Working on InternetRelease 16/7/2009
Router• An Internetworking device used to link two different  networks• Used to connect at least two networks and works at...
Use of Router• Can be installed as an Internet gateway• Router is used to connect two networks for example  WAN and LAN• F...
Network Address Translation (NAT)• Method in which a system’s IP address is changed into a  different IP address before it...
NAT Advantages and                      Disadvantages• Advantages:                         Disadvantages:      – Hides in...
Static NAT• A private (internal network) IP address is converted to a  public IP address, which is always static (always r...
Dynamic NAT• An unregistered IP address is represented to a registered IP  address from a set of registered IP addresses• ...
Working of NAT• When packets of information are received from the  outside network, NAT enabled router checks destination ...
Proxy Server• A computer that allows network  users to make an indirect  network connection to different  network services...
Types of Proxy Servers• Transparent Proxies      – Also known as forced proxy involves a combination of        proxy serve...
NAT Vs. Proxy Server• Proxy server provides better performance through  caching, for example caching of regular visited we...
TCP/IP Configuration• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is  derived from two of the fundamental protocols, T...
Basic TCP/IP Configuration                          Parameters - I• Host name      – Made up of letters, hyphen and number...
Basic TCP/IP Configuration                          Parameters - II• IP address      – Made of 32-bit binary number      –...
Basic TCP/IP Configuration                          Parameters - III• Broadcast address      – An IP address which enables...
Configuring Internet Explorer• Microsoft Internet Explorer is a web browser• Web browser enables to access the Internet• I...
Internet Explorer Security - I• Internet Explorer stores all the Websites into a single zone• By default, all the Websites...
Internet Explorer Security - II• Internet Zone      – Consists of all Web sites that can be accessed by the        compute...
Configuring and Working with MS         Outlook and Outlook Express• Microsoft Outlook is a software application for handl...
MS Outlook• Offers e-mail service and comes under the category of e-  mail client• Allows users to change the e-mail setti...
Outlook Express• E-mail account in Outlook Express provides only e-mail  and newsgroup functionality• Aimed at providing r...
Configuring DHCP Client• Configure client computers to receive IP addresses from  the DHCP server• Any computer running a ...
Configuring DNS Client• DNS works at the application layer and uses  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram...
Host Names• Unique name by which a computer is known or  recognized on a network• On a local area network, a hostname is c...
FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name )• A complete DNS name, including the host name and all  of its domains (in order), is c...
Network Basic Input/Output System                      (NETBIOS)• A program that permits applications on different PCs to ...
Troubleshooting DHCP• You can troubleshoot DHCP using:      – Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA)         • Used by clien...
Troubleshooting DNS• DNS problems occur when there is a problem with the client system• You can troubleshoot DNS by:      ...
Applications of Internet - I• Internet is basically network of networks• WebPages are viewed in web browser (Internet Expl...
Applications of Internet - II• WWW (World Wide Web)      – Consists of WebPages      – Contents of WebPages are links, tex...
Applications of Internet - III• FTP (File Transfer Protocol)      – File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer information...
