What is a Presentation? A presentation is a form of communication with an audience. The object of a presentation is to transmit information and opinions to an audience in your own words, within a limited amount of time.
An effective presentation should: Who will I be speaking to? What do I want them to know by the end of my presentation? How will you make it easy for your audience to understand? It explains the purpose of presentation Attract & focus the attention of the audience It gives a preview of the key points that the presentation will cover.
Types of Presentation• Informative :to provide interesting and useful information to increase the knowledge of your audience.(giving information)• Report : to give your audience an account of what you or someone you represent has learnt or done.• Persuasive : to convince your listeners to accept your proposal• Special occasion: to give speech for some special event such as in party, funeral, award, etc.
Types of presentation ExampleInformative Lecturer to studentReport Constructor to top management (Construction project)Persuasive Constructor to top management (Construction project)Special occasion Emcee to guests (party)
Different types of presentation has: Different audience Different purpose Different skill to present Different language (tone)
INFORMATIVEPRESENTATIONS Briefings Training Explanations
BRIEFINGS• Short talks that give already interested and knowledgeable audience members the specific information they need to do their jobs.• Purposes: – Some briefings update listeners on what has happened in the past. – Others briefings focus on the future.
Characteristics: – Length. Most briefings are short- usually no more than 2-3 minutes on a given subject. – Organization. Don’t require the kinds of attention-grabbing introductions or conclusions. Organize in a simple way- topically or chronologically. – Content. Summarize a position. Most attendees already know why they are there. – Presentational aids. Some briefings may include simple visual aids, but they rarely contain the kind of detail found in longer and more complex presentations. – Language and delivery. Briefing are usually quite conversational. Delivery is more matter-of-fact than dramatic.
Training• Teaches listeners how to do something such as: operate a piece of equipment or use software, relate effectively with the public, avoid or deal with sexual harassment. Planning a Training Program: 1. Define the training goal • Training always aims to change the way your audience acts, so the place to begin is to identify who you want to teach and the results you want to bring about.
Average Retention Rates of Various Training Methods • An important learning principle, supported by extensive research, is that people learn best when they are actively involved in the learning process. • The “lower down the cone” you go the more you learn and retain.
2. Develop a schedule and list of resources. – After defined goals and identified target audience, you are ready to design the training. – This steps includes: Figuring how much time you will need to plan and publicize the training, and the steps you need to take between now and the time you deliver it. Identifying the staffing and physical resource you need, and making sure they are available. Line up the facility, and make sure it’s furnishings and layout suit your design. Identify the materials participants will need (pens, name tags, etc.) and the equipment you will use (computer, projection system, etc.). Creating/purchasing any necessary materials.
3. Involve the Audience – Lecturing to a passive audience has its place, but it isn’t the only way to train an audience. – Hands-on experience is much better than just told them what to do. E.g. train them by teaching them how to operate the machines themselves. – A variety of other tools involve the audience in a way that boosts both understanding and interest: quizzes, contests, and having trainees teach one another.
– Letting them practice the skill that have teaching, having volunteers demonstrate a skill, and let the whole audience or group brainstorm and then let each group report back.– Listeners likely to understand and remember a message when use more than one approach. E.g. show a diagram, display photo, bringing the object itself, illustrating a process, and play video.
4. Organize your presentation – The most reliable format is probably a problem solution approach. – The listeners are most likely to pay attention to the information that provided when they view it as solving a problem that they face.5. Delivering the Training – When you finally are ready to deliver the training, several tips can help make it most effective.
6. Link the topic to the audience – Sometimes the intrinsic interest of the subject is reason enough to listen for people to pay close attention to a session because they know these benefits are worth something to them personally. – If the subject that isn’t intrinsically interesting, boosts interest by showing that listening will help audience avoid punishment.
7. Start with an overall picture – Every presentation needs an introduction. – A clear preview is really important. – Without an overview, listeners can become so confused by the informational trees that they won’t be able to see the conceptual forest. – Orient the audience by sketching the highlights of your message.
