Plato427 B.C.- 347 B.C.• Believed play was an important way to help children understand their thinking.• Believed mathematics should be introduced through games and puzzles• Recommended the establishment of supervised playgrounds.• Believed observation is at the core of all childhood programs. Told you what children were interested in and curriculum could be planned accordingly.
Plato• “The young of all creatures cannot be quiet in their bodies or in their voices; they are always wanting to move and cry out.”
Martin Luther 1483-1546• Replaced the authority of the Catholic Church with the Authority of the bible• Formal schooling to teach children to read, especially boys.• People could work out what the scriptures meant for themselves• Family was the most important institution in the education of children.• Religious education
John Amos Comenius1592-1670• Czech Republic – Watched his parents and two sisters die in war. – Raised by an aunt• Czech Minister and Bishop• Taught school and wrote textbooks- The Great Didactic• Came up with 2 important concepts – A revolution in teaching methods was essential to allow learning to become rapid, pleasant and thorough-follow nature to help children learn – European culture needed to be made more accessible to all children.-
Comenius• Wrote Orbis Pictus 1658 – first picture book• Born in the image of God so we should be educated to the fullest extent• He believed strongly in DAP• Suggested pre-natal care for mothers was the beginning of a healthy start for children• Sensory education – children should not be taught names of things without objects.
Comenius• Play was crucial.• Children should explore and play• Real life experiences• Proposed a system of universal education open to all children…free
John Locke1632-1704• Tabula Rasa – children are viewed as a blank slate – Environmentalists• All children are born with the same mental capacity to learn.• Sensory Training
Jean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778• Born in Geneva, Switzerland• Mother died when he was 9 days old• Father took over role; later became abusive• Wrote Emile- a book about child rearing and education according to nature – raised a hypothetical child from birth to adolescence – “God makes all things good, man meddles with them and they become evil” – Laissez-faire approach• Believed the knowledge could be drawn out of the child if separated from corrupt society.
Rousseau• Developed the child case study• Child was the center of education• Stages of development• Believed children were born good and free• Believed women should be educated to please and be dominated.• First addressed the Hurried Child.• Meaningful experiences• divided the historical and modern periods
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi1746-1827• Born in Zurich, Switzerland• Influenced by Rousseau• 1774 started school called Neuhof• Wrote Leonard and Gertrude – Distorted environment creates sources of evil – Humans may be poor and uneducated but capable of regeneration – Education is the true path to social reform – Human development begins at home with the mother – Natural educations fosters a person’s moral, intellectual and physical powers – Educations will create economically independent individuals
Pestalozzi• believed education should follow the child’s nature. – Raise his son, Jean-Jacques, using Emile • no success due to his inability to read by 11• ECE professionals cannot rely solely on child’s initiatives and expect them to learn all they need to know.• Punishment, fears and or rivalry are external and therefore dangerous.• Teacher is like a gardener.• Learning at each stage must be complete before moving to the next stage.
Pestalozzi• Knowledge came through the senses.• Developed object lessons- manipulatives• Mathematics must start with real objects, move to substitute objects and final to abstract ideas.• Best teachers taught children not subjects• Mixed-age groupings• Art and music were integral parts of the curriculum• Founded a school to train teachers to work with poor children.
Robert Owen1771-1858• During industrial revolution, 5 and 6 year old boys and girls were cheap labor-16 hour days.• Physical and sexual abuse was prevalent• Life expectancy was 30• Bought a mill in New Lanark, Scotland – 2000 employees, 500 were children between 5-6. – Offered after work education programs
Owen• Set up quality based system of child care and a school for children whose parents worked in the mill. 1816• First workplace child care• Believed society could be changed by educating the people.• 7 key approaches – Children were not punished – Teachers must be kind – Instruction was based on experiences – Dance, rhyme and music were a large part of the program – Questions of children were to be answered in kind rational ways – Outdoor time was used when children’s minds were fatigued – Children were helped to become familiar with garden production, fields, wood, animals and natural history
Owen• Blocks and manipulatives to learn math• Visual aides• Utopian – controlling the circumstances and outcomes of child rearing could bring about a more perfect society• Influenced by Rousseau and Locke• Led to opening of first infant school in London.• Purpose was to get children away from uneducated parents. Trained and educated children without punishment and without fear of punishment.• Infant school preceeded Froebel’s Kindergarten• influenced idea of early education and it’s effect on societal improvements
Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel1782-1852• Born in Germany• Father of Kindergarten• Kindergarten was based on spiritual beliefs• founded school for children between 3-8• old ones called klein kinderbes chaft igungangtalt or “institution for the occupation of little children”• Disciple of Pestelozzi
Froebel• Wrote The Education of Man – Child is not a piece of wax or clump of clay but a central force• Children blossom like a flower• Teach from the inside out• Curriculum should be child-centered• Best remembered for free play and “gifts and occupations”
Froebel• Gifts- concrete objects• Occupations- activities used with the gifts• Children provided with indoor and outdoor activities and teaching was a extension of the home• Developed idea of circle time – helped children socially – spiritual
Froebel• Called a mystic due to spirituality• wanted Kindergarten to be a free and happy place
Maria Montessori1870-1952• Became first woman in Italy to earn a medical degree• Became interested in mental retardation; felt they were not taught properly• Felt schools should be established for these children• Began an intimate relationship and had a child out of wedlock- – Did not have anything to do with him until age 15
Montessori• Focused on fulfilling the needs of the child to their fullest potential• Rewards were intrinsic• Teachers role – Prepare the environment – Observe the child – Show the child how to use the materials correctly through specific one to one demonstrations – Leave the child to use the materials without interference
Montessori• 1910 began setting up schools in US• Program elements – Respect for the child – Sensitive periods – Absorbent mind – Prepared environment – Auto-education – Mixed age grouping – Self-paced activities
John Dewey1859-1952• Had more influence on education than anyone• Symbol for modern education• 4 important ideas – experiences we have now are important – education is not the preparation for life, it is life – interest is the motivating factor in learning – knowledge must be useful and come from life
Dewey• Founded a lab school in 1896 called a sub- primary – home study science drawing – gardening music block play – play practical life experiences• Wrote My Pedagogical Creed – school is a social setting; give children the ability to think and know how to learn
Dewey• School life should grow out of home life• Believed reading and writing was introduced too early• Father of Progressivism• did not like Froebel – child has potential and shaped by environment – materials and themes came from child’s interest – more functional
Patty Smith-Hill1868-1946• Wrote “Good Morning to You” with her sister Mildred.• Big on music and poetry• Development the National Association for the Education of Young Children and Association of Childhood Education International
Jean Piaget1896-1980• Intelligence develops over time• Constructivism-constructs own knowledge• Learning is active• Genetic Epistemology• Assimilation and Accomodation – Children must do both to learn – Conflict must occur for learning to occur• Stages of Development – sensory motor – Preoperational-everyone believes and acts as children do.
Lev Vygotsky1896-1934• Born in USSR; Jewish; work was burned because it went against the government• Mental language and social development is enhanced by others-cultural embeddedness• ZPD- Zone of Proximal Development – difference between what a child cannot do alone but can do with help – scaffolding – creating zone by teaching with others• Intersubjectivity- – Through discussion, may come up with mutual agreement.
Abraham Maslow1890-1970• Hierarchy of needs – Life essentials- food, water, air – Safety and security – Belongingness and love – Achievement and prestige – Aesthetic needs – Self-actualization
Eric Erikson1902-1994• Psychosocial Stages of Development- Polar – Trust vs mistrust – Autonomy vs shame and doubt – Initiative vs guilt – Industry vs inferiority – Identity vs identitiy confusion – Intimacy vs isolation – Generativity vs stagnation – Integrity vs despair
Howard Gardner1943-• Director of Project Zero at Harvard University.• Multiple Intelligences
E.D. Hirsch1928-• Wrote Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know.• Common core of literate citizens• lack of cultural literacy contributes to general failure of children in school.
5 Minutes DrillUse a sheet of paper to write down your answers to this question:
15 Minutes Drill (cont.) A PAIR WORK FRIEND ALIST ALL THE THEORIES WE JUST LEARNT FRIEND B WRITE THEIR CONTRIBUTION.
15 Minutes Drill (cont.) A PAIR WORK CHANGE TASK FRIEND BLIST ALL THE THEORIES WE JUST LEARNT FRIEND A WRITE THEIR CONTRIBUTION.