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  • CMP: Classroom Management Plan
  • 80-20 – gen ed class
  • FBA: Functional Behavioral AssessmentBIP: Behavior Intervention Plan

Fcec2010 beh mgmt_dme_dwe Fcec2010 beh mgmt_dme_dwe Presentation Transcript

  • Bringing it all together: best practices in behavior management
    Danielle Eadens, Ph.D. & Daniel Eadens, M.Ed., ABD
    FCEC 2010
    Accessed from comics.com
  • Fundamental Concept: Can’t or Won’t?
    Is it the academics or the behavior?
    All school faculty need to complete an assessment of the curriculum and instruction along with a functional analysis of behaviorto determine if curriculum changes or other modifications in the environment may eliminate the undesirable behavior in the school, class, or individual
  • Positive Behavior Support (PBS)
    School-wide, Class-wide, Individualized
    CHAMPs
    Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC)
    Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR)
    Cognitive Behavior Management (CBM)
    General Behavior Reduction Strategies
    Bringing it all together
    Recommended Resources
    Presentation Outline
  • Positive Behavior Support (PBS)
    What is it?
    Any systematic plan to encourage positive student behavior and learning
  • Positive Behavior Support
    School-wide PBS (SWPBS)
    3-5 school-wide expectations, students are reinforced by all faculty & staff for following expectations
    E.g. “kilts” at DHMS
    David Lassman / The Post-Standard
  • Positive Behavior Support
    Class-wide PBS (CWPBS)
    Teach classroom expectations and reinforce students meeting those expectations
    Have well-prepared, interesting, & effective lessons
    Decide what you are reinforcing and do so while giving them the best possible learning environment 
    E.g. CMP like CHAMPs, token economy system, mission statement, marble jar, positive framing, community building, etc.
  • Principles:
    1. Lack of structure yields irresponsible behavior (classroom organization impacts student behavior)
    2. Do not assume students know what is right (overtly teach how to behave responsibly)
    3. What you pay attention to is what will flourish (acknowledge the responsible behavior)
    4. Do not REACT, RESPOND
    (preplan responses to misbehavior)
    CHAMPS Basic Principles
    http://www.safeandcivilschools.com/
    Sprick, R. (2009). CHAMPS: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management (2nd Ed.)
  • CHAMPS Basic Principles
    Conversation(Can they talk? Noise level?)
    Help (How do they get it?)
    Activity (objective, end product)
    Movement (Can they move? Bathroom?)
    Participation (What does it look like?)
    PLANNING and TEACHING EXPECTATIONS will give you more time to teach (and make you go home happier in the afternoon!)
  • PBS/Token Economy
    Ooh! The secret student just worked through that problem by themselves using the steps on the board!
    Class/Individual Combination Example:
  • Complete functional analysis of behavior, review student needs, strengths, motivators, etc.
    Examples: ABC, FBA/BIP, PTR, Behavior contract, social skills instruction, point sheet (with reinforcement for criterion being met), etc.
    Individualized Positive Behavior Support
  • Five Questions
    Is the behavior causing
    physical harm to
    other students?
    Example: Biting other students
    to select challenging/inappropriate
    behaviors to target for correction
  • Five Questions
    Is the behavior disruptive to the student’s learning or the learning of others?
    Example: Yelling out curse words during lecture
  • Five Questions
    Does the behavior appear to be triggering additional problem behaviors or emotional reactions in the student or others?
    Example: Name calling of other students
  • Five Questions
    Is the behavior causing the student to be socially excluded?
    Example: Picking nose ->
    other kids think is gross
  • Five Questions
    Examples: inner ear infections
    side effects of medication
    genetic conditions:
    Prader-Willi syndrome
    Fragile X syndrome
    Is the behavior related to a medical condition?
  • ABCs of Behavior
    Antecedent:
    happens right before the behavior (ex. instigator)
    Behavior:
    problematic behavior (described objectively & measurably)
    Consequence: (reinforcing) outcome of the behavior
    -NOTE: NOT a punishment, but what child gets as a result of the behavior
    e.g. Student publicly disrespects teacher
    e.g. Teacher gives student academic task
    It works!
    Do it again!
    e.g. Student gets out of academic task & gains reinforcing attention from peers
  • Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) Strategy
    The “PTR” Strategy is an Assessment-based Model of Positive Behavior Support for Individual Students with Problem Behaviors
    P = Prevent T = Teach R = Reinforce
    Accessed from comics.com
    Dunlap, G, Lovannone, R., & English, C. (2009). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support. ISBN: 1598570153
  • Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR):Elements of a PTR Plan
    Behavior Hypotheses - Behavior’s purpose
    Prevention Strategies – make settings, events, etc., less triggering for child or
    group(P)
  • Inform students of what is expected by them. (CHAMPS)
    Establish a positive
    learning climate.