8. Emphasize the organization of your material – You can use a number of devices to help listeners understand the structure of your material: Number items Use sign posts Use interjections Use repetition and redundancy Add internal summaries and previews
9. Cover only necessary information – If cover topic in too much detail, you are likely to bore or even antagonize your listeners. – Just tell the listeners what they need to know, and tell them just that much. – If they want more information, they will probably ask for it.
Explanations• Increase listeners’ understanding of a subject.• For examples: An orientation session for new workers; A meeting with a new employee benefits package is introduced; A purchasing policy is explained.
• 2 strategies will help make your ideas easy to follow is: – Avoid Jargon Introducing to trainees to specialized terms and language. Some jargons is necessary, but don’t use any more than necessary – will probably bore them and leave them so confused that they’ll give up trying to understand the material you are explaining. – Link the Familiar to the Unfamiliar People have the best chance of understanding new material when it bears some relationship to information they already know. Without a familiar reference point, listeners may have trouble understanding even a clear definition.
• Definition of persuasion• Goal of persuasion• Persuasion Process• Type of persuasion• Persuasion technique• Persuasion strategies• Persuasion structure
What is Persuasion?• Longman Dictionary The act of persuading someone to do something.• Jeseph A. Devito (Human Communication) Is the process of influencing another person’s attitudes, beliefs, value and behavior.
• Robert N. Yale (Ph.D., Communication, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana) – Communication between two ore more people with an intent to change, reinforce or create attitudes, beliefs and behavior.
Goal of Persuasive Speaking• To strengthen or weaken (reinforce) attitudes, beliefs or value.• To change attitudes, beliefs and value• To create attitudes, beliefs and value• To motivate to action
• Behavior: – Any observable physical action• Beliefs: – the feeling that something is definitely true or definitely exists• Value: – what people feel is good or bad, ethical or unethical• Attitude: – the way that you behave towards someone or in a particular situation, especially when this shows how you feel
Type of Persuasive Speech• Persuasive Speeches on Question of Fact• Persuasive Speeches on Question of value• Persuasive Speeches on Question of Policy
FACT What is true/ false? What happened/ didn’t happen? What exists/ doesn’t exist?VALUE Is it good or bad? Is it ethical or unethical? Is it right or wrong? Is it better or worse?POLICY What should be done? What should not be done?
FACT • Do pets improve our health? • Did Neil Armstrong really land on the moon? • Do mermaid really exists?VALUE • Are labor union good for employer? • Is glucose good to mix in baby milk? • It is ethical to ask what is the interviewee race?POLICY • Should people wash their hands many times during the day? • Should restaurants be force to remove menu items that contain alcohol?
Persuasion Technique• Foot-In-The-Door – “Requesting something small, something that your audience will easily agree too”• Door-In-The-Face – “First make a large request that you know it will be refused and then follow it with more moderate request”
a) Audience• What audience want to hear• How to attract their attention• Know what is their attitude, belief, value and behavior
b) Use Logical Appeals• Reasonable and sensible• using a thinking process in which facts and ideas are connected in a correct way• Three kinds of reasoning: 1. Reasoning from specific instance & generalizations 2. Reasoning from cause and effects 3. Reasoning from sign
– Reasoning from specific instance & generalizations o Examine several specific instance(example) and then make a generalization about the whole.– Reasoning from cause and effects o Cause to effect o Effect to cause– Reasoning from sign o Involve drawing an conclusion on the basis of the presence of sign because the frequently occur together. o Medical diagnosis is good example
c) Use Emotional Appeals• relating to your feelings, needs, desires and wants• Powerful means of persuasion• Involve Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” – Seek to fulfill the needs at the lowest level first and then only when those need is satisfied do the needs at the next level.
d) Use Credibility Appeals• Is the degree to which your audience sees you as a believable spokesperson• the quality of deserving to be believed and trusted• Credibility components: I. Competent & Knowledgeable II. Good characteristic III. Charisma & dynamic
Competence:• Include both knowledge and expertise• The more knowledge and expertise the audience sees you as having, the more likely the audience will believe in you.• How to demonstrate your competence? Tell listener of your competence Mention a variety of research source Stress the competencies of your sources
Good Characteristics:• Audience sees high moral character in you, they will think you credible and they will believe you.
