ,u!/d!y ‘ssa.qs API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) O O m 7 O O N F 1O0 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.8 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 213 T5b and ASTM A 335 P5b SCr-%Mo-Si steels 1o1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O (v n O (o W i API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) N 4 O 4 OD m 4 m N m 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O o c n c o ~ wm 4 m N .u!/d!y 'CC~JJS O O 00 O O F O O w O O m O O 4 O O m 102 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE 1 Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.9 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 200 T7, ASTM A 213 T7 and ASTM A 335 P7 7Cr-%Mo steels 103 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • 4 N 4 O 4 w M UJ M 4 M N M -0 0 0 0 0 o o o O zoCOFUJ VI 4 M N ,u!/d!y ‘ssa.qs API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) O O M 7 O O N - 104 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, Dei 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress 11 Elasticallowablestress, Dei (for ASTM A 200 only) NOTE 1 Broken lines indicatethe elastic allowablestressesfor the A 200 grade. This figure does not show the yield strength of the A 200 grade. The yield strength of the A 200 grade is 83 % of the yield strength shown. The tensile strength, rupture allowablestress, rupturestrength, and ruptureexponent for the A 200 grade is the same as for the A 213 and A 335 grades. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.10 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 200 T9, ASTM A 213 T9 and ASTM A 335 P9 9Cr-1Mo steels 105 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • O o O co d v n + cv . i API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 00 VI u3 VI 3 VI N VI O VI co 3 - n ZEN O O co O O F O O D O O VI O O 3 O O m 106 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.ll -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 200 T91, ASTM A 213 T91 and ASTM A 335 P91 9Cr-1Mo-V steels 107 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) W M 4 M N M O M W N c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O - C O F 80 VI 4 M N F Zu!/d!y ‘SS~JJS F I-- O O F O O O O O a O O W O O F O O 80 O O VI O O 108 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE 1 Above 1 O00 “F, the stressvalues for type 304 apply only if carbon content is 0,04 % or higher. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.12 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 types 304 and 304H (18Cr-8Ni)stainless steels 1o9 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) X 2Wh O (o d W m u3 m 4 m N m O m CD N c 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O Q ~ W F D m 4 m N F Zu!/d!y ‘SS~JJS O O O F O O o O O W O O F O O D O O m 110 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE 1 Above 1 O00 “F, the stressvalues for type 316 apply only if carbon content is 0,04% or higher. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.13 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 types 316 and 316H (16Cr-12Ni-2Mo) stainless steels 111 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 00 M W M 4 M N M O M c F L- O O F O O O F O O 0 O O C o O O F O O W O O VI O O 112 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.14 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 213 and ASTM A 312 type 316L (16Cr-12Ni-2Mo) stainless steels 113 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) W M o M 4 M N M O M o0 N 114 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield stength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE 1 Above 1 O00 “F, the stressvalues for type 321 apply only if carbon content is 0,04% or higher. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.15 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 type 321 (18Cr-ION¡-Ti)stainless steels 115 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • i API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) CO m 4 m N m O m CO N -t-- O O O O O m O O CO O O F O O D O O VI O O 4 116 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metal temperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.16 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 type 321H (18Cr-ION¡-Ti)stainless steels 1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • 3 z i API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) 0 0 0 0 0 o o O ~ C O F D L I if m N Z ~ C O P DLI if m N CO m if m cv m O m CO cv 0 0 0 0 0 o o o O O ~ C O F D LI 3 m N F .u!/d!y ‘SS~JIS NO ~ C O P D LI if m- O O O O O m O O CO O O F O O D O O In O O 3 118 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 Specified minimum tensile strength 2 Tensile strength 3 Specified minimum yield strength 4 Yield strength 5 Elasticallowablestress, o,i 6 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 7 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 8 Minimum rupturestrength 9 Average rupturestrength 1O Elasticdesign governsabove this stress NOTE 1 Above 1 O00 “F, the stressvalues for type 347 apply only if carbon content is 0,04 % or higher. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.17 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 213, ASTM A 271, ASTM A 312 and ASTM A 376 types 347 and 347H (18Cr-ION¡-Nb) stainless steels 119 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • 3 z API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) u3 3 3 3 N 3 O 3 m m ?p m 3 m F 2o?*- F ?p- 4 -0 o o o :-o- a -O O O VI Y O O 3 7 O O m 7 O O N -O z 120 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 2 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 3 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 4 Minimum rupturestrength 5 Average rupturestrength Elasticallowablestress greater than 10 kip/in2 NOTE 1 The averagegrain size correspondsto ASTM No. 5 or coarser. NOTE 2 The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.18 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM B 407 UNS NO8810 and UNS NO8811 alloys 800H and 800HT (Ni-Fe-Cr) stainless steels 121 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • X W 4 W 4 4 4 N 4 O 4 W m W m 7 API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) -O O O VI O O 4 Y O O m F O O N -O 122 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Key 1 2 Ruptureallowablestress, o, 3 Limitingdesign metaltemperature 4 Minimum rupturestrength 5 Average rupturestrength Elasticallowablestress greater than 10 kip/in2 NOTE The unit “kip/in2”(kilopoundsper square inch) is referredto as kilo “pound-forceper square inch” in IS0 31. Figure F.19 -Stress curves (US customary units) for ASTM A 608 Grade HK40 (25Cr-20Ni)stainless steels 123 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Annex G (informative) Derivation of corrosion fraction and temperature fraction G.l General The 1958 version of API RP 530 [28] contained a method for designing tubes in the creep-rupture range. The method took into consideration the effects of stress reductions produced by the corrosion allowance. In developing this design method, the following ideas were used. At temperatures in the creep-rupture range, the life of a tube is limited. The rate of using up the life depends on temperature and stress. Under the assumption of constant temperature, the rate of using up the life increases as the stress increases. In other words, the tube will last longer if the stress is lower. If the tube undergoes corrosion or oxidation, the tube thickness will decrease in time. Therefore, under the assumption of constant pressure, the stress in the tube will increase in time. As a result, the rate of using up the rupture life will also increase in time. An integral of this effect over the life of the tube was solved graphically in the 1988 version of API RP 530 1291and developed using the linear damage rule (see G.2).The result is a nonlinear equation that provides the initial tube thickness for various combinations of design temperature and design life. The concept of corrosion fraction used in 4.4 and derived in this annex is developed from the same ideas and is a simplified method of achieving the same results. Suppose a tube has an initial thickness, S,, calculated using equation (4). This is the minimum thickness required to achieve the design life without corrosion. If the tube does not undergo corrosion, the stress in the tube will always equal the minimum rupture strength for the design life, O.. This tube should fail after the end of the design life. If this tube were designed for use in a corrosive environment and had a corrosion allowance of kA,the minimum thickness could be set as follows: &in = su+ &A The stress would initially be less than O,. After operating for its design life, the corrosion allowance would be used up, and the stress would only then equal O.. Since the stress would always have been lower than O,, the tube would still have some time to operate before it failed. Suppose instead that the initialthickness were set as follows: In this equation, feo,, is a fraction less than unity. The stress would initially be less than O,, and the rate of using up the rupture life would be low. At the end of the design life, the tube thickness would be as follows: &in - CA = 8,- (1-fcorr) &A This thickness is less than 6, therefore, at the end of the design life, the stress would be greater than O,, and the rate of using up the rupture life would be high. If the value off,,.,, is selected properly, the integrated effect of this changing rate of using up the rupture life would yield a rupture life equal to the design life. The corrosion fraction, fcorr, given in Figure 1 is such a value. 