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Working on internet

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Working on internet

  1. 1. Working on InternetRelease 16/7/2009
  2. 2. Router• An Internetworking device used to link two different networks• Used to connect at least two networks and works at the Network layer• Forwards data packets across a network through a process called routing• Two types: – Static router - Needs to be configured manually – Dynamic routers - Does not require manual configurationRelease 16/7/2009
  3. 3. Use of Router• Can be installed as an Internet gateway• Router is used to connect two networks for example WAN and LAN• Firewall are also provided by the router• Wireless networking is supported by few routers, which includes features like support for plug-n-play devicesRelease 16/7/2009
  4. 4. Network Address Translation (NAT)• Method in which a system’s IP address is changed into a different IP address before it’s sent out to an external network (Internet)• Enables the private network (Intranet) to use addresses that differs from the actual IP address on the Internet• Allows address hiding, thus it acts as a firewall• Web servers cannot be used as NAT clients• Provides a strong protection against unauthorized usersRelease 16/7/2009
  5. 5. NAT Advantages and Disadvantages• Advantages:  Disadvantages: – Hides internal structure  Changes IP addresses, of the network and thus troubleshooting increases network becomes more complex security  Blocks incoming – Allows unlimited class C network address connections – Helps in maintaining same internal network’s IP address when a computer is attached to the InternetRelease 16/7/2009
  6. 6. Static NAT• A private (internal network) IP address is converted to a public IP address, which is always static (always remains same• An internal network IP address is mapped to a registered IP address on one-to-one basis Release 16/7/2009
  7. 7. Dynamic NAT• An unregistered IP address is represented to a registered IP address from a set of registered IP addresses• A computer with IP address 25.0.18.25 will translate to first available IP into a particular range for example from 28.35.15.100 to 28.35.15.125 Release 16/7/2009
  8. 8. Working of NAT• When packets of information are received from the outside network, NAT enabled router checks destination address and destination port on the packet• Router checks whether packet belongs to that network in translation table• Packet is rejected if it does not find any match in the translation table• Else router changes destination address to the one saved in address translation table and sends it to that computer• Computer receives the packet from the routerRelease 16/7/2009
  9. 9. Proxy Server• A computer that allows network users to make an indirect network connection to different network services• Used to configure Internet connection setting• Enhances the security for the user accessing the Internet and speeds up the Internet access by storing Web pages on the serverRelease 16/7/2009
  10. 10. Types of Proxy Servers• Transparent Proxies – Also known as forced proxy involves a combination of proxy server with NAT• Reverse Proxies – A reverse proxy server handles the request on behalf of the main Web Server• Anonymous Proxy server – Secure the user’s personal information by hiding the IP addressRelease 16/7/2009
  11. 11. NAT Vs. Proxy Server• Proxy server provides better performance through caching, for example caching of regular visited websites by the user• NAT is simple to configure, it doesn’t require additional software application• A proxy server is not transparent• NAT is transparent to the source and destination computersRelease 16/7/2009
  12. 12. TCP/IP Configuration• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is derived from two of the fundamental protocols, TCP and IP• Is a collection of networking protocols widely used on the Internet• TCP/IP is default Wide Area Network protocol• TCP/IP allows communication across various interconnected networksRelease 16/7/2009
  13. 13. Basic TCP/IP Configuration Parameters - I• Host name – Made up of letters, hyphen and numbers, begins with a letter – Not longer than sixty three characters• DHCP Client – DHCP is a TCP/IP service protocol – Offers dynamic leased configuration of host IP addressesRelease 16/7/2009
  14. 14. Basic TCP/IP Configuration Parameters - II• IP address – Made of 32-bit binary number – Displays as four octets expressed in decimal and separated by periods• Domain name – A Domain is not a single computer, but a holding space into which a computer names can be added – A Unique name for example www.xyx.com – Made up of letters, hyphen and numbersRelease 16/7/2009
  15. 15. Basic TCP/IP Configuration Parameters - III• Broadcast address – An IP address which enables information to be broadcasted to all computers on a subnet rather than only to a specific machine• Default router – A default router is the default gateway used by the device to access hosts on other networks – In a TCP/IP network, the nearest router to a particular host is known as default routerRelease 16/7/2009
  16. 16. Configuring Internet Explorer• Microsoft Internet Explorer is a web browser• Web browser enables to access the Internet• Internet Explorer is installed by default with the Microsoft Windows operating system• Internet Explorer settings can be modified to improve the Web page security and privacyRelease 16/7/2009
