GIS And Environmental Data
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GIS And Environmental Data

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EarthSoft's Environmental Quality Information System (EQuIS) is among the most popular tools in the world for management of environmental geology and analytical chemistry data. Rapidly becoming a......

EarthSoft's Environmental Quality Information System (EQuIS) is among the most popular tools in the world for management of environmental geology and analytical chemistry data. Rapidly becoming a standard for numerous consulting firms and regulatory agencies--both in the U.S. and overseas--the extensive capabilities and comprehensive data model have made EQuIS a favorite among data managers. However, even the most junior-level staff can easily produce the desired reports and results using the suite of interfaces to many industry-standard tools for visualization and analysis.

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  • Presentation given Monday, August 12, 2002 to the Hong Kong GIS Association at Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Presentation given Wednesday, August 14, 2002 to the Environmental Engineering Society of Singapore, National University of Singapore.

Transcript

  • 1. GIS and Environmental Data: Better Decisions through Effective Management, Visualization, and Analysis GIS and Environmental Data: Better Decisions through Effective Management, Visualization, and Analysis Scot D. Weaver, MSCE August 2002
  • 2.
    • Our Polluted Past
    • Protecting Our Environment
    • The Data Management Problem
    • Solving the Data Management Problem
    • Environmental Data in ArcGIS
    • Case Studies
    Agenda
  • 3. Our Polluted Past
  • 4. A Familiar Example: Love Canal A Familiar Example: Love Canal
  • 5. Protecting our Environment: USA Protecting our Environment: USA
    • 1970: US Environmental Protection Agency formed
    • 1980: CERCLA, or “Superfund” enacted
    • Fund of $1.6B for cleaning up abandoned and hazardous waste sites
    • Required responsible parties to clean up releases of hazardous substances
  • 6. Protecting our Environment: Hong Kong Protecting our Environment: Hong Kong
    • 1.6M+ m 3 of waste flow into Victoria Harbour daily.
    • Water quality in Repulse Bay 52x worse than European standards.
    In early 1970s… GIS and Environmental Data
  • 7. Protecting our Environment: Hong Kong Protecting our Environment: Hong Kong
    • 1974: Environmental Resources Ltd. commissioned to investigate need for environmental controls
    • 1975: Environment Branch
    • 1977: Environmental Protection Unit
    • 1981: Environmental Protection Agency
    • 1986: Environmental Protection Department
  • 8. Protecting our Environment: Singapore Protecting our Environment: Singapore In 1960s-1970s… … Singapore confronts air/water/waste disposal issues.
  • 9. Protecting our Environment: Singapore Protecting our Environment: Singapore
    • 1972: Ministry of the Environment
    • 1980: Major policy review leads to Singapore green plan “Toward a Model Green City”
    • 1990: National Council on the Environment
    • 1992: UN Conf. on Environment and Development
    • 1995: Singapore Environment Council
    • 2002: National Environment Agency
  • 10. Protecting our Environment Protecting our Environment Wherever we are, environmental regulations require us to reduce and eliminate contamination.
    • Drilling
    • CPT/Geophysical
    • Well Installation
    • Excavation
    • Field Analyses
    • Lab Analyses
    • Other
  • 11. Protecting our Environment Protecting our Environment Each activity produces data which must be managed!
  • 12. Hamilton Army Airfield Hamilton Army Airfield Hamilton Army Airfield
    • 25 mi. N of San Francisco
    • Novato, Marin County, CA
    • Average elevation of –5 feet
  • 13. Hamilton Army Airfield Hamilton Army Airfield
    • Built in 1930s; bomber/fighter base
    • The most modern military facility of its time
    • In operation until 1974; closed in 1976
    • Surplused by the US military and officially vacated in 1995.
