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Data Facilties Workshop - Panel on Global Data Sharing Exemplars


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This series of presentations was given at the EarthCube Data Facilities End-User Workshop held January 15-17, 2014 in Washington, DC. This workshop provided a forum to discuss the unique requirements …

This series of presentations was given at the EarthCube Data Facilities End-User Workshop held January 15-17, 2014 in Washington, DC. This workshop provided a forum to discuss the unique requirements and challenges associated with developing the communication, collaboration, interoperability, and governance structures that will be required to build EarthCube in conjunction with existing and emerging NSF/GEO facilities.

This panel and presentation, specifically, outlined and explained several exemplars in global data sharing, featuring:

Lindsay Powers (CoopEUS)
Tim Ahern (GEO/GEOSS)
Bernard Minster (World Data System)
Beth Plale (Research Data Alliance)

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  • Strengthening the cooperation between the US and the EU in the field of environmental research infrastructuresMost of you are building tools and infrastructure for data COOPEUS is building an international and interdisciplinary community based framework for data interoperability and accessDiversity of RI experience fostering mentoring and sharing internationallyBuilding a framework for cross-disciplinary engagement through data interoperability and interworkability – through use casesEngaging broad community beyond immediate CoopEUS partners
  • How:Bringing RIs together toward common goalsStandardizing data policies, protocols, metadata, access systemsUnderstanding where differences exist and whyThinking about the future of data requirements and accessibilityCreating a culture of open data
  • 82% of COOPEUS RIs provide metadata and metadata catalogues for archived datasets and nearly all of these are available electronicallyThere is uniformity in data formats (ASCII and/or XML)
  • Sometimes, we have been asked or even claimed what is the difference between our GCI and Google.Currently, even in Earth observation community, you, even I, go to Google, and you may get easily what you want. In order to identify our role clearly, we need to recognize ourselves what are the differences.READ SLIDESIn the end, again, while Google services are for more general public in every contents on internet, GCI provides a specialized services for discovering and accessing of Earth observation data and information.
  • GEOSS has had about 11 million accesses (data granules) largely coming from 20-30 international repositories
  • Transcript

    • 1. PANEL DISCUSSION – GLOBAL DATA SHARING EXEMPLARS EarthCube Data Facilities Workshop Wednesday, January 15th 2014
    • 2. Building communities around environmental data interoperability Lindsay Powers Hank Loescher National Ecological Observatory Network
    • 3. COOPEUS Goals COOPEUS aims to catalyze international collaboration between environmental research infrastructures by: • Improving data accessibility through harmonization of data policies • Promoting interoperability of research infrastructures by coordinating data and metadata formats, measurement standards and accessibility • By improving data and information quality by defining basic requirements for QA/QC
    • 4. COOPEUS Governance Structure US/EU Strategic Cooperation Board Work Packages 1 Management US Steering Committee Project Coordinator 7 Harmonize data/ policy standards EU Steering Committee Project Coordinator 8 Harmonize infrastructural frameworks 3 Carbon Observation ICOS 6 Biodiversity LIFEWATCH AMISR/SRI 2 Space Weather EISCAT OOI 4 Ocean Observations EMSO EARTHSCOPE (UNAVCO/IRIS) 5 Solid Earth Dynamics EPOS NEON
    • 5. COOPEUS accomplishments to date • Strong commitment to open data sharing across institutions and countries • Established COOPEUS data sharing principles. • Gap analysis across RIs identified commonalities and differences in data policies; metadata formats, accessibility; data standards, and archiving. • High level of data and metadata standardization and accessibility among COOPEUS RIs • Primary weaknesses in standardized data portals/access points • Minimizing barriers to data sharing by identifying and removing obsolete policies. • Identifying and discussing ethical, cultural and institutional requirements for data sharing. • Establishing a Roadmap and long-term plan for data interoperability • Engaging and building the community • Workshops on Data Policy Harmonization, Persistent Identifiers, Carbon Observation data usage and more to come
    • 6. Current activities within COOPEUS? Use case development • Develop relationships to explore interdisciplinary questions • Identify strengths and weaknesses in cross-disciplinary data use Work Package topical workshops Develop Roadmap for Interoperability across RIs • Provide guidance to RIs in policies and practices • Foster community building to encourage implementation of COOPEUS recommendations across environmental RIs
    • 7. COOPEUS and beyond…. What does the community need? How do we improve the culture of open data? How do we foster additional and stronger relationships? • Create opportunities for broader participation • Make room for institutional flexibility How do we address challenges on: • Maintaining data visibility • Preserving data and accessibility in long-term • Maintaining trust and integrity • Maintain context and provenance • Protecting privacy rights The strength of COOPEUS is in building and fostering communities concurrent with a framework around data interoperability.
