Steam presentation deux 3 d prints from photographs


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3D Prints from Photographs. This is a presentation I gave to stimulate interest in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics).

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Steam presentation deux 3 d prints from photographs

  1. 1. ScienceTechnologyEngineeringArtMath Scott 28Jul11
  2. 2. Objective Stimulate student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Math by teaching how to create 3D Additively Manufactured prints from photographs. Engineer‟s Laptop Artist‟s Canvas
  3. 3. What You will Learn… How take pictures and turn them into like these… 3D Prints like these… …using STEM and ART! Principles… and 3D PrintersImage Credits: Edward S. CurtisCourtesy Dubuque Museum of Art
  4. 4. Arts-to-Sciences is a Continuum! We are all Makers- click here: Makers “Artists” “Scientists and Engineers”Creativity and Vision INNOVATION 460 years Flight Leonardo DaVinci 145 years Equality Abraham Lincoln 60 years Cell Phones Chester Gould 54 years World Wide Web Paul Otlet
  5. 5. Part 1- 2D to 3D Process Overview Perceived versus Real 3D Picture Selection Image Preparation Depth Creation Texture Mapping Frame Features 3D Printing
  6. 6. Overview- To convert 2D photographs into solid 3D prints: 1. First convert the picture into grayscale where every pixel is assigned a value between 0 and 255- with 0 being pure black and 255 being pure white. 2. Using CAD software, map these pixels as a surface in space using heightfields with the darker pixels being ‘low’ and the lighter pixels being ‘high’. 3. Next, map the original colors back onto the surface and give it thickness. 4. Next, use CAD tools to create a frame and other features. 5. Then, save the model as an .stl file. 6. Finally, print out the .stl file on a 3D color printer.
  7. 7. Perceived versus Real 3D Phobos Anaglyphs create an illusion- wear your glasses! (Stereopsis is Greek for “Solid Sight”)Phobos Imaged by HiRISE (PSP_007769_9010) Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
  8. 8. Perceived versus Real 3D Can you see the shark in the Autostereogram? (Hint: cross your eyes a little to line up the stripes and engage binocular disparity)Source: Wikipedia; Image Credits: Fred Hsu and Xiong Chiamiov
  9. 9. Picture SelectionChoose your subject, any subject.(e.g., Architecture, Art, Babies, Nature, People, Sentimental, Tattoos, Vintage, X-Rays…)
  10. 10. Picture Selection- Shadows Beware of shadows, they can create false depth. (Remember, the algorithm interprets dark as “low”)
  11. 11. Picture Selection- Light Light is just a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes are able to detect and our brains are able to interpret. (There‟s so much more out there!)Source: Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory
  12. 12. Picture Selection- ColorColors in your photo need to be converted tograyscale- which consists of divisions of thediagonal line from K to W in the color cube.(K is „pure black‟ and W is „pure white‟. There are usually 256divisions in grayscale which, by the way, equals 2^8…hmm)
  13. 13. Image Preparation Make multiple copies of your photo to highlight certain areas that you wish to accentuate or de-emphasize the height of. (These layer copies will be stacked upon each other in your CAD model to create a net height in the final geometry)Image Credit: Mosa Mohave by Edward S. CurtisCourtesy Dubuque Museum of Art
  14. 14. Depth Creation Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their children When you stack these layers as surfaces, be careful to search for the balance between a bas-relief look and 3D ‘Realism’. (Try to avoid debating the Turing Test- click here: Robot )Source: Wikipedia; Image Credit: Gerbil from de.wikipedia
  15. 15. Depth CreationYou create the surfaces (meshes)using heightfields generated from thestacked picture layers.(Meshes are essentially a collection of XYZ pointcoordinates which define a surface. Many CAD softwarepackages can create meshes and heightfields.)
  16. 16. Texture Mapping Full image size: 748 X 1024 Pixels Using the Texture Map function, superimpose the original jpeg back onto the 3D surface you created. Then, give the surface thickness. (jpeg is a type of file that compresses pixel location information and the CMKY/RGB color values)Image Credit: Mosa Mohave by Edward S. CurtisCourtesy Dubuque Museum of Art
  17. 17. Frame CreationIntersection Union DifferenceRemember that ‘Set Theory’ stuff youlearned in, like, 5’th grade? Mathematicianscall these Boolean Operations.(Software uses Boolean math in order to intersect, combine orsubtract areas or volumes from CAD generated geometry)
  18. 18. Frame CreationHere’s an example of a CAD generatedSphere, Box and Pentacone (is that a word?).Actually, it’s a pentagonal pyramid.(Taking the Box and subtracting out the other two volumes usingthe Boolean Difference operation leaves you with, ehhh…., a ratherinteresting shape)
  19. 19. Frame Creation If you create two boxes using CAD software and then Boolean Difference out the smaller one, you get a frame. (Use the same principles to create other features like keyhole hangers. Intersect these with the 3D surfaces you created from your original picture.)Image Credit: Edward S. CurtisCourtesy Dubuque Museum of Art
  20. 20. 3D Printing- .stl filesMost 3D Printers recognize a certaintype of CAD output file called .stl.(An .stl file contains the coordinate information of thetriangular facets from your CAD geometry. This fileformat allows efficient encoding of the CAD data.)
  21. 21. 3D Printing- TypesSend your .stl file to a 3D printer andVoilà!- you get a physical part in 3D Color.(Actually, there are now many types of Additive Manufacturingmachines and processes utilizing a plethora of materials. Theseare sometimes referred to collectively as 3D Printers.)Watch the following videos to learn more: 3D or 3D Deux or 3D Trois
  22. 22. Future Presentation Thoughts
  23. 23. Part 2- Arts/Sciences Connections Proportions _______________ Fibonacci Numbers Color and Light _____________ Electromagnetic Spectrum, Waves or Particles? Shadows _________________ Grayscale 3D ______________________ Stereopsis, Rods and Cones Analog Photography _________ Chemistry Digital Photography _________ DLP’s, Telescopes Jpegs ____________________Fast Fourier Transforms Form ____________________ Mathematical Surfaces Drawing _________________ CAD Sculpture ________________ Additive Manufacturing
  24. 24. e.g.; Fibonacci Numbers What are they? Why do they matter? Click to play Click to play The Golden Ratio is 1.618 to 1 (Digital Cameras have Image Formats in the proportions of… hmm)Source: Wikipedia; Fibonacci Image Credit: Rodhullandemu, Source=Scanfrom "Mathematical Circus" by Martin Gardner, published 1981
  25. 25. Part 3- “Hands-on” Exercise 1. Take a photograph of your hand 2. Perform the 2D to 3D conversion 3. Print out the part on a 3D Printer
  26. 26. Part 4- Photo MosaicsPhoto Mosaic created using AndreaMosaic
  27. 27. ResourcesAnd there are many, manymore, just google 3D Printing.
  28. 28. Questions and Comments?