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Installing the network

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  • 1. Installing the Network
  • 2. Structured Cabling• Comprises of cables and associated hardware parts• Provides an organized way of low voltage wiring• Transmits data that is built in structured form• Need of structured cabling: – Consistency – Standard cabling systems for Data, voice and video – Cost Reduction – Reduces the cost by reducing the number of cables – Troubleshooting – Isolates and fixes the problem – Mobility – Network resources are portable – Supports upgrading – Supports future applications
  • 3. Design Considerations of Structured Cabling
  • 4. Structured Cabling - II• Design Considerations of structured cabling – Entrance Facilities – Connects the building with the outside world – Equipment Room – Serves the users within the room – Telecommunications Room – Accommodates the cabling system equipment – Backbone Cabling – Interconnects telecommunications room, equipments room and entrance facilities
  • 5. Structured Cabling - III• Design Considerations of structured cabling – Horizontal Cabling – Extends from the work area telecommunications outlet to telecommunications closet – Work Area – Components extend from the telecommunications outlet to the stations equipment – Cable Administration – Involves logical numbering scheme that can be applied to all the cables, outlets, patch cables and even control systems
  • 6. Cable Distance – I• Horizontal Cabling Distance – horizontal cabling distance is 99 meters (TIA/EIA-568A) – 6 meters of patch cable – 90 meters horizontal (routed in the wall) – 3 meters of station cable – 99 meters total (rounded off to 100 meters)• Backbone cable Distance – Depends on type of cable being used and on its location
  • 7. Pulling Cables - I• While dealing with structured cabling you have to pull out the cables from some conduits and punch down the free end of the cable• Conduits are PVC or flexible plastic pipes used to organize the cables• Pull twine through the conduits
  • 8. Pulling cables - II Elements required for pulling cables Scale andFish Tape Twine Conduits Patch Panel Tape
  • 9. Pulling Cable ToolsFish Tape Twine Conduit Scale & Tape Patch Panel
  • 10. Cables• Two or more wires bound together, in protective jacket or sheath• Different types of cables: – Twisted pair cable – Coaxial cable – Optical fiber cable – Shielded and Unshielded cable
  • 11. Cable Connectors – I• Part of cable which plugs into port or interface to connect one device to another• Connectors: Male and Female – DB-15 connectors - Commonly used on electronic and computer equipment – RJ45 Connectors – Used in networking to connect computer to network card – BNC Coaxial Connectors – Used with coaxial cables or used with Ethernet system
  • 12. Cable Connectors – II – 210 Patch Plug – Uses internal pair isolation, pair-to-pair compensation and layered contacts – Token-Ring Data Connector – Used on end of a shielded twisted pair cable• Distinguishing Wires – Color coding makes identification each wire or pair of wires in the cable easier – Tip and ring – Identifies plus wire and minus wire
  • 13. Cabling Tools• Used in networking to work with wires or devices or to connect wires and devices to each other• Different tools used are: – Punchdown Tools – RJ45 Crimping Tool – Coaxial Cable Crimping Tool – Pin Crimping Tool – Cable stripper
  • 14. Working with Cables• Installation works in three stages: – Running cable from central point to the room – Wall jacks are mounted and cables ended into jacks – Wire cables from the central end to switchboard• Color Coding – Helps to classify different types of wires – Patch cable and cross over cable can be differentiated on the basis of colour coding
  • 15. Working with Cables – II• Tools and materials required for crimping cable: – RJ45 Crimping Tool – Wire stripper – Wire cutter – RJ-45 plugs – Cat-5 UTP cables
  • 16. Working with Cables – III• Straight through Cable – Same pin out connections at both ends – Used to connect dissimilar devices  Crossover Cable  Modify pin out connections at one end  Used to connect similar types of devices
  • 17. Working with Cables – IV• Weak Link – Mostly, weakest link is the station cable, which runs from wall to desktop• Information Outlet – Protect horizontal wiring from physical handling that cables receive – Keep installation neat and eliminate unsightly snake pit of unused cables coiled on floor• Station Cable – Runs between information outlet and network node e.g. PC
  • 18. RJ45 Modular Outlet• Device used to connect shielded or unshielded cables• Acts as extension where wires are fixed on the either side of modular connector