  17. 17. Internet Explorer Security - I• Internet Explorer stores all the Websites into a single zone• By default, all the Websites are stored in the Internet zone Internet Explorer Zones Local Internet Trusted Restricted Intranet Zone Sites zone Sites zone zoneRelease 16/7/2009
  18. 18. Internet Explorer Security - II• Internet Zone – Consists of all Web sites that can be accessed by the computer• Local Intranet Zone – Includes all Websites that reside on the user’s local network• Trusted Sites Zone – Includes the Websites that are safe• Restricted Sites Zone – Contains the Websites that are unsafeRelease 16/7/2009
  19. 19. Configuring and Working with MS Outlook and Outlook Express• Microsoft Outlook is a software application for handling and organizing personal information• Microsoft Outlook is a stand-alone application that is a part of Microsoft Office• Outlook Express is a part of Microsoft’s Windows operating system• Outlook Express is an e-mail and news clientRelease 16/7/2009
  20. 20. MS Outlook• Offers e-mail service and comes under the category of e- mail client• Allows users to change the e-mail settings as per the user requirements• Compatible with other programs such as Microsoft WordRelease 16/7/2009
  21. 21. Outlook Express• E-mail account in Outlook Express provides only e-mail and newsgroup functionality• Aimed at providing required services to home users• Exchange server and third party based accounts are not supported in Outlook ExpressRelease 16/7/2009
  22. 22. Configuring DHCP Client• Configure client computers to receive IP addresses from the DHCP server• Any computer running a version of the Windows operating system such as Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows NT can become a DHCP client• You can configure the client using the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.Release 16/7/2009
  23. 23. Configuring DNS Client• DNS works at the application layer and uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for transporting data over the network• DNS is configured so that it can resolve other computer names and IP addresses• You can configure the DNS client using the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog boxRelease 16/7/2009
  24. 24. Host Names• Unique name by which a computer is known or recognized on a network• On a local area network, a hostname is commonly a single word• On the Internet, the host name is in the form "comp.abc.com”• Made up of lowercase letters and numbersRelease 16/7/2009
  25. 25. FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name )• A complete DNS name, including the host name and all of its domains (in order), is called a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)• Complete address of a site on the Internet• Consists of a host name and domain name, including top- level domain name• No two machines should have same Fully Qualified Domain NameRelease 16/7/2009
  26. 26. Network Basic Input/Output System (NETBIOS)• A program that permits applications on different PCs to communicate within a Local Area Network• NetBIOS protocol is used when a user browses the network neighbourhood for any data on the network• Does not support a routing mechanismRelease 16/7/2009
  27. 27. Troubleshooting DHCP• You can troubleshoot DHCP using: – Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA) • Used by clients, which are unable to access the DHCP server • A feature of Microsoft Windows Operating system • Always starts with 169.254.*.* • It is enabled on all DHCP clients in Windows unless the computer’s registry is modified to disable it – Releasing or Renewing IP address IPCONFIG is available with the release and renew optionsRelease 16/7/2009
  28. 28. Troubleshooting DNS• DNS problems occur when there is a problem with the client system• You can troubleshoot DNS by: – Removing DNS cache – Use Ipconfig/flushdns – Determining DNS problem – most web browser have cache so you can not use a web browser to test for DNS problem. PING the IP address and PING by name if PING works, it concludes that there is a problem with the DNS – Name Server Lookup (Nslookup) - Allows querying DNS servers and obtaining detailed response at the command prompt. If you get an error “server not found” then it suggests that either the primary DNS server is down or wrong DNS server inforamtion in the DNS settingsRelease 16/7/2009
  29. 29. Applications of Internet - I• Internet is basically network of networks• WebPages are viewed in web browser (Internet Explorer) through Internet• Web pages are formatted in a language called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)• Applications: – WWW (World Wide Web) – E-mail (Electronic Mail) – FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – TELNET (TErminaL NETwork) – defined by ISORelease 16/7/2009
  30. 30. Applications of Internet - II• WWW (World Wide Web) – Consists of WebPages – Contents of WebPages are links, text and graphics through which a user can access information from connected computer located at any part of the world• E-mail (Electronic Mail) – E-mail is source of information through which messages are sent and received via computer networks – E-mail can be sent to any user with a valid e-mail idRelease 16/7/2009
  31. 31. Applications of Internet - III• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer information from the host computer to the server or vice versa – Separation of commands and data transfer makes FTP more efficient• TELNET (TErminaL NETwork) – Standard TCP/IP protocol for virtual terminal by ISO – General purpose client-server application programRelease 16/7/2009

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