Office Plug Loads:      Energy Use and   Savings OpportunitiesSponsored by the California Energy Commission   Public Inter...
Our PresentersCathy HigginsProgram DirectorNew Buildings InstituteAmy Cortese RenbargerSenior Project ManagerNew Buildings...
Cathy Higgins - higgins@newbuildings.org
Topics         NBI:         • Definitions & Trends         • Key Performance           Indicators         • Measured Resul...
New Buildings Institute (nbi)• National non-profit, offices in  WA• Board of Directors represent  leaders in energy and gr...
Plug Loads: not hard wired, not in other end use categories AND not regulated by building energy codes         Office Equi...
Plug loads are One of the Largest and Fastest GrowingEnd-Uses of the Residential and Commercial Sectors                Sou...
% of Whole Building Energy – interesting            but deceptive           • Office equip., computers and otherCBECS     ...
Energy use trends                    9
Watts per square foot (W/SF) – Offices          power density* is a key performance indicator (KPI)                       ...
KPI: 24 hour SchedulePlug Load Power Density (W/SF)                                 11
Schedule of Use as a KPI – Plugs & Lights                                            12
Plug Loads – Field ExamplesAmy Cortese Renbarger - amy@newbuildings.org                                               13
Plug Loads at Tenant Spaces                              14
Plug Load Power Density                       Measured Performance (W/SF)   Office Location: Size                  Average...
Plug Load Power Density versus                       Lighting Power Density (W/SF)                                        ...
Plug Load Points• Plug loads in offices are now many times larger than  efficient lighting loads – program focus needed• E...
Q&A for nbi
total energy and sustainability managementMEASURED PLUG LOAD ENERGY SAVINGS INTWO CALIFORNIA COMMERCIAL BUILDINGSBy Chris ...
Value: Growing Results on Saving ResourcesTotal Energy & Sustainability Management      See More                Save More ...
Credentials: An Extension of More Businesses        •$18B in expenditures •450,000 sites                                  ...
ACKNOWLEDGMENT• Our funding  The report was prepared with the support of the California Energy  Commission’s Public Intere...
SUMMARY•   Plug loads are becoming an increasingly large share of commercial    building energy use•   New LEED-certified ...
PRESENTATION OUTLINE• Study objectives and methodology (Cat Mercier)• Key study results (Cat Mercier)   •   Plug load elec...
STUDY OBJECTIVES• Characterize electricity consumption of plug load devices in two  recently LEED-certified buildings in C...
TWO NORTHERN CALIFORNIA SITES SELECTED• LEED Gold public library (95,000 ft2)   •   48 employees, open 52 hours per week  ...
STUDY METHODOLOGY AND SCOPE                              27
OUR METERS RECORDED TIME SERIES DATAON INDIVIDUAL DEVICESAt intervals of one minute for one month                         ...
SAMPLE METER FILE FROM FIELD STUDY                                     29
PLUG LOAD ENERGY USE Device energy          Avg. device          Total # of devices                  =   energy use from  ...
PRESENTATION OUTLINE• Study objectives and methodology• Study results   •   Plug load electricity consumption in two Calif...
PLUG LOAD ELECTRICITY USE AT TWO  CALIFORNIA OFFICES  Which plug loads use the most energy?                      1%       ...
KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVINGS1) 62% of desktop computers at the small office and 40% of staff   (non-public) comput...
MOST OF TIME WHEN IDLE, COULD BE ASLEEPPower meter data of a desktop computer at the small office                   § Smal...
KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVINGS1) 62% of desktop computers at the small office and 40% of staff   (non-public) comput...
DRAWING POWER WHEN INACTIVEPower meter data of a printer, calculator and computer speakersat the small office             ...
KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVINGS1) 62% of desktop computers at the small office and 40% of staff   (non-public) comput...
POWER USE SHOULD BE PROPORTIONAL TOUTILIZATION                     Actual Power                                  Best     ...
KEY SAVINGS STRATEGIES• Enable aggressive power management settings   •   PCs and imaging equipment   •   Largest opportun...
Low- and no-cost strategies could save 40% ofAT THE SMALL OFFICEstudied plug load energy use                              ...
Low- and no-cost strategies could save 19% ofAT THE LIBRARYstudied plug load energy use                                   ...
POWER MANAGEMENT: DESKTOP COMPUTER                                        Base case: 356 kWh/year                         ...
MINI COMPUTER + POWER MANAGEMENT= 95% SAVINGSOther benefits: less desk or floor space, quieter, and create lesswaste heat ...
MINI COMPUTER + POWER MANAGEMENT =95% SAVINGS         No        Power        Mgmt.                                     44
MINI COMPUTERS WITH BASIC FUNCTIONALITY ANDULTRA-LOW POWER USE                                 Idle: 7.7 W                ...
LOAD-SENSOR PLUG STRIP ENERGY SAVINGS:OFFICE WORKSTATION                                            Base case: 114 kWh/yea...
TIMER PLUG STRIP: WORKSTATIONAT THE SMALL OFFICE                                        Base case: 375 kWh/year           ...
FEEDBACK MONITORING DEVICE ENERGYSAVINGS: OFFICE WORKSTATIONIn the timeframe of this study it was not possible to prove th...
ENERGY SAVINGS OPPORTUNITIES:SMALL SERVER ROOMS•   Excluded from previous plug load field metering studies•   Can use more...
PRESENTATION OUTLINE• Study objectives and methodology• Study results   •   Plug load electricity consumption in two Calif...
HOW CAN POLICY AND PROGRAM APPROACHESBEST ADDRESS THESE OPPORTUNITIES?• Power management of existing equipment   •   Netwo...
52
53
ADVANCED PLUG STRIPS•    Installing hardware control strategies to turn off devices when     they are not in use      • Ca...
55
PROXYING FOR REDUCING ENERGY• Network standby energy use has become a big concern  internationally because so many devices...
A SAMPLE OF A PROXY INSTALLED IN ACOMPUTER’S NETWORK INTERFACE CARD                     Source: B. Nordman, LBNL          ...
POPULAR TASKS AND ASSOCIATED POWER USE                                     58
POWER USE DURING NON-ACTIVE MODES                                    59
Source : IOUs Title 20 Efficiency StandardsWorkshop, August 2008                         60
Source : IOUs Title 20 Efficiency StandardsWorkshop, August 2008                         61
TOPTENUSA.ORG                62
FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS• Energy use of and savings opportunities for servers and server  closets• Savings potential from beh...
THANK YOU!             Catherine Mercier             Project lead, Research & Policy             Ecova             Durango...
New work…             Office Plug Loads:           Best Practice GuidelineOthers                        Others
Questions?     Download theExecutive Summary and      Full Report   Learn more:  www.ecova.comwww.newbuildings.org
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Office Plug Loads: Energy Use and Savings Opportunities

