blood donation

1,958 views
1,805 views

Published on

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,958
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
163
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

blood donation

  1. 1. BLOOD DONATION PRESENTATION BY OSEI OWUSU EBENEZER EMMANUEL TITIATI
  2. 2. HISTORY OF BLOOD DONATION • RECORDS SHOW THAT IN 1628 THE FIRST BLOOD DONATION WAS ATTEMPTED WHEN THE BRITISH PHYSICIAN WILLIAM HARVEY DISCOVERED THE CIRCULATION OF BLOOD • IN 1818 THE FIRST HUMAN TO HUMAN WAS RECORDED WHEN THE BRITISH OBSTETRICIAN JAMES BLUNDELL SUCCESSFULLY TRANSFUSED BLOOD TO A PATIENT OF HIS FOR THE TREATMENT OF POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE. • IN 1884 SALINE TRANSFUSION WAS USED AS A SUBSTITUTE TO MILK
  3. 3. WHAT IS BLOOD DONATION • BLOOD DONATION REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF 1.COLLECTING 2. TESTING, 3.PREPARING, AND 4.STORING BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENT FROM A VOLUNTARY NON-NUMERATED, SELF (AUTOLOGOUS), DIRECTED OR FAMILY REPLACEMENT, AND RE-NUMERATED INDIVIDUAL
  4. 4. WHAT IS BLOOD DONATION a. NON-NUMERATED VOLUNTARY DONATION; THIS TYPE OF DONORS DONATE FREELY AND FREQUENTLY TO A DONATION CENTER WITHOUT ANY INCENTIVES b. SELF (AUTOLOGOUS DONATION); THIS OCCURS WHEN A PERSON DONATES BLOOD DOWN FOR HIS/HER USE LATER ON, EG IN CASES OF SURGERY c. DIRECTED DONATION; IN THIS INSTANCE A PERSON DONATES BLOOD FOR A SPECIFIC PERSON d. FAMILY REPLACEMENT; OCCURS WHEN A FAMILY MEMBER OF A PATIENT REPLACES A TRANSFUSED BLOOD TO THE PATIENT e. RE-NUMERATED/COMMERCIAL DONATION; THIS DONORS FOR INCENTIVES AND NORMALLY OCCURS IN UNDER DEVELOPED COUNTRIES WITH NO REGULAR DONORS
  5. 5. WHAT IS BLOOD DONATION • THE BLOOD COMPONENT THAT IS DONATED OR COLLECTED IS MADE OF 1. RED BLOOD CELL ALSO CALLED ERYTHROCYTES WHICH CONTAINS OXYGEN AND HEMOGLOBIN THAT IS CIRCULATED THROUGH THE BODY BY THE HEART 2. WHITE BLOOD CELL (LEUKOCYTES) OF WHICH THERE ARE FIVE TYPES ARE CONTROLLED BY THE IMMUNE SYSTEM WHICH IS RESPONSIBLY FOR FIGHTING INFECTIONS 3. PLATELETS (RETICULOCYTES) ARE PIECES OF CELLS THAT WORK TO FORM BLOOD CLOTS WHICH HELP KEEP THE BODY FROM LOOSING BLOOD WHEN SUSTAIN AN INJURY AND HELP IN WOUND HEALING 4. PLASMA IS THE LIQUID PART OF BLOOD THAT CONTAIN ESSENTIAL PROTEINS WITHOUT WHICH WE WOULD DIE
  6. 6. IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD DONATION 1. GENERAL IMPORTANCE TO MEET BLOOD NEEDS AND DEMANDS IN THE DISTRICT, REGION, AND NATIONAL • THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR HUMAN BLOOD • EVERY 2 SECONDS SOMEONE IN GHANA NEEDS BLOOD AND ONLY 5% OF THE POPULATION DONATES BLOOD • IF 10-15% OF THE POPULATION WOULD GIVE BLOOD THEN SHORTAGES AND DEATHS DUE TO LACK OF BLOOD WOULD DRASTICALLY REDUCE • AND THE DEMAND FOR THE BLOOD AND ITS COMPONENTS IS RISING • ONE DONATED BLOOD CAN SAVE FOUR LIVES • IT SAVES MONEY ( BOTH CLIENT/PATIENT AND DONOR)
  7. 7. IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD DONATION • TO THE PATIENT AND RELATIVES 1. LIFE SAVING ( IN CASES OF ACCIDENTS, HEMORRHAGES, BLEEDING CASES OR EMERGENCY CASES) BY 1. REDUCING TURN AROUND TIME OF ACQUISITION OF BLOOD AND ITS COMPONENTS 2. ENSURES READILY AVAILABLE BLOOD FOR USE IN CRITICAL TIMES 3. HELPS PREVENT INFECTION OF PATIENT 4. SAVES MONEY AND REDUCES BURDEN AND CONSTRAINTS ON FAMILY
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD DONATION • TO THE DONOR 1. PREVENTION OF IRON OVERLOAD 2. HELPS IN THE REDUCTION OF BLOOD PRESSURE 3. HELPS TO REDUCE BLOOD GLUCOSE AND GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN 4. RATIO OF LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN 5. HELPS REGULATE THE HEART RATE OF THE DONOR 6. AND ITS BEING SAID TO HELP REDUCE THE RISK OF HEART DISEASES
  9. 9. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION • THE FIRST STEP IN BLOOD DONATION IS THE COLLECTION OF THE BLOOD • THERE ARE PROCESSES AND CRITERIA'S A DONOR HAS TO FIT BEFORE QUALIFYING FOR DONATION • THE CRITERIA RANGES FROM • CLINICAL HISTORY AND HABITUAL CHARACTERISTICS • AGE • BLOOD PRESSURE • WEIGHT • HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL • PULSE
  10. 10. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION • CLINICAL HISTORY AND HABITUAL CHARACTERISTICS • THIS DONE TO OBTAIN A PAST AND CURRENT DONOR HEALTH HISTORY AND WHAT EVER INFORMATION GIVEN BY THE DONOR IS CONFIDENTIAL • THIS IS DONE THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND MUST BE EMPHASIZED THAT HONESTY IS KEY IN THIS SITUATION • QUESTION TO BE ASKED INCLUDE a. SMOKING HABIT b. DRINKING HABITS c. HOSPITALIZATION d. VACCINATION HISTORY e. SEXUAL TENDENSES
  11. 11. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION • MEDICATION • SURGERIES • CLINICAL DEFICIENCIES • PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS • PREGNANCY/ LACTATION • MENORRHEA
  12. 12. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION 2. AGE • THE AGE OF AN INDIVIDUAL ELIGIBLE FOR DONATION IS BETWEEN 18 60 YEARS IN GHANA 3. BLOOD PRESSURE • SYSTOLIC (100 – 150 ) • DIASTOLIC ( 60 – 90 ) 4. PULSE • (60 – 90) BEATS PER SECOND 5. HEMOGLOBIN • NOT LESS THAN 12 G/DL 5. WEIGHT • <45 KGS
  13. 13. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION • THE BLOOD GROUP WOULD THEN BE CHECKED TO ASCERTAIN THE GROUP OF THE DONOR EXEMPTION CRITERIA 1. EPILEPSY 2. PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS 3. ABNORMAL BLEEDING TENDENCIES 4. SEVERE ASTHMA 5. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS 6. MALIGNANCY 7. LACTATING MOTHERS 8. MENORRHEA
  14. 14. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION • TEMPORAL EXEMPTION 1. MALARIA 2. SYPHILIS 3. MUMPS 4. MEASLES AND OTHERS CAN DONATE AFTER 3 TO 6 MONTHS AFTER FULL RECOVERY
  15. 15. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION • SAMPLE TAKING • AFTER PASSING ALL THIS, THE DONOR THEN QUALIFIES TO HAVE HIS/HER BLOOD TAKEN 1. BLOOD WOULD TAKEN INTO A STERILE, NON PYOGENIC PLASTIC BLOOD 2. WITH AN ANTI COAGULANT THAT PREVENTS BLOOD CLOTTING AND NOURISHES THE CELLS 3. VOLUME OF BLOOD TO TAKEN IS 450MLS ( LESS THAN PURE WATER) SAMPLE TAKEN STEPS a. DONOR HAS TO BE RELAXED IN THE BED b. TYING OF THE TORNIQUE c. VEIN LOCATION d. SITE DISINFECTION e. VENIPUNCTURE
  16. 16. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE PREPARATION POST TRANSFUSION 1. BLOOD COLLECTED WOULD TAKEN TO THE LABORATORY WHERE IT WOULD BE TESTED FOR • HIV • HEPATITIS B • HEPATITIS C • SYPHILLIS 2. LABELLED WITH THE • DATE TAKEN • EXPIRATION DATE • BLOOD GROUP • BATCH NUMBER/CODE • AND STORED IN THE FRIDGE
  17. 17. BLOOD DONATION PROCEDURE BLOOD COLLECTION F. COLLECTION E. LABELLING • IF APPROPRIATE LARGE VEIN IS PUNCTURED, BLOOD COLLECTION SHOULD TAKE AN AVERAGE OF 5 MINUTES • BLOOD
  18. 18. DIMISTIFICATION • BLOOD DONATION IS SAFE • YOU WONT GET HIV FROM DONATION • BLOOD VOLUME LOST DURING DONATION IS RESTORED WITH 24 HOURS • BLOOD CELL COMPONENTS LOST ARE RESTORED IN 3 MONTHS AFTER DONATION

×