  • 14. “ Landfill” 26
    • Former garbage dump in low-lying area
    • Approximately 15 acres, with impermeable cap of about 26 acres
    “ Landfill” 26
  • 15. “ Landfill” 26
    • Initial investigation showed that Landfill 26 was non-methanogenic
    • Subsequent monitoring has found sporadic methane concentrations beginning in 1998
    “ Landfill” 26
  • 16. The Data Management Problem
    • Additional investigation and remediation has taken place at the Landfill and in surrounding areas
    The Data Management Problem
    • Most data were managed as hard copy, bound reports
    • Some attempts to use spreadsheets, databases
    • No GIS
  • 17. The Data Management Problem: Accessing Historical Data
    • Problem 1: Accessing Historical Data
    The Data Management Problem
  • 18.
    • Problem 2: Utilizing Historic and Electronic Data
    The Data Management Problem ?
  • 19. The Data Management Problem: No Spatial or Integrated Analysis Data Borehole Log Data Groundwater Modeling Data Solid Modeling Data GIS The Data Management Problem
    • Problem 3: No Spatial or Integrated Analysis
  • 20. Summarizing the Data Management Problem The Data Management Problem
    • Problem 1: Accessing Historical Data
    • Problem 2: Entering/Utilizing Electronic Data
    • Problem 3: No Spatial or Integrated Analysis
    • Also multiple organizations are often involved in a specific site project…
      • Contractors (Field Data)
      • Analytical Laboratory
      • State/Province/Local Environmental Agency
      • National Agencies
  • 21. The Data Management Problem: The Result? Data that cannot be used effectively and efficiently are as good as no data at all! The Data Management Problem
    • Tendency to manage volumes of paper documents
    • Lack of quality control on data - moving between different systems/spreadsheets
    • Poor communications between participants
    • Problematic data exchange
    The result?
  • 22. Solving the Data Management Problem
      • With tools to check & validate data
      • Links to many visualization and analysis tools
      • That utilizes GIS as a spatial organizational tool and interface for all elements of the system
    Solving the Data Management Problem What is needed is an integrated data management system…
  • 23. The Data “Hostage” Scenario The Data “Hostage” Scenario Data
    • Proprietary Database
    • no ‘back-door’ access
    • developer’s schedule
    • cost
    • locked into their tools
    • low/no-volume
    • Modeling Application
    • Reporting/Logging
    • Groundwater Modeling
    • Visualization
  • 24. Open Systems Architecture….empowers the User Data … empowers the User Open Systems Architecture… Graphical User Interface/ Data Management System
    • User Interface/DMS
    • Interface front-end to DB
    • Checking, loading data
    • Reporting, modeling, etc.
    • Direct DB Access
    • Customization
    • Queries
    • Build tools/applications
  • 25. What is EQuIS?
    • EarthSoft’s E nvironmental Qu ality I nformation S ystem
    • Integrated data management for analytical chemistry, geology, hydrology, and more...
    • Not graphics, but it is integrated with many visualization and analysis applications
    EQuIS Is... What is EQuIS?
  • 26. The Data Management System ArcView/ArcGIS EQuIS Field Sampling and Data Collection Electronic Data Checking Samples to Laboratory Laboratory Test Results, QA/QC The Data Management System
  • 27. What is EQuIS for ArcGIS? What is EQuIS for ArcGIS?
    • Tool that facilitates analysis, visualization, and assessment of environmental data in a spatial environment.
    • Extension to ESRI’s ArcGIS (also for ArcView 3.x)
    • Functions in 2D and 3D environments
  • 28. What is EQuIS for ArcGIS? What is EQuIS for ArcGIS?
  • 29. EQuIS for ArcGIS: View Lithology EQuIS for ArcGIS: View Lithology
  • 30. EQuIS for ArcGIS: Contaminant Correlation
    • Chemical concentrations:
      • In ArcMap using pie chart symbology
      • In 3D Analyst using Multivariate Sphere Multipatches (“beach balls”)
    EQuIS for ArcGIS: Contaminant Correlation
  • 31. EQuIS for ArcGIS: Contaminant Correlation EQuIS for ArcGIS: Contaminant Correlation
  • 32. EQuIS for ArcGIS: 3D Features EQuIS for ArcGIS: 3D Features
  • 33. Hamilton Army Airfield in ArcMap Hamilton Army Airfield in ArcMap
  • 34. Landfill 26 Area in ArcMap Landfill 26 Area in ArcMap
  • 35. Landfill 26 Monitoring Locations Landfill 26 Monitoring Locations
  • 36. Landfill 26 Lithology Landfill 26 Lithology
  • 37. Landfill 26 Borehole Log in gINT Landfill 26 Borehole Log in gINT
  • 38. EQuIS, ArcGIS & gINT EQuIS, ArcGIS, & gINT
    • Intuitive, spatial access to geologic/environmental data
    • Context of site features (photos, buildings, etc.)