1,489
-1

Published on

This web conference, led by the New Buildings Institute and Ecova, presented the results of the commercial office plug load field monitoring study conducted on behalf of the California Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program. The study, completed in July 2011, characterized the energy consumption of plug load devices in commercial applications and explored opportunities for plug load energy savings.

For more information: www.esource.com/PIER

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,489
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Office Plug Loads: Energy Use and Savings Opportunities

  1. 1. Office Plug Loads: Energy Use and Savings OpportunitiesSponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program David Weightman, Energy Commission Specialist California Energy Commission dweightm@energy.state.ca.us Jenny Field, Marketing Manager E Source jenny_field@esource.com Thursday, January 26, 2012
  2. 2. Our PresentersCathy HigginsProgram DirectorNew Buildings InstituteAmy Cortese RenbargerSenior Project ManagerNew Buildings InstituteCatherine MercierProject Lead, Policy and ResearchEcovaChris CalwellSenior Fellow, Policy and ResearchEcova
  3. 3. Cathy Higgins - higgins@newbuildings.org
  4. 4. Topics NBI: • Definitions & Trends • Key Performance Indicators • Measured Results Examples Ecova: • Field Research • Office Equipment Energy Use • Savings Opportunities • Programs / Policy 4
  5. 5. New Buildings Institute (nbi)• National non-profit, offices in WA• Board of Directors represent leaders in energy and green building• Sponsors include progressive utilities, PBAs, market transformation entities and state governments• Strategic relationships with leading organizations including AIA, USGBC, WCEC, CLTC, CPUC, CEC• Strong staff of leading technical experts and project managers 5
  6. 6. Plug Loads: not hard wired, not in other end use categories AND not regulated by building energy codes Office Equipment: White Goods & Other:Computers & monitors Vending machinesSmall power supplies Large coffeeSpeakers machinesPrinters Water coolers (!!)Copiers and MFDs Large refrigeratorsFaxes Other appliancesScanners and multi-function Space heatersdevices (MFDs) Task lighting“I-Items” (chargers, phones,Ipads,etc.) SERVERS!!! Modified from Sabo, NYSERDA Power Mgmt. Program. 6
  7. 7. Plug loads are One of the Largest and Fastest GrowingEnd-Uses of the Residential and Commercial Sectors Source: Graph created by Ecova with data from EIA 2008 Annual Energy Outlook 7
  8. 8. % of Whole Building Energy – interesting but deceptive • Office equip., computers and otherCBECS • All commercial bldgs – 20% • All non-mall bldgs - 12% • Office equip., misc. equip.CEUS • All commercial bldgs – 13% • All offices – 23% • Small Oakland office all plug loads – 30% • Small Oakland office plugs without server closet –PIER 8% • 2003 Impact Assessment Office Equipment – 6% 8
  9. 9. Energy use trends 9
  10. 10. Watts per square foot (W/SF) – Offices power density* is a key performance indicator (KPI) Plug Load Performance Level Poor Standard High Perