You have developed habits over the years in –• the way you speak,• the way you respond to other people,• the way you ask for things,• the way you try to persuade to do something, and• the way you react when they refuse.
To communicate effectively at work, you may need to change some of these habits.• Speaking and writing at work needs a different approach to what you have been using at home, and even at college or university.
DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATIONCommunication may be defined• as giving, receiving or exchanging information, opinions or ideas• by writing, speech or visual means,• so that the material communicated is completely understood by everyone concerned.
Methods of CommunicationThe main methods of oral and written communication, both internal and external, are as below-Internal communication• Oral- telephone, messages, meeting/conference, presentation, face –to-face discussion, messages, intercom• Written-memo, report, graphs/charts, email, fax, notice, form/questionnaire, minutes, staff newsletter
FACTORS THAT AFFECT HOW YOU COMMUNICATE• Personal characteristics- age, gender, education, life experiences, family background
2. The audience- It is important to adjust the style of speaking or writing according to the audience (person) we are addressing.
In the workplace there could be different types of people whom the communication has to be addressed to, like ---• A colleague whom one is close to• Co-workers who are not familiar/close• General Manager/Chairman of the company• Angry customer/client• A person from another company• Persons from other countries/cultures
3. Purpose of communication-There are many reasons for communicating, such as-• To inform• To instruct• To persuade• To ask for something(to request)• To make suggestions or recommendations• To complain• To disagree• To apologize• To refuse
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONEffective communication at work2.Is polite3.Tends to be formal4.Takes the point of view of the listener/reader into account5.Uses natural language rather than stuffy, old fashioned language
PolitenessPoliteness is difficult to define, but in general it means a concern for other people. It includes such things as• Addressing people correctly, by their right name & title• Making polite requests, rather than giving orders• Giving listeners & readers the information they need to understand what the communication is about• Not wasting time• Using polite expressions• Showing respect for your listener/reader by using careful, accurate, error free language
Formality & InformalityMuch of the communication at work (except that with colleagues we know very well) is rather formal, whether it is spoken or written. Formal language, especially in writing is characterized by:• A formal vocabulary without any slang or casual expressions• An absence of contractions in writing• Objectivity or neutrality
Listeners/ Readers point of viewWhen we speak/write, we need to think of the reader/listener’s point of view and expressing according to their standpoint emphasizing the benefits to them.
Natural Language• In the past people were taught to write for business purposes using a certain style of language.• But this style is considered very old fashioned nowadays; preference is given to simpler, more natural kind of language which sounds more like the language that is spoken commonly by people.
KEY STAGES IN COMMUNICATIONSender• Conceive the message• Encode the message• Select the appropriate channelRecipient• Decode the message• Interpret the message• Feedback
WRITING AT WORKMost communication at work is in the form of speech, but important matters are often put down in writing.
The process of writing• Inexperienced writers tend to assume that writing is all about producing the final copy. In fact, producing any kind of document is a process that involves several stages:2. Planning3. Gathering information4. Writing a draft5. Revising6. Editing
Planning• Purpose• Person• Subject matter• Format to be used
Gathering Information• To have all facts ready before beginning clearly.
Writing a Draft• Organize ideas• Write a rough outline• Begin with easiest parts, leaving a gap for the difficult words and sentences• Write continuously for 20-30 min.• Ask a colleague to reread the document and make comments.• Put the draft aside for a while before revising it.
Revising• Check if there is any information which is to be added.• Any details that need to be cut off• Are there any grammatical errors• Has the appropriate format been followed
Editing• Editing refers to making at sentence and word level, as well as matters related to layout.• Tone of the message• Any grammatical/language errors• Is it systematic written, I terms of numbering, headings, page numbers, etc