Charisma:• a natural ability to attract and interest other people and make them admire you• Is a combination of your personality and dynamism(the way in which things or people behave, react, and affect each other)
Persuasion Structure• Introduction – Title – Attention gather – Competence• Body – Point – Use logical appeal• Conclusion – Persuade again or final persuasion
Welcoming A Guest or Group• welcoming someone, your remarks often set the tone for the whole event.• Warmth and sincerity in words and behavior are important.
Tips to welcoming a guest/group: Say who you are Identify the person or people you are welcoming Thank the guest or group for coming Tell why the occasion is especially important or significant
The Speech Of Introduction Introduce another speaker or series of speaker.1) Establish connection: Speaker Topic Audience
2) Establish the speaker’s credibility: be consistent in style and manner with the major speech be brief avoid covering what the speaker intends to discuss avoid overselling the speaker
Tips will help your introduction be success: Plan your remarks carefully in advance. Don’t take an impromptu approach. Your introduction should appear spontaneous and natural, even though it is planned. Practice your delivery so you won’t have rely notes Look at audience, not at the person being introduce Keep the introduction short. (1-2 minute)
The Speech of Presentation Explain why the presentation is being made – State the reason for the presentation and state the reason for the presentation and state the reason for the award.
Effective Award presentation: If everyone knows who is receiving the award, mention the person’s early in your remarks. If the audience doesn’t know who is receiving the award , you might want to build suspense by withholding his or her name until the end. State the name and nature of the award State the criteria for the selection
Relate the way (or ways) in which the recipient meets the criteria, using specific example. Make the presentation Be sure that the person receiving the award- not you, the presenter- is the center of attention and focus
The Speech Of Acceptance Expresses thanks for the award – Thanks those who gave the award – Thanks those who helped – State the meaning of the award to you – Say thank you again
The Speech To Secure Goodwill Attempts to secure or more often, to regain the listeners’ good graces. – Stress benefits the audience may derive – Stress uniqueness – Establish your credibility and the credibility of the subject – Avoid being obvious – Avoid pleading in your effort to secure goodwill
The Speech Of Dedication Gives specific meaning to some event or object – Explain why you’re giving the speech – Explain what is being dedicated – Stated who is responsible for the event or object – Say why this is significant – Especially to your specific listeners
The Commencement Speech Celebrates the end of some training period – Consider the values of a temporal organizational pattern – Learn something about the training organization and demonstrate this knowledge in your speech – Be brief – Congratulate the larger audience
Not only those who went through the training Offer some motivational message Offer your own good wishes
The Eulogy Seeks to praise someone who has died – Show the connection between yourself and the person you’re eulogizing – Be specific – Stress that the person is deserving of your praise – Show your listeners what they can learn from this person
The Inspirational Speech Seeks to inspire the audience, to get listeners to think in a positive direction – Demonstrate your close connection with the audience – Be enthusiastic – Stress emotional appeals – Emphasize the positive
The Farewell Speech Transition between what was and what will be – Thank those who helped you; portray the positives of the past – Explain your reasons for making the transition – Offer good wishes to your audience plus some words of wisdom – Some motivational message
The Toast Celebrates a person or an occasion, appreciate and recognize accomplishment as well as hope for the future. Hint to choose the right words: – Choose the time wisely – Be prepared – Look spontaneous – Be visible and audible
Be inclusive Be sober Be appropriate Be brief; focus attention on the person or event you’re toasting. 30-60second (normal). 2 minute (maximum) Avoid references that listeners may not understand Make it clear that this is the end of your speech when you raise your glass
The special occasion speech needs to be developedwith an awareness of the cultural norms and rulesspecific to the occasion and the audience members.Especially relevant here is the distinction betweenindividualist and collectivist cultures.
ConclusionIf you fail to identify your audience and purpose ofthe presentation, you would not be able to get youridea across.