    • Export to gINT or other industry-standard borehole log products (i.e. LogPlot)
    • Report-quality log for engineering design
  • 39. Landfill 26 Locations in GMS Landfill 26 Locations in GMS
  • 40. Landfill 26 Lithology in GMS Landfill 26 Lithology in GMS
  • 41. Landfill 26 Cross-Sections in GMS Landfill 26 Cross-Sections in GMS
  • 42. Landfill 26 Cross-Sections in GMS Landfill 26 Cross-Sections in GMS
  • 43. Hydrostratigraphic Probability Model in GMS Hydrostratigraphic Probability Model in GMS
  • 44. EQuIS, ArcGIS, & GMS EQuIS, ArcGIS, & GMS
    • Intuitive, spatial access to geologic/environmental data
    • Context of site features (photos, buildings, etc.)
    • Multiscale geologic interpretation
    • One-click integration with GMS
    • Solid models, hydrostratigraphic models, groundwater models for contaminant fate and transport studies
  • 45. Groundwater Contour in Surfer Up Gradient Down Gradient Groundwater Contour in Surfer North
  • 46. Topography in Surfer, shown in 3D Analyst Topography in Surfer, shown in 3D Analyst
  • 47. EQuIS, ArcGIS, & Surfer EQuIS, ArcGIS, & Surfer
    • Automated creation of contours, grids, vector maps
    • Display in ArcMap (2D) and 3D Analyst (3D)
    • Map or photo may be draped on 3D grid
    • Facilitates understanding of land surface, groundwater flow, contaminant migration
  • 48. Landfill 26 Methane in Residential Area Landfill 26 Methane in Residential Area
  • 49. Landfill 26 Relative Gas Map Landfill 26 Relative Gas Map
  • 50. EQuIS & ArcGIS EQuIS & ArcGIS
    • Perform analyses in ArcMap or 3D Analyst
    • Visually detect trends/problems with data not readily noticeable when viewing tables or reports
    • Produce contaminant maps for site characterization
    • Monitor flow of landfill gas or groundwater contamination
    • Assess effectiveness of remedial implementation
  • 51. Case Study #2: Central & Southern Florida Project Case Study #2 Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 52. Central & Southern Florida Project Central & Southern Florida Project
    • 1850 – “Swamp and Overflowed Lands Act”
    • By 1921, 2,000 people inhabited ‘lake’ regions
  • 53. Central & Southern Florida Project
    • Hurricanes in ’26 and ’28 killed thousands, destroyed much property
    Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 54. Central & Southern Florida Project
    • 1947 – 100” rainfall and two more hurricanes brought 90% of SE Florida under water
    • $59M damage
    Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 55. Central & Southern Florida Project
    • June 30, 1948 – Central & Southern Florida (C&SF) Project
    “ improve flood control, water level control, water conservation, prevention of salt water intrusion, and the preservation of fish and wildlife” Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 56. Central & Southern Florida Project
    • Construction began in 1950
    • ~2,000 miles of levees and canals, 30 pumping stations, many locks, bridges, other structures
    Central & Southern Florida Project C&SF Was A Success!