    • 8. - Interdisciplinary work: Biodiversity Space Weather Ocean observations Carbon observations Solid Earth dynamics
    • 9. GEO & GEOSS Tim Ahern IRIS Jay Pearlman J&FE EarthCube Data Facilities Workshop Arlington, VA January 15 2014 © GEO Secretariat
    • 10. Rationale • Some 30% of the world’s economy is tied to the environment • Systematic understanding of the Earth system is fundamental for well-informed and economically-efficient decision making • Sustained Earth observations are critical in understanding the Earth • Need for systems interoperability and open data access A global approach to Earth observation is required!
    • 11. Earth Observation Summit U.S. Department of State, Washington DC, 31 July 2003
    • 12. GEO - The Group on Earth Observations Created in 2005, to develop a coordinated and sustained Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) to enhance decision making in nine Societal Benefit Areas. GEO today: • 90 Members • 67 Participating Organizations
    • 13. GEO Vision To realize a future wherein decisions and actions, for the benefit of humankind, are informed by coordinated, comprehensive and sustained Earth observations and information.
    • 14. GEO Objectives • Improve and coordinate observation systems • Advance broad open data policies/practices • Foster increased use of EO data and information • Build capacity
    • 15. GEOSS • Global Earth Observation System of Systems • Coordinated, comprehensive and sustained system • A global distributed system, which includes: – Satellite observation systems, – Global in situ networks and systems, and – Local and regional in situ networks. – A discovery and access system for data and information
    • 16. GEOSS Objectives • Facilitate exchange of data and information • Improve decision-makers’ abilities to address pressing policy issues • Enable solutions for the benefit of the society • Deliver the advantages of EO to both data & information providers and consumers world wide
    • 17. Targeted Issues • Uncertainty over continuity of observations • Large spatial and temporal gaps in specific data sets • Limited access to data and associated benefits in developing world • Inadequate data integration and interoperability • Lack of relevant processing systems to transform data into useful information • Inadequate user involvement • Eroding or little technical infrastructure in many parts of the world
    • 18. GEOSS Role
    • 19. GEOSS: for scientists • GEO is a framework to promote international cooperation.  Earth observing systems of the future: built by scientists, informed by GEO.  bringing together data architecture experts, scientists, users, and capacity-building specialists.  visibility as data/networks/systems contributed to GEOSS. potential support for research leading to GEOSS implementation.
    • 20. Societal Benefit Areas
    • 21. Rapid & Open Disasters Information (Germany, Italy, Japan, Turkey, USA, CEOS, EPOS, ESA) * Hawaii Supersite fully operational * 3 new Supersites (Europe) * Supersites selection & definition * In-situ and space data * All data online © GEO Secretariat
    • 22. Cold Regions Monitoring (Canada, China, Denmark, Germany, Norway, India, Ital y, Japan, Spain, USA, ICIMOD, IEEE, WCRP, WMO) * CryoClim climate monitoring service * Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System * Sea-ice ECV for Arctic/ Antarctic snow-cover * Focus on Tibetan Plateau * Glacier dynamics mapping © GEO Secretariat
    • 23. GEO Biodiversity Observation Network (France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, South Africa, USA, Diversitas, GBIF, IUCN) High-resolution bioclimatic map of the world * Response to CBD * Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) * Global high-res bio-climatic map * Arctic and French Biodiversity Networks * Strong outreach Metzger et al.- in review. © GEO Secretariat
    • 24. Global Forest Information System (Australia, Canada, Japan, Norway, USA, CEOS, FAO) * Forest Carbon Tracking ongoing * Demo in 12 countries (Congo) Mexico Columbia * Coordinated space data acquisition * In-situ validation * Regional capacity building growing (US Silvacarbon) In-situ forest measurements © GEO Secretariat
    • 25. New Energy Tools and Services (Austria, EC, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, USA, CEOS, IRENA) * Global Atlas for Solar & Wind Energy * Operational tools * High-res energy data for private investment * Impact scenarios for solar, wind, biomass * Impact indicators for mineral industry © GEO Secretariat
    • 26. Supporting Data Access and Use GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) GEOSS Portal Discovery and Access Broker Resource Registration Earth observations data, information and services
    • 27. GCI Capabilities GCI is a specialized system supporting Discovery, Evaluation and Access of Multidisciplinary Earth observations • Search – Searches on content, location, and time in EO datasets – Support Semantic Discovery across disciplinary vocabularies – Paging and ranking of matching results • Evaluation – Preview – Harmonization of metadata • Access & Use – Download distributed data – Basic transformations to utilize accessed data
    • 28. GCI Architecture Discovery & Access GEOSS User GEO Web Portal GEOSS Common Infrastructure GEOSS Registries: •Standards & Interoperability •User Requirements •Best Prac ces Wiki Discovery and Access Broker (DAB) Service Monitoring Integrated/Federated EO Discovery/Access Systems Clearinghouse (CH) Register Seman c Component* Component & Service Registry (CSR) e.g. GENESI, CWIC, FedEO* real- me search Resources Providers GEOSS Resources harvest Services and SW Applica ons * Prototype capabili es e.g. So ware, Data Access, Processing, Community Portals, Documents data data EO data Catalogues & Repositories e.g. IDN, INSPIRE,
    • 29. Interoperability Brokers
    • 30. GEO Looking forward • Facilitating international collaboration based on international, national and local programs • Encourage international sharing of data and information for science, government, NGOs and industry
    • 31. Thank you Tim Ahern Jay Pearlman
    • 32. ICSU World Data System Trusted Data Services for Global Science
    • 33. ICSU, WDS and CODATA
    • 34. ICSU, WDS and CODATA „ICSU‟s long-term vision is of a world where excellence in science is effectively translated into policy making and socio-economic development. In such a world, universal and equitable access to scientific data and information is a reality and all countries have the scientific capacity to use these and to contribute to generating the new knowledge that is necessary to establish their own development pathways in a sustainable manner.’
    • 35. Foundation ICSU 29th General Assembly in Maputo (2008) decided: • To confirm that ICSU will continue to assert a strategic leadership role in relation to scientific data and information; • to establish a new ICSU-World Data System as an Interdisciplinary Body to replace the World Data Centres and FAGS
    • 36. ICSU Data Track Record PAST PRESENT
    • 37. WDS Scientific Committee 2012-2015 • Bernard Minster (Chair, USA) • Michael Diepenbroek (Germany) • Kim Finney (Australia) • Françoise Genova (France) • Wim Hugo (South Africa) • Jane Hunter (Australia) • Vasily Kopylov (Russian Fed.) • Guoqing Li (China) • Ruth Neilan (USA) • Lesley Rickards (UK) • Ryosuke Shibasaki (Japan) • Ariel Troisi (Argentina) Ex-Officio • Howard Moore (ICSU) • Yasuhiro Murayama (NICT)
    • 38. WDS implementation 1. Constitution 2. Data policy 3. Certification criteria and Membership Applications 4. International Programme Office 5. Working Groups 6. Strategic Plan
    • 39. WDS - a "system of data systems" • ...of data archive centres, data analysis centres, data producers, data developers, data observing systems and networks, virtual observatories, etc., both regional (including national) and global • Tough concept to address until WDS is fully developed... ICSTI Workshop, Paris 2012
    • 40. One node? … Or many? IGS Associate Members External Interfaces Governing Board Oversight IAG/GGOS IERS BIPM ICSU/WDS UNOOSA/ICG Product Coordinators Committees of the GB Executive Committee Strategic Planning Committee Elections Committee Infrastructure Committee Analysis Coordinator Reference Frame Clock Products Central Bureau Executive Management Network Coordination Information Portal Support Organizations IGS Institute UNAVCO Pilot Projects and Working Groups Antenna WG Bias & Calibration WG Clock Product WG Data Centers WG GNSS WG Ionosphere WG LEO WG Real-time WG Reference Frame WG Troposphere WG Tide Gauge PP ICSTI Workshop, Paris 2012 Analysis Centers Global Network ACs Global Network AACs Regional Network AACs Other AACs (Ionosphere, Real-time) Data Centers Global Data Centers Regional Data Centers Operational Data Centers Project Data Centers IGS Tracking Stations Reference Frame Stations Multi GNSS Stations Real-time Stations Application Stations (e.g. Tide Gauge, Timing) International Association for Geodesy/Global Geodetic Observing System (IAG/GGOS) International Earth Rotation and Reference Frame Service (IERS) Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) International Council for Science/Word Data Systems (ICSU/WDS) United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs/International Committee on GNSS (UNOOSA/ICG) Analysis Center (AC) Associate Analysis Center (AAC)
    • 41. WDS implementation Membership types Regular Data curation and data analysis services. (Individual data centres, data services) Network Networks of regular members, umbrella organizations (IODE, IVOA…) Partner Do not deal directly with data collection, curation, and distribution, but contribute support to WDS Associate Organizations interested in the WDS endeavour
    • 42. WDS implementation WDS Membership (12/2013) • • • • 53 8 2 13 Regular Members Network Members Partner Members Associate Members
    • 43. WDS implementation WDS International Programme Office WDS IPO Inauguration, May 2012
    • 44. WDS implementation Strategic Targets Make trusted data services an integral part of international collaborative scientific research • Involve WDS Members more closely into international collaborative scientific research • Promote the use of best practices in international collaborative research programmes Nurture active disciplinary and multidisciplinary scientific data services communities • Support existing communities whose practices serve their members well • Support nascent communities by helping them to identify their needs and to organize their activities • Provide mechanisms that facilitate cross-disciplinary interactions and activities • Contribute towards scientific development by improving the analytical environment
    • 45. WDS implementation Strategic Targets (ctd.) Improve the funding environment • Promote international, national and disciplinary policies that lead to sustainable long-term funding • Engage and work with research funders to increase resources for data services Improve the trust in and quality of open scientific data services • Actively promote policies of full and open access to data at national and international venues • Foster interoperable practices to facilitate data sharing • Facilitate access to, use, and reuse of datasets, in particular for multidisciplinary research Position WDS as the premium global multidisciplinary network for quality assessed data
    • 46. Structure and Architecture Other Netw orks and Systems Metadata & Data Services Visualization & Analysis GEOSS, GMES, WMO-IS, IOC, etc. web portals, catalogue computer systems, virtual labs, GIS systems Publishers commercial, open access, cross-referencing Data Archiving & Publication Facilities Certified repositories Data collection & Processing Facilit ies QA/QC, data products, data rescue Libraries DOI registry, interdisciplinary catalogues Education & Outreach Research Facilities satellites, vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc.
    • 47. Next Steps Other Netw orks and Systems Metadata & Data Services Visualization & Analysis GEOSS, GMES, WMO-IS, IOC, etc. web portals, catalogue computer systems, virtual labs, GIS systems Publishers commercial, open access, cross-referencing Data Archiving & Publication Facilities Certified repositories Data collection & Processing Facilit ies QA/QC, data products, data rescue Libraries DOI registry, interdisciplinary catalogues Education & Outreach Research Facilities satellites, vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc.
    • 48. WDS Working Groups • Knowledge Network and Open Metadata Catalogue Discovering and accessing WDS members’ and networks’ data and services (metadata and “enriched” additional information) • Data Publication Promote and establish data publication concept among data centres, include science publishers and bibliometric service holders, and as part of scholarly publishing. Follow-up of CODATA Data Citation WG and other initiatives.