    Provide meaningful learning experiences.
    Avoid threats.
    Demonstrate fairness.
    Preventive Strategies in the Classroom
  • Build and exhibit self-confidence (fake it ‘til you make it)
    Recognize positive student attributes (inside characteristics)
    Utilize positive modeling (practice what you preach)
    Pay attention to the
    physical arrangement
    of the classroom.
    Limit downtime.
    Preventive Strategies in the Classroom
  • Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR):Elements of a PTR Plan
    Replacement Skills – Teach skills to replace the problem behavior (T) (behavior serves a function, find another way to meet that function)
  • REMEMBER The Fair Pair Rule: Behavior reduction strategies should always be used in conjunction with procedures that teach new behaviors
    Don’t try to eliminate it without replacing it.
    Replacement Strategies
  • Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR):Elements of a PTR Plan
    Responses – Plan what adults will do when the problem behavior occurs (R) (include reinforcement for replacement and appropriate behavior)
  • Cognitive Behavior Management (CBM)
    The goal of CBM is to teach students to be their own agents of change in control of their own behavior and learning
  • Cognitive Behavior Management (CBM)
    CBM Assumes that individuals can and want to monitor and manage their own behavior
    Shaping & changing behavior through the use of cognitive & behavioral principles
    Goal is to get the student to monitor their own behavior and self-reinforce appropriately
  • Examples of CBM
    Self Management
    Self-monitoring
    e.g. Data monitoring with vibrating timer
    Self-instruction
    e.g. Student: “Stay focused. You are getting distracted. Finish your essay.”
    Self-evaluation
    e.g. Data monitoring with vibrating timer
    Self-reinforcement
    Learning self-delayed gratification
    Student Choice (as appropriate based on individual/class needs)
    Recommended video about motivation
    Career analyst Dan Pink “Traditional rewards aren't always as effective as we think.”
    http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/dan_pink_on_motivation.html
  • Procedures that when implemented immediately after a target behavior, reduce the future probability of the behavior occurring
    General Behavior Reduction Strategies
  • Proximity control – anticipate behavior & prevent it by body positioning, staying calm & facilitating communication
    Injecting humor – reduces tension, makes the brain leave ‘fight/flight’
    Instructional control – instruction on expected behaviors (examples & non-examples as appropriate)
    Problem-solving facilitation – offer positive alternatives (Love & Logic: “Would you like to hear what other kids have tried in this situation?”)
    Stimulus change – modify environmental stimuli
    Interrupting the Behavior Chain (of inappropriate behavior)
  • General Behavior Reduction Guidelines
    Be Consistent – enforce & reinforce to reduce confusion & increase respect
    Avoid Reinforcing Inappropriate Behavior – avoid long lectures & extra attention
  • Behavior Reduction Guidelines, Cont’d
    Deal with Inappropriate (non-ignorable) Behavior Immediately – Teaches child behavior is not acceptable with you
    Consequences for Inappropriate Behavior – short & fair consequences -> implement immediately, do not carry over to next day if possible
    Avoid Ineffective
    Procedures– don’t yell,
    shout, etc.
  • Delivery of reinforcement after behavior has not been exhibited
    We generally use differential reinforcement to increase the rate, duration, or intensity of behaviors that students already have in their repertoire, BUT do not perform at an acceptable rate
    Differential Reinforcement of Behavior
    1
    2
    3
    What’s the magic word?
  • Delivery of a reinforcement after a child has not exhibited a target behavior during predetermined period of time
    Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO) - Summarized
    Example: not texting while driving for 1 minute = 1 M & M
  • Fixed or whole interval---not reinforced if the behavior occurs any time during the predetermined time period
    Example: student does not suck his thumb during entire 10 min. interval -> get a sticker for chart
    Schedules of DRO
  • Momentary---not reinforced if the behavior occurs at the time of observation
    Ex.: At end of 5 min. interval, teacher looks at student to see if he is sucking thumb at that moment – not sucking thumb? then, he gets sticker
    Schedules of DRO
  • Reset Interval---interval reset whenbehavior occurs
    Example: 10 min. interval. Interval starts at 4:00, set to end at 4:10 (& student gets sticker then.) Student caught sucking thumb at 4:05. Interval restarts, student cannot be reinforced until 4:15 now – provided he doesn’t suck thumb for 10 min.