124 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) The curves in Figure 1 were developed by solving the nonlinear equation that results from applying the linear damage rule. Figure 1 can be applied to any design life, provided only that the corrosion allowance, &-, and rupture allowable stress, O,, are based on the same design life. G.2 Linear damage rule Consider a tube that is operated at a constant stress, o, and a constant temperature, T, for a period of time, At. Correspondingto this stress and temperature is the following rupture life: The fraction Ath, would then be the fraction of the rupture life used up during this operating period. Afterj operating periods, each with a correspondingfraction: the total fraction of the rupture life used up, F (also known as the life fraction), would be the sum of the fractions used in each period: In developing this equation, no restrictions were placed on the stress and temperature from period to period. It was assumed only that during any one period the stress and temperature were constant. The life fraction therefore provides a way of estimatingthe rupture life used up after periods of varying stress and temperature. The linear damage rule assertsthat creep rupturewill occur when the life fraction totals unity, that is when F(j) = 1. The limitations of this rule are not well understood. Nevertheless, the engineering utility of this rule is widely accepted, and this rule is frequently used in both creep-rupture and fatigue analysis (see references [31], [32], [33] and [34]). G.3 Derivation of equation for corrosion fraction With continually varying stress and temperature, the life fraction can be expressedas an integral: where top is the operating life; t, is t, (o,T), ¡.e. the rupture life at stress, o, and temperature, 7: t is the time. In general, boththe stress, O, and the temperature, 7;are functions of time. The rupturelife and the stress can be relatedas follows, at least over limited regionsof stress or time (see H.4): t, =mo* 125 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) where m and n are materialparametersthat are functions of temperature. n is the ruptureexponent. For a specified design life, tDL, and corresponding rupturestrength, o,, tDL = mor-n so m = tDLo: Hence Usingequation (G.3) in equation (G.2), the life fraction can be expressedas follows: ((3.3) ((3.4) where o(t)is the stress expressed as a function of time. This integralcan be calculated once the temperature and stress history are known, but in general this calculationis difficult to perform. For the purposes of this development for tube design, the temperature is assumed to be constant. (This assumption is not made in G.5.) The remaining variable is therefore the stress as a function of time. This is given by the mean-diameterequation for stress as follows: where Pr Do is the outside diameter; 6(t) is the thickness expressed as a function of time. is the rupturedesign pressure; In general, the rupturedesign pressure (operating pressure) is also a .mction of time; however, like temperature, it is assumed to be constant for the purposes of tube design. The thickness is determined by the following equation: S(t)= S,- &orr t ((3.6) where 60 is the initialthickness; 4corr is the corrosion rate. Calculating F(top)is then simply a matter of substituting equations (G.5) and (G.6) into equation (G.4) and integrating.This integration cannot be done in closed form; a simplifying assumption is needed. 126 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Let 6, be the thickness calculated from oras follows: To a first approximation, Substituting equations (G.5), (G.6), and (G.7) in equation (G.4) and integrating results in the following equation: At t = tDL, F(tDL) should equal unity; that is, the accumulated damage fraction should equal unity at the end of the design life. UsingF(t)= 1 and t = tDL in equation (G.8) resultsin the following equation: Now let 6 = 6,+fqorr&Aand B = kA/aO.where = 4corrtDL; that is, the corrosion allowance is defined as being equal to the corrosion rate times the design life. With these changes, equation (G.9) becomes an equation forfcorr as follows: 1 I+fcorrB (G.lO) For given values of B and n,equation (G.1O) can be solved for the corrosion fraction,fcorr The solutions are shown in Figure 1. G.4 Limitations of the corrosion fraction In addition to the limitations of the linear damage rule mentioned in G.2, the corrosionfraction has other limitations. For the derivation, the temperature, pressure, and corrosion rate were assumed to be constant throughout the operating life. In an operating heater, these factors are usually not constant; nevertheless, the assumptions of constant pressure, temperature, and corrosion rate are made for any tube design. The assumptions are therefore justified in this case, since the corrosion fraction is part of the rupture design procedure. (The assumption of constanttemperature is not made in G.5.) The derivation of the corrosion fraction also relies on the relationship between rupture life and stress expressed in equation (G.3). For those materials that show a straight-line Larson-Miller parameter curve in Figures E.l to E.19, this representation is exact. For those materials that show a curvilinear Larson-Miller parameter curve, using equation (G.3) is equivalent to making a straight-line approximation of the curve. To minimize the resulting error, the values of the rupture exponent shown in Figures E.l to E.19 were developed from the minimum 60 000-h and 100 000-h rupturestrengths (see H.4). In effect, this appliesthe straight-lineapproximationto a shorter segment of the curved line and minimizesthe error over the usual range of application. Finally, the mathematical approximation of equation (G.7) was used. A more accurate approximation is available; however, when it is used, the resulting graphical solution for the corrosion fraction is more difficult to use. 127 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Furthermore,the resulting corrosion fraction differs from that given in Figure 1 by less than 0,5 %. This small error and the simplicityof using Figure 1justify the approximation of equation (G.7). G.5 Derivation of equation for temperature fraction Since tube design in the creep-rupture range is very sensitive to temperature, special consideration should be given to cases in which a large difference exists between start-of-run and end-of-run temperatures. In the derivation of the corrosion fraction in G.3, the temperature was assumed to remain constant. The corrosion fraction can be applied to cases in which the temperature varies if an equivalent temperature can be calculated. The equivalent temperature should be such that a tube operating at this constant equivalent temperature would sustain the same creep damage as a tube operating at the changing temperature. Equation (6) can be used to calculatean equivalenttemperature for a case in which the temperature changes linearlyfrom start-of-run to end-of-run. Equation (G.3) was developed to relate the rupture life, tr, to the applied stress, D. A comparable equation is needed to relate the rupture life to both stress and temperature. This equation can be derived by means of the Larson-Miller parameter plot. When this plot is a straight line (or when the curve can be approximated by a straight line), the stress and the Larson-Millerparameter,r:can be relatedas follows: u = ax1O-br (G.ll) where a,b are curve-fitconstants; T* is the absolute temperature, expressed in kelvins; CLMis the Larson-Millerconstant; t, is the rupturetime, expressed in hours. Solving equation (G.ll) for tr yields the following equation: 1000/(bT*) I f a Using equation (G.12), the life fraction given by equation (G.2) becomesthe following: where u is stress as a function of time; T * is the absolute temperature as a function of time. The thickness, which is also a function of time, can be expressedas follows: (G.12) (G.13) 128 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) where 6, is the initialthickness; A 6 is the thickness change in time top; top is the durationof operating period. For this derivation, let A 6 B = - 60 t p = - Therefore 6 ( t )= 60(1- Bp) (G.16) Using equations (G.5) and (G.16) and the approximation given by equation (G.7), the stress can be expressed as follows: where (G.14) (G.15) (G.17) If a linear change in temperature occurs during time, top,then the temperature, T*, can be expressed as a function of time, t, as follows: where TO* is the initial absolute temperature, expressed in kelvins; AT is the temperature change in operating time period, top, expressed in kelvins. Let AT y=- T8 Using equations (G.15) and (G.18), the equation for temperature becomesthe following: T(t)= T a 1+YP) (G.18) (G.19) 129 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Using equations (G.17) and (G.19), equation (G.13) can be written as follows: (G.20) where 1 O00 no is the ruptureexponent at the initialtemperature, T: The aim of this analysis is to find a constant equivalent temperature, T l q ,between T8 and ( T 8 + AZJ such that the life fraction at the end of the period, topwith the linearly changing temperature will be equal to the life fraction with the equivalent temperature. This equivalenttemperature can be expressed as follows: Teq = T i (I+ym), O < m < l (G.21) From equation (G.20), the resulting life fraction is as follows: (G.22) Equating equations (G.20) and (G.22) and dividing out common terms yields an integral equation for the parameter m (G.23) For given values for oo,a, no, b, and 3: equation (G.23) can be solved numerically for m. Using m and equations (G.18) and (G.21), the equivalenttemperature is calculatedas follows: (G.24) The parameter mis the temperature fraction,fT, in 4.8. The solutions to equation (G.23) can be approximated by a graph if the given values are combined into two parameters as follows: Usingthese two parameters,the solutions to equation (G.23) are shown in Figure 2. 130 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) The constant A in Table 3 is one of the least-squares curve-fit constants, a and b, in the equation CT = ~ x I O - ~ ? where T i s the Larson-Miller parameter and CT is the minimum rupture strength. For materials that have a straight Larson-Miller parameter curve, A can be calculated directly from any two points on the curve. For all other materials, a least-squaresapproximation of the minimum rupture strengthwas calculated in the stress region below the intersection of the rupture and elastic allowable stresses, since this is the region of most applications. For the purpose of calculating the temperature fraction, this accuracy is sufficient. 131 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Annex H (informative) Data sources H.l General Whenever possible, the yield-, tensile- and rupture-strength data displayed in Figures E.l to E.19 and Figures F.l to F.19 were taken from the ASTM Data Series Publications [22]~[23]~[24]~[25]~[26]~[27]as explained in Table H.1. These publications contain discussions and detailed descriptions of the data that are not repeated in this annex. The material that follows is limited to a discussion of deviations from published data and of data that have been used but are not generally available. H.2 Minimum rupture strength The ASTM Data Series Publications contain evaluations of various rupture-strengthextrapolation techniques. From these evaluations, the most reliable extrapolation was selected. The average and minimum 100000-h rupture strengths calculated by this method are used in this International Standard. The minimum rupture strength used is the lower 95 % confidence limit; 95 % of all samples should have rupture strengths greater than this value. This minimum rupture strength is obtained by using least-squares techniques to calculate a curve for the average rupture strength and subtracting 1,65 times the standard deviation of the data from this average. The Data Series referencewith its specificfigure number for each alloy are listed in Table H.1. 132 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Table H.l -Sources of data for yield, tensile and rupture strengths Yield publicationASTM I strengtha Alloy Tensile strengtha DS 58 DS 58 Rupture Method Comments strength I used I Figure8a Figure8b Figure9a Figure9b D S I I S I I Figure7c IFigure7d Figure26ca Figure33ca Fine-grained, used. (SeeH.6.1) I LM Itemperedvalues IL IL Carbon steels DS 58 DS 58 C-%Mo steel Figure 1l a Figure 11b Figure 12a Figure 12b DS47 I Figure7a I Figure7b Figure47ca Figure54ca (See H.6.2) I LM I IL IL DS 5S2 Figure 14b Figure 15b Tables 7, IOa Adjusted values used. Figure 14a IL and 15a used above 540 "C (1 O00 OF). a DS5S2 I Figure 14e Figure 15e Non-platevalues (See H.6.3) I IL I used.1%Cr-%Mo steel 2x0-1Mo steel 3Cr-1Mo steel 1Figure 17ca DS 6S2 5Cr-%Mo steel 5Cr-%Mo-Si steel 7Cr-%Mo steel 9Cr-1Mo steel 9Cr-1Mo-V steel MPC I I I LM I 18Cr-8Nisteel 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo steel Adjusted values Tables 7, IOa I IL Iused. 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo (316L) steel DS5S2 I Figure 14f Figure 15f Minimum is 80 % of average. Table 7a I IL I Adjusted values Tables 7, IOa I IL I used.18Cr-1ON¡-Ti steel 18Cr-1ON¡-Nb steel DS 5S2 DS 5S2 Adjusted values Tables 7, IOa I IL I used. Ni-Fe-Cr (Alloy 800H/800HT) 25Cr-20Ni (HK40) LM = Larson-Miller (See H.6.5) (See H.6.6) IL = Individuallots (see ASTM DS publicationfor definition) MC = MansonCompromise NOTE 1 NOTE 2 See references[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27]for ASTM Data Series publications. Datafrom MaterialsPropertiesCouncil, Inc. a Referenceto the ASTM DataSeries publicationgiven in column 2. 133 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) H.3 Larson-Miller parameter curves The Larson-Millerparametercombines design metaltemperature, Td, and design life, tDL, in hours, as follows. When Td is expressed in OC: When Td is expressed in OF: The generally accepted empirical values of CLM = 20 and CLM = 15 are used for ferritic steels and austenitic steels, respectively. The value of CLM = 30 is used for T91 or P91, 9Cr-IMO-V steel. To calculate the rupture allowable stress for any given design metal temperature and design life, the appropriate value of CLM should be used to calculate the parameter, and one of the Larson-Miller parameter curves should then be used to find the correspondingrupturestrength. To the right in Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) are Larson-Miller parameter curves that permittubes to be designed for lives other than 100O00 h. These curves were developed from the average and minimum 100 000-h rupturestrengths. They can be used to estimatethe rupture allowable stress (minimum rupture strength) for design lives from 20 O00 h to 200 O00 h. The resulting 20 000-h, 40 000-h and 60 000-h rupture allowable stresses are shown with the 100 000-h ruptureallowable stressto the left in Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19). This is not the normal use of the Larson-Miller parameter. The Larson-Miller curve is traditionally developed from rupture-strengthtest data as one way to extrapolate long-term rupturestrengths from short-term data. The resulting extrapolation is suitable for some alloys but not for all. Most of the ASTM Data Series Publications listed in Table H.l examine the suitabilityof this Larson-Millerextrapolation. The Larson-Miller parameter curves used in this International Standard were developed from the extrapolated values of the 100 000-h rupture strength. The values used are those listed in the various ASTM Data Series Publications. They have been estimated in the manner believed to be most reliable. For low- and medium-carbon steels, alloy 800H/800HT, and HK 40, the 100 000-h rupture strength has been estimated using a Larson-Miller extrapolation (other means have been used for the other alloys). Table H.l lists the extrapolation method used for each alloy. Consequently, the Larson-Miller parameter curves in this International Standard are not the same as those shown in the various ASTM Data Series Publications. For those cases in which the 100 000-h rupture strength was determined by other means, the Larson-Miller parameter curves in this International Standard might not give reliableestimates of the rupturestrength for times lessthan 20 O00 h or morethan 200 O00 h. H.4 Rupture exponent Constant-temperature creep-rupture data can be conveniently plotted on a log-log graph, log (stress) versus log (rupturetime). These stress-rupture curves can often be represented by a straight line or can be approximated by a straight line in limitedregions. The straight line can be expressedas follows: where tr is the rupturetime. m and n are materialparametersthat are functions of temperature. o is stress. The parametern is the ruptureexponent. It is relatedto the slope of the stress-rupture curve. 134 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) The value of the rupture exponent can be calculated from two points on the curve. If the rupturetime for a stress ul is trl and the rupturetime for a stress u2is tR, then: If the stress-rupture curve is a straight line, any two points on that line will give the same value of n. If the stress- rupture curve is not a straight line, the value of n will depend on which two points are chosen, since the slope of the straight-line approximation depends on which part of the curve is approximated. The rupture exponents plotted in Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) were determined from the 60 000-h and 1O0 000-h minimum rupture strengths as estimated by the Larson-Miller parameter curves. These particular times were chosento give a straight-line approximationover the range of the usual operating stress levels. H.5 Modification of, and additions to, published data Whenever possible, the data used to generate Figures E.l to E.19 (Figures F.l to F.19) were taken from the ASTM Data Series P ~ b l i c a t i o n s [ ~ ~ ] ~ [ ~ 3 ] ~ [ ~ ~ ] ~ [ ~ 5 ] ~ [ ~ 6 ] ~ [ ~ 7 ] .Specific figure and table referencesfor the yield, tensile, and rupture strengths are given in Table H.1. In some cases, the rupture-strengthextrapolations were modifiedfor this practice, or the data were used to develop new extrapolations. These modifications and additions are described in H.6.2 to H.6.9. Alloy 800H/800HT and HK 40 are not covered by recent ASTM publications. The data used to develop the figures for these alloys are described in H.6.5 and H.6.6, respectively. H.6 Steels H.6.1 Carbon steels The determination of rupture strength in Data Series 1IS1 makes no distinction between low-carbon steel (A 192) and medium-carbon steel (A 106 and A 210). Data from all three alloys were used to calculate the Larson-Miller curve in Data Series 11S1. For this International Standard, the distinction was made for Figures E.l and E.2 (Figures F.l and F.2) by separating the data and calculating two Larson-Miller curves. The procedure for establishing the average and minimum rupture strengths was otherwise identicalto that used in Data Series 11S1. Larson-Millercurves that representthe average strength were generated by the least-squares method; curves that represent minimum strength were generated by subtracting from the average-strength curves 1,65 times the standard deviation of the data. H.6.2 C-1/2Mosteel The Larson-Millercurves in Figure 18a of Data Series 47 have an inflectionpoint close to a parameter value of 37. The upturn to the right is considered questionable. For this International Standard, the parameter curves shown in Figure F.3 were arbitrarily extended by straight lines above a parameter value of 37. These extensions are shown as dashed lines in Figure E.3 (Figure F.3). H.6.3 1'/4Cr-'/2Mosteel The regression of the individuallot extrapolations in Figure 27c of Data Series 50 used a polynomial of third degree or higher. The resulting average and minimum rupture-strengthcurves show an upturnto the right. This upturnalso results when the data points shown on Figure 27c are fitted with a quadratic curve. Since this upturn is considered questionable, the data points shown in Figure 27c were used to calculate a first-degree curve for this International Standard.The resultingcurves for average and minimum rupture strengths are shown in Figure E.4 (Figure F.4). 135 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) H.6.4 2'/&r-1 Mo steel The most reasonable extrapolation in Data Series 6S2 is provided by the strength-temperature regression curve shown in Figure 22 and again in Figure 26. As with I%Cr-%Mo steel in Data Series 50,the regression used a polynomial of third degree or higher. The resulting curve is considered questionable. For this InternationalStandard the Manson compromise curve in Figure 26 was used below 595 "C (1 100 OF) and was extended downward to intersect the strength-temperature regression curve at 650 "C (1 200 OF). The resulting curves for average and minimum 100000-h rupture strength shown in Figure E.5 (Figure F.5) of this International Standard are generally equalto or belowthe strength-temperatureregression curves of Data Series 6S2. H.6.5 Ni-Fe-Cr (Alloy 800H/800HT) The Larson-Miller curves for Alloy 800H/800HT in Figure E.18 (Figure F.18) were developed from 91 rupture-test data points from one source. These tests used samples from six heats of alloy 800H/800HT (with appropriate chemistryand grain size) that were made in bar, plate, and tube product forms. All tests were run at temperatures of 980 "C (1 800 OF) or lower, except for one that was run at 1 040 "C (1 900 OF). The linear curves for the average and minimum rupture strengths were calculated using least-squares techniques. Using a quadratic curve did not appreciably improvethe fit of these data. H.6.6 25Cr-20Ni (HK40) The Larson-Miller curves for HK40 in Figure E.19 (Figure F.19) were developed from 87 rupture-test data points. These tests came from four sources and involvedseven heats of HK40. The carbon content of these heats ranged from 0,35 to 0,45. No data from tests that were run at temperatures of 1 040 "C (1 900 OF) or higher were used in this evaluation, since significant metallurgical changes that affect the rupture strength occur above this temperature. The quadratic curves for the average and minimum rupture strengths were calculated using least squares techniques. H.6.7 25Cr-35Ni-HP-modified Stress curves for HP-modified cast tubes are not included. This material is proprietaryto individual foundries. As such, it is not feasible to develop generic stress data which would apply to all manufacturersof this material. H.6.8 9Cr-IMO-V steel The maximum limit for this material has been restrictedto 650 "C (1 200 OF) due to the lack of stress data above this temperature, see Figure E.ll (Figure F.ll). 136 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) Bibliography 111 121 131 141 151 161 171 181 191 11o1 1111 1121 1131 1141 1151 1171 ASTM A 53, Standardspecificationfor pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless ASTM A 106, Standardspecificationfor seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperatureservice ASTM A 161I),Standardspecificationfor seamless low-carbon and carbon-molybdenum steel still tubes for refinery service ASTM A 192lA 192M, Standard specification for seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for high-pressure service ASTM A 2002),Specificationfor seamlessintermediatealloy-steel still tubes for refinery service ASTM A 209lA 209M, Standard specification for seamless carbon-molybdenum alloy-steel boiler and superheatertubes ASTM A 21OIA 21OM, Standard specification for seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes ASTM A 213lA 213M, Standard specification for seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy-steel boiler, superheater,and heat-exchanger tubes ASTM A 2713), Standard specification for seamless austenitic chromium-nickel steel still tubes for refinery service ASTM A 312lA 312M, Standardspecificationfor seamless and welded austeniticstainlesssteel pipes ASTM A 335lA 335M, Standard specification for seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service ASTM A 376lA 376M, Standard specification for seamless austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature central-station service ASTM A 608, Standard specification for centrifugally cast iron-chromium-nickel high-alloy tubing for pressure applicationat high temperatures ASTM B 407, Standardspecificationfor nickel-iron-chromium alloy seamlesspipe and tube API RP 941, Steels for hydrogen service at elevated temperatures and pressures in petroleum refineries and petrochemicalplants TUCKERJ. T., COULTERE. E., and KOUISTRAL. F. Effects of wall thickness on stress-rupture life of tubular specimens, Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series D, Journal of Basic Engineering,82, June 1960, pp. 465-476 CARLSONW. B. and DUVALD. Rupture data and pipe design formulae, Engineering, 193,June 22, 1962, pp. 829-831 1) ASTMA 161wasdiscontinued in 1999andreplacedbyASTMA 192lA 192MandASTMA 209lA 209M. 2) ASTMA 200wasdiscontinued in 1999andreplacedbyASTMA 213lA 213M. 3) ASTMA 271wasdiscontinued in 1999andreplacedbyASTMA 213lA 213M. 137 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • API Standard 530 / IS0 13704:2001(E) i181 i191 i231 i241 i251 i261 i271 1281 i291 i301 i311 i321 i331 i341 i351 i361 i371 CHITTYA. and DUVALD. The creep-rupture properties of tubes for high temperature steam power plant, Paper presented at the Joint InternationalConferenceon Creep, NewYork and London, 1963 YOSHIDAS.,TANCHAC. ICHINOI. and VEMATSUK., Creep and creep-rupture properties of Type 316 stainless steel cladding tubes for the experimental fast breeder reactor JOYO, Paper presented at the International Conferenceon Creep and Fatigue in Elevated TemperatureApplications, Philadelphia,September 1973 ASME B31.3, Processpiping ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for construction of pressure vessels, Division 2, Alternative rules SMITHG. V. Wrought 304, 316, 321, and 347 Stainless Steel (Data Series 5S2), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, February 1969 SMITHG. V. 2% -IMO Steel (Data Series 6S2), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, March 1971 SMITHG. V. Wrought carbon steel (Data Series IlSI), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia,January 1970 SMITHG. V. C-Mo, Mn-Mo, and Mn-Mo-Ni Steels (Data Series 47), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, November 1971 SMITHG. V. %Cr-%Mo, 10-%Mo, and 1%-1% Mo-Si steels (Data Series 50),American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia,September 1973 SMITHG. V. 3 to 9 percent chromium-molybdenum steels (Data Series 58),American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia,October 1975 API RP 530, Calculation of heater tube thickness in petroleum refineries, 1st ed., American Petroleum Institute,Washington, D.C., 1958 API RP 530, Calculation of heater tube thickness in petroleum refineries, 3rd ed., American Petroleum Institute,Washington, D.C., 1988 API Standard 530, Calculationof heater tube thicknessin petroleum refineries, 4th ed., American Petroleum Institute,Washington, D.C., 1996 FINNIEI. Design of furnace tubes for the creep rupture range (Paper 62-WA-272), American Society of MechanicalEngineers, New York, November 1962 FREEMANJ. W. and VOORHEESH. R. Literature survey on creep damage in metals (Special Technical PublicationNo. 391), American Societyfor Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.June 1965 RANDALLP. N. Cumulative damage in creep rupture tests of a carbon steel, Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers,Series D, Journal of Basic Engineering,84, June 1962, pp. 239-242 VOORHEESH. R., FREEMANJ. W. and HERZOGJ. A., Trends and implications of data on notched-bar creep- rupture, Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series D, Journal of Basic Engineering,84, June 1962, pp. 207-213 MCADAMSW. H., Heat Transmission,3rd ed., McGraw-Hill,New York, 1954 MCELIGOTD. M., MAGEEP. M. and LEPPARTG., Effect of large temperature gradients on convective heat transfer, the downstream region, Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Journal of Heat Transfer,87, February 1965, pp. 67-76 IS0 31 (all parts), Quantitiesand Units 138 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • 01/03 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Additional copies are available through Global Engineering Documents at (800) 854-7179 or (303) 397-7956 Information about API Publications, Programs and Services is available on the WorldWide Web at: http://www.api.org American 1220L Street, Northwest Petroleum Washington,D.C. 20005-4070 Institute 202-682-8000 Product No. C53005 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=Technip Abu Dabhi/5931917101, 05/22/2004 22:55:36 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --````,,``,``,,,`,,``,``,````,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---