    • 49. Global Research Data Infrastructure eResearch Australasia 2013
    • 50. Global Research Data Infrastructure International Polar Year (2007–8) 50,000 participants from 63 nations 'Dazzling' science
    • 51. Global Research Data Infrastructure International Polar Year (2007–8) Integrated Data and Information System: IPY-DIS ≠ WDCs + FAGS
    • 52. Global Research Data Infrastructure eResearch Australasia 2013
    • 53. Global Research Data Infrastructure eResearch Australasia 2013
    • 54. Global Research Data Infrastructure eResearch Australasia 2013
    • 55. International coordination to deliver research data Infrastructure
    • 56. International coordination eResearch Australasia 2013
    • 57. International coordination
    • 58. Building Trust eResearch Australasia 2013
    • 59. Building Trust
    • 60. Building Trust
    • 61. Building Trust
    • 62. Building Trust
    • 63. Building Trust • NESTOR seal • DIN standard 31644 , TRAC criteria • ISO standard 16363
    • 64. SciDataCon 2014 Data Integration for Global Sustainability 2–5 November 2014, New Delhi, India 2nd ICSU-WDS Conference & 24th CODATA International Conference eResearch Australasia 2013
    • 67. THANK YOU
    • 68. The Research Data Alliance Beth Plale, Indiana University
    • 69. The Information Age – extraordinary potential for driving Science and bettering Society More Efficient Physical Infrastructure Contribution to a safer and more secure world Transformative strategies for disease treatment and well-being Better goods and services More Research Insights 73
    • 70. Key Driver 1: Data Sharing Accelerating Discovery and Innovation 74
    • 71. Data Sharing is a Global Issue Science, Humanities, Arts Communities 75 Libraries, Archives, Repositorie s, Museums Cyberinfrastructure professionals, data analysts, data center staff, … Data Scientists
    • 72. Key Driver 2: Community effort accelerating impact  76 “Just do it” -- Focused efforts help communities drive tangible progress Creation / adoption of data sharing policies have accelerated research innovation Development of public access shared data collection enabling new results for Alzheimer‟s Practioners work together on interoperability efforts across Earth and environmental science allowing selfgoverned and directed groups to emerge around common issues. Now 25 years old, the Internet Engineering Task Force‟s mission “to make the Internet work better” has resulted in key specifications of Internet common community standards that support innovation MPI Forum photo by Erez Heba, PDB molecule of the month at
    • 73. The Research Data Alliance (RDA)  Global community-driven organization launched in March 2013 to accelerate data-driven innovation  RDA focus is on building the social, organizational and technical infrastructure to  reduce barriers to data sharing and exchange  accelerate the development of coordinated global data infrastructure Plenary 2, Fall 2013 National Academy of Science, DC 77
    • 74. RDA Vision and Mission  Vision: Researchers and innovators openly share data across technologies, disciplines, and countries to address the grand challenges of society.  Mission: RDA builds the social and technical bridges that enable data sharing. 78
    • 75. The RDA Community today: Over 1000 members from 55 countries Asia 3% Africa 2% Asia-pacific 4% South America 1% 79
    • 76. Goal of RDA Infrastructure: Support Data Sharing and Interoperability Across Cultures, Scales, Technologies  Common metadata types for data Interoperability  Persistent identifiers  Harmonized standards  Digital object identifiers  Data access and preservation policy and practice  Tools for data discoverability, … Harmonized standards Policy and Practice 80
    • 77. CREATE  ADOPT  USE RDA Members come together as  Working Groups – 12-18 month efforts to build, adopt, and use specific pieces of infrastructure  Interest Groups – longer-lived discussion forums that spawn Working Groups as specific pieces of needed infrastructure are identified. Working Group efforts focus on the development and use of data sharing infrastructure  Code, policy, infrastructure, standards, or best practices that are adopted and used by communities to enable data sharing  “Harvestable” efforts for which 12-18 months of work can eliminate a roadblock  Efforts that have substantive applicability to groups within the data community, but may not apply to everyone  Efforts for which working scientists and researchers can start today 81
    • 78. RDA Plenaries: Venue for community building and WG / IG progress Plenary 1  RDA Plenary 1 / Launch  March 2013 in Gothenburg, Sweden  240 participants  3 WG, 9 IG  RDA Plenary 2  September 2013 in Washington, DC Plenary 2  380 participants  6 WG, 17 IG, 5 BOF  Data Citation Summit colocated in RDA “neutral space”  First Organizational Assembly meet-up Beth Plale 8 822