    DRO Schedules, Cont’d
  • Increased Interval or DRO-Fading – interval increases over time in relation to progress
    Ex.: After three successful 10 min. interval, interval for reinforcement increases to 20… If not successful, interval stays at 10 min. – NOTE: okay to increase quality of reinforcer as intervals increase
    DRO Schedules, Cont’d
  • Reinforcement of a more appropriate form of a targeted inappropriate behavior
    Example: Raising hand vs. calling out (student gets teacher’s attention either way)
    Differential Reinforcement of Alternate Behaviors (DRA)
  • Reinforcement of behaviors that are topographically incompatible with the targeted behavior
    Examples:
    If you are on-task, you cannot be off-task
    Hand at side to prevent poking other students in line
    Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors (DRI)
    Targeted Behavior
    Reinforced Behavior
    Reinforcement
  • Reinforcement of small decreases in the rate of the target behavior (compared to baseline)
    Use with high rate of occurrence problem behaviors or with appropriate behaviors that have become a problem due to a high rate of occurrence (ex. Repeatedly asking to use RR)
    Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior (DRL)
    =
    Day 1
    Day 2
    Reinforcement
  • Two Forms: Rate and Interval
    Rate: reinforcement provided if lower rate of occurrence during specified interval
    Example: Student only asked 3 times in 1 hour to use RR, allowed to use RR at end of that 1 hr interval.
    Interval: reinforcement provided if interval since last occurrence has passed
    Example: It has been 1 hr since last asked to use RR, student gets to go
    Effective DRL depends on solid baseline behavior data
    DRL Cont’d
  • AKA Changing Criterion Design
    Reinforcement of increases in the rate of a target behavior compare to the baseline rate
    Used to increase behaviors student knows, just does not use enough (ex. Saying please)
    Purpose is to INCREASE target behavior
    Ex. Increasing frequency of saying please, student reinforced at all three stages:
    Differential Reinforcement of Higher Rates of Behavior (DRH)
    25%
    50%
    100%
  • Procedure for gradually reducing the frequency and/or intensity of a target behavior by withholding reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior
    Ignore a behavior that would normally be reinforced.
    Ex. Tantrum
    where the
    function is
    attention
    Extinction
  • Extinction is ONLY effective with behaviors that are maintained by attention
    Extinction IS NOT effective with behaviors that are intrinsically reinforcing
    Consistency is critical!
    Extinction
  • Once behavior is no longer reinforced, student will temporarily intensify behavior to get reinforcer
    Don’t misjudge extinction program as ineffective based on extinction bursts
    Decide whether extinction burst phase is ignore-able before implementing extinction
    Extinction Bursts
    Extinction Burst
    Intervention
    Day 1
    Day 2
    Day 3
    Day 4
    Day 5
  • Response Cost
    Systematic Removal of reinforcers
    contingent on inappropriate behavior
    Often (mis)used in conjunction with a token economy system as reinforcement system & consequences should be separate
    E.g. red/yellow/green, loss of computer time
    Accessed from comics.com
  • Restitution, Positive Practice, and Overcorrection
    Restitution or simple correction – return environment to its previous condition
    Ex. Clean desk they wrote on
    Restitutional Overcorrection – return environment into dramatically better condition
    Ex. Throws a piece of paper on ground, must pick up all pieces of paper on ground in classroom
    Positive Practice Overcorrection – practicing an appropriate behavior repeatedly as punishment for inappropriate behavior
    Ex. Student does not fold paper per teacher directions, must fold 10 pieces of paper in correct format
  • Bringing it all together, 1 of 2
    Recognize the need for PBS (A systematic plan to encourage positive student behavior and learning)
    Have a plan that: reinforces good behavior & does NOT reinforce unwanted behaviors
    Accessed from comics.com
  • Bringing it all together, 2 of 2
    For a mild/moderate classroom:
    Use CHAMPs classroom management system to
    ensure expectations are understood for every lesson
    Practice functional analysis (ABC) so it becomes automatic for every misbehavior witnessed
    Use a combination of PTR/PBSacross the school, class, & for individuals
    E.g. Schoolwide: Prevent at lunchtime via assigned seating; Classwide: removing triggering stimuli; Individual: provide choices in place of directives
    Use CBM to get individual students (or a small class) realize they can become agents of change in their own behavior
    Implement general behavior reduction techniques as appropriate/needed
  • Recommended Resources
    Dunlap, G, Lovannone, R., & English, C. (2009). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support. ISBN: 1-598-57015-3
    FLDOE. (1999). Facilitator’s Guide to Positive Behavior Support. Access free from: http://www.apbs.org/files/PBSwhole.pdf
    Lemov, D. (2010). Teach Like A Champion: 49 Techniques that put Students on the Path to College. ISBN: 978-0-470-55047-2
    Mueller, T.G., & Brewer, R.D. (2010). Strategies at Hand: Quick and Handy Positive Behavior Support Strategies. ISBN: 978-1-934-57564-2
    Sprick, R. (2009). CHAMPS: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management (2nd Ed). ISBN:978-1-59909-030-6
    For recommendation to parents: Latham, G. I. (2006). The Power of Positive Parenting. ISBN: 1-56713-175-1