  • 19. Grounding• Two wires that come from the transformer are called the hot wires usually RED in color and neutral wire in BLACK• A large building requires more than one earth ground and the earth ground between two buildings is different in different situations• Fiber optic cable is the best option to link buildings• Power grounding problems are two types: open or high resistance ground or an abnormal pulse or condition between power conductors
  • 20. Closet• Main point in an organization where major networking cabling come together• Equipment in a wiring closet includes: – Patch panels for vertical wiring – Patch panels for horizontal wiring – Wiring hubs – Uninterruptible Power Supplies• Types of wiring closets: – Intermediate Distribution Frames (IDF) – at least one IDF per floor for a multi storey building – Main Distribution Frame (MDF) – where the inside cable plant meets the outside world’s connectivity. All IDFs throughout building are connected to MDF in a star topology
  • 21. Closet Details• Typical equipment in a wiring closet are: – Backbone wiring cross-connect device – Horizontal wiring cross-connect device – Patch cables – Wiring hubs – Backup power for wiring hubs – Router and modems – Access server – Fire Sprinkler System The layout for the equipments in a wiring closet are put on the wall or in an equipment rack
  • 22. Cross-Connect Devices - I• Make easy to configure horizontal and backbone wiring• Terminates cable or group of cables• Adaptability is easy when the organization grows year after year• In data networks – Small cross-connect device will terminate backbone cable and make it available for connection to wiring hub• In wiring hub – Larger cross-connect device will terminate horizontal wiring before it enters hub
  • 23. Cross-Connect Devices - II66M Punch Down Patch Panel Block
  • 24. Cabinets and Racks• Patch panels and wiring hubs can mount on wall in brackets, stand in racks or reside in full cabinets that are racks with doors• If small installation – Mount patch panels and wiring hubs on wall
  • 25. Cabinets and Racks - II FullDistribution Equipment Rack Rack Cabinet
  • 26. Cables• Used to avoid damage to cable pairs and used to tie the cables• Ties come in many sizes and materials
  • 27. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)• Equip network file servers with backup power• Allow wiring hubs to go without power during power failure• VA system is more accurate than wattage rating• As a quick rule of thumb choose your UPS with VA rating at least two times the wattage rating consumption
  • 28. Conduits• Plastic pipes that run through wall plate between wiring closets• If space left: – Used to pull a new cable – Used as replacement for a bad one – For added capacity – New conduit should have a piece of string used to pull the cable in future• Fish tape – An equipment which is part of any installers toolbox – Consists of a reel of wire stiff enough to push its way through the conduit – When pulling through conduit ensure the power is turned off for those wires
  • 29. Cable Trays• Provide large cable system• Wire rack designed to carry the weight of the cables• Common in modern wiring closets and in building infrastructure spaces such as basements, airshafts, and ceiling• Point to note when cables run inside ceilings and walls
  • 30. Configuring Backbone Cable• Backbone wiring is also known as vertical wiring• TIA/EIA standard suggests that the backbone system should be a star configuration• Wiring closet that contain patch and cross-connect panels which connect to horizontal wiring• Backbone wiring link each wiring closet to cross-connect point or (MDF)• Locating the closet – Different parameters to keep in mind when going for closet• Backbone Cable – Modern installations use UTP or fiber-optic cable for the backbone
  • 31. Installation of Racks• Explains how to place networking equipments and accumulate different small equipment on the plate of the rack• Factors to be considered while installing the rack: – Location to install the rack – Installation holes marking – Installation of the rack nuts – Mount the different rails onto the rack – Mount the different devices onto the rack One U equals 1.75 inches
  • 32. Managing Cables• Cables: – Should not run over desk – Should not be entangled• To manage cables: – Free space on the desk where the cables will run – Holes at top of desk – Mount to protect cables
  • 33. Wire Manager• Used to mange wires that are common to one place• Tools used to manage wires: – Cable ties – Conduits – Twines – Cable manager – Labels – Spiral wraps – Unitags
  • 34. Labeling Cables• Used to identify path of the cables• Distinct color and pattern of code of cable label helps identify cables• Labels can be written with a pen or a pencil• Cables labeled using Label templates• Administrator has to label the outlet at the work area and fix the patch panel with the same number when making network connection Labels on Outlet

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