    • 79. RDA Plenaries Emerging as a Data Community “Town Square” Emerging Plenary Format:  All-hands sessions: Place for community networking and exchange of information (funding agencies, data organizations, key stakeholders)  Working sessions: Face-to-face opportunities for global Interest Groups, Working Groups, and BOFs to meet and advance their agendas  Neutral meeting place: Place for multiple groups to meet and form a common agenda and action plan (e.g. Plenary 2 Data Citation Harmonization Summit) 83
    • 80. Coming in 2014 84  RDA Plenary 3  March 26-28, 2014 in Dublin, Ireland  Hosted by Australia and Ireland  Theme: “The Data Sharing community - Playing Your Part”  RDA Plenary 4  September 2014 in The Netherlands  Being planned now … Plenary 3 Plenary 4
    • 81. Community-Driven RDA Groups by Focus Domain Science - focused  Toxicogenomics Interoperability IG  Structural Biology IG  Biodiversity Data Integration IG  Agricultural Data Interoperability IG  Digital History and Ethnography IG  Defining Urban Data Exchange for Science IG  Marine Data Harmonization IG  Materials Data Management IG Reference and Sharing focused Data Stewardship focused  Data Citation IG   Data Categories and Codes WG   Legal Interoperability IG 85 Community Needs focused    Community Capability Model IG Engagement IG Clouds in Developing Countries IG  Preservation e-infrastructure  Long-tail of Research Data IG Research Data Provenance IG   Certification of Digital Publishing Data IG Repositories IG Global Registry of Trusted Data Repositories and Services IG  Base Infrastructure - focused  Metadata IG  Data Foundations and Terminology WG  Big Data Analytics IG  Metadata Standards WG  Data Brokering IG  Practical Policy WG  PID Information Types WG  Data Type Registries WG Domain Repositories IG
    • 82. RDA Community-Driven Groups        Repositories, Data Descriptions Registry Interoperability, DSA-WDS Partnership Working Group on Certification Birds-of-a-Feather (met at Plenary 2) Linked Data Chemical Safety Data Education and Skills  Development in Data Intensive Science Libraries and Research Data Cloud Computing and Data Analysis Training for the Developing World Working Groups        Data Type Registries Persistent Identifier Types Data Foundations and Terminology Metadata Standards Practical Policy Data Categories and Codes WG Case statements being prepared: Citing Dynamic Data, Publishing Data Workflows, Publishing Data Services, Data Bibliometrics, Cost Recovery Models for Interest Groups               Agricultural Data Interoperability Certification of Trusted Repositories (joint with ICSUWDS) Data Citation Metadata Marine Data Harmonization Community Capability Model Engagement Preservation e-Infrastructure Legal Interoperability (joint with CODATA) Defining Urban Data Exchange for Science Marine Data Harmonization Structural Biology Big Data Analytics Data Brokering Blue = new between Plenary 1 and Plenary 2 Green = new since Plenary 2              86 Publishing Data (joint with WDS) Toxicogenomics Interoperability Research Data Provenance Materials Data Management Global Registry of Trusted Data Repositories and Services Digital Practices in History and Ethnography Biodiversity Data Integration Long tail of Research Data Development of cloud computing capacity and education in developing world Service Management IG (pending) Domain Repositories Interest Group (pending) Federated Identity Management (pending) Persistent Identifier Interest Group – PID-IG (pending)
    • 83. 87 RDA Organizational Structure RDA Council RDA Membership Responsible for overarching mission, vision, impact of RDA Secretary-General and Secretariat Technical Advisory Board Responsible for Technical roadmap and interactions Responsible for administration and operations Organizational Advisory Board and Organizational Assembly Responsible for organizational and strategic advice Working Groups Responsible for impactful, outcome-oriented efforts Interest Groups Responsible for defining and refining common issues RDA Colloquium (Research Funders) Operational and community sponsorship
    • 84. RDA Organizational Partners Member Applicants • Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard • Barcelona Supercomputing Center • Intersect Australia Limited • European Data Infrastructure (EUDAT) • Microsoft • International Association of STM Publishers • Oracle • New Zealand eScience Infrastructure • STFC - Science & Technology Facilities Council • Washington University Libraries • Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) • Purdue University Libraries • Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Network • Research Data Canada • University of Michigan Libraries • eResearch Services and Scholarly Application Development Division of Information Services Interested Affiliates • American University Library • Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) Other interested Organizations • Connecting Research and Researchers (ORCID) • Australian Antarctic Data Centre • DataCite • Australian National Data Service • International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) • CERN • CJSD Consulting • Columbia University Libraries/Information Services • CSC - IT Center for Science Ltd. • Digital Curation Centre • IBM • Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) • World Data System (WDS) 88
    • 85.