  • 57. Central & Southern Florida Project
    • C&SF also caused tremendous ecological damage to the Everglades
      • 70% decrease in water flow
      • Poor water quality
      • Reduction, extinction in some cases, of plant and animal species
    • Now, a new project on the horizon…
    Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 58. Central & Southern Florida Project
    • Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP)
      • 20 years
      • $8 billion
      • Maintain flood protection while restoring ecological health to 2.4+ million acres
    Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 59. Central & Southern Florida Project 50 years of C&SF has generated immense quantities of data (hydrologic, geotechnical) Is the data usable? Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 60. Central & Southern Florida Project Jacksonville District needed an electronic data management system: Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 61. Central & Southern Florida Project
    • US Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District chose EQuIS to manage C&SF data
    • Pilot project populated with borehole, well, lithology data
    • Ultimately will make decades of data accessible for future restoration work
    Central & Southern Florida Project
  • 62. Case Study #3: South Weymouth Naval Air Station Case Study #3 South Weymouth Naval Air Station
  • 63. South Weymouth Naval Air Station South Weymouth Naval Air Station
    • US Navy Airfield in use 1955-1972
    • In May 1994, placed on National Priorities List
    • Air station closed September 30, 1997
    • Phase I identified 94 potential environmental concerns
    • 53 item areas to receive further investigation (analytical data collection)
  • 64. South Weymouth Naval Air Station
    • Soil, groundwater, surface water, sediment data collected
    • Over 100,000 analytical results loaded and validated
    South Weymouth Naval Air Station
  • 65. South Weymouth Naval Air Station
    • Output:
      • Well construction diagrams created by exporting data from EQuIS to LogPlot
      • Summary tables and reports
      • ArcView project for spatial analysis and presentation
      • Summary data presented using ArcIMS
    South Weymouth Naval Air Station
  • 66.  
  • 67. Case Study #4: Camp Ripley Case Study #4 Camp Ripley
  • 68. Camp Ripley Camp Ripley
    • State-of-the-art military training facility
    • 53,000 acres west of Mississippi
    • Primary winter training site in US
  • 69. Camp Ripley
    • Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan (INRMP)
      • Conservation
      • Ecosystem
      • Forest
      • Wild Life
      • Land Use
      • Pests
    • A more robust solution needed for environmental concerns and proactive water resources
    Camp Ripley
  • 70. Camp Ripley
    • DMA contracted with University of Minnesota
    • Plan for management of geologic, analytical, water chemistry value:
      • Core database system
      • User interface for accessing, managing data
      • Integration with modeling and analysis tools
      • GIS component
    • Comprehensive Water Management Plan (CWMP), founded on EQuIS
    Camp Ripley
  • 71. Camp Ripley
    • Three-phase implementation proposed:
    • PHASE I
    • Compile historic data into standard format
    • Construct computer models
    • Establish the framework for building the Comprehensive Water Management Plan
    Camp Ripley
  • 72. Camp Ripley
    • Three-phase implementation proposed:
    • PHASE I
    • PHASE II
    • Enhance the data set providing control
    • Refine computer flow models
    Camp Ripley
  • 73. Camp Ripley
    • PHASE I
    • PHASE II
    • PHASE III
    • Water Management Tools
      • EQuIS
      • ArcView User Interface Applications
      • Groundwater and Surface Water Sensitivity/ Vulnerability Models
      • Semi-automation of report and permit applications
      • Water Quality Sampling Plans
    Camp Ripley
  • 74. Camp Ripley: Phase I Phase I - Database Development
    • 60+ Reports Reviewed and Cataloged
    • 250+ Environmental Borings and Well Logs Investigated
    • 275+ Well Logs Surrounding Camp Ripley Input
    • 3000+ Analytical Results
    Camp Ripley
  • 75. ArcView GIS Displaying Geologic Data GEOLOGIC DATABASE
  • 76. Geology/Hydrostratigraphy Geology/Hydrostratigraphy Driller’s Description Hydrostratigraphic Interpretation
  • 77. Solids Modeling in GMS Solids Modeling in GMS
  • 78. CHEMISTRY DATABASE Query and Display
  • 79. Existing Site Proposed Expansion
    • Groundwater Flow
    • Depth to Water Table
    • Geology
    Normandy Road Cody Road M-Range
  • 80. Groundwater Flow: Potentiometric Data Groundwater Flow: Potentiometric Data Proposed Landfarm Expansion Up Gradient Down Gradient North
  • 81. 1 4 1180 1180 1210 2, 3
  • 82. Camp Ripley: What Does it Mean? Camp Ripley: What Does it Mean? Using GIS and proactive management strategies will allow better decisions at lower cost.
  • 83. Case Study #5: Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Case Study #5 Colorado Dept. of Public Health And Environment: Municipal Solid Waste Landfill
  • 84. Colorado Site Analysis Management System (SAMS)
  • 85. Site 1 Site 1
    • Unlined municipal solid waste landfill
    • In operation since 1968
    • Northern area 60 acres
    • Southern area 259 acres (future expansion)
    • Groundwater monitoring system installed in 1990
  • 86. Site 1 Site 1
    • MW-4A background well: upgradient water quality
    • MW-2 compliance well: downgradient water quality
  • 87. Site 1 Site 1
    • Natural ponding started around MW-3 in October 1995
    • Retention pond created in 1996
    • East cell capped in November 1997
  • 88. Site 1 Site 1
  • 89. Site 1 Site 1
    • In addition to water levels, statistically significant trend of increasing bicarbonate and other inorganics
    • Theory that capping restricted from escaping to atmosphere, forced into new migration path; proposed extraction system
  • 90. Site 1 Site 1
    • MW-9 installed, September 1998
    • MW-10 installed, September 1998
    • Elevated organics have not been found in MW-9
  • 91. Site 1 Site 1 EQuIS In 1998, all available geologic and chemistry data were loaded into EQuIS
    • For GIS, topos and aerial photos were obtained.
    • Geospatial locations obtained with GPS
    … more sophisticated temporal, chemical, and geologic depiction of the site
  • 92. Site 1: Geologic Cross-Section Site 1 Geologic cross-section...
    • verified alluvium underlying stream system created area of high permeability
    • MW-9 across channel from MW-2, and not directly downgradient
  • 93. Site 1: Observations Site 1
    • Observations:
    • After capping, water levels start to decrease
    • Observed that bicarbonate concentrations increased with water levels, but did not decrease in the same manner
    • Organics increase at final capping, start to drop with gas extraction
  • 94. Site 1: Conclusions Site 1 Conclusions: 1. Elevated bicarbonate concentrations not related to capping, but to water levels. Increase in alkalinity is often observed where water levels rise above previous saturated zone. 2. Methylene Chloride, other organics not directly related to rise in water levels. 3. Gas extraction system effectively decreasing organic concentrations. 4. Use of integrated data management system brings into question the usefulness of data from MW-9.
  • 95. Case Study #6: Metal Plating Shop Case Study #6 Colorado Dept. of Public Health And Environment: Metal Plating Shop
  • 96. Site 2 Site 2
    • Defunct metal plating shop
    • Out of compliance with numerous regulations
    • Closed by EPA in early 1990s
    • 100 yards of soil removed to eliminate source
    • 2 monitoring wells installed, which showed cyanide and metals
  • 97. Site 2 Site 2
    • Not known if all contaminated material removed
    • Possibility that chemicals moving into nearby stream
    • Stream flowed into a river just below the site
    • Municipal drinking water intake serving 30,000 people
    • Drinking water well within 90 feet of property
  • 98. Site 2: Questions Site 2
    • Questions:
    • 1. Was groundwater flowing towards stream?
    • 2. Was contaminated groundwater influencing water quality?
    • 3. Was drinking water intake in jeopardy? Well affected?
    • GIS project constructed and sampling plan developed:
    • 11 monitoring wells and 9 borings installed
    • Groundwater and surface water samples taken
    • Monitoring well elevations determined by survey, locations by GPS
    • Lithology, well completion data, water levels loaded into EQuIS
  • 99. Site 2: Results Site 2 Results: 1. Cross-sections showed bedrock high, which influenced flow 2. High prohibited groundwater flow towards stream 3. Although there was residual contamination, study showed that further remedial action was unnecessary.
  • 100. In Conclusion In Conclusion
    • Many contaminated sites have a long history of environmental activities, and have generated large amounts of data.
    • In the past, the only option for putting all the pieces together was time-consuming, expensive, and manual.
    • When non-integrated software was used, it required entry of the same data many times.
    • Implementing EQuIS & GIS allows truly integrated analysis and evaluation, resulting in better decisions and more efficient response.
  • 101. Thank You! Thank You! www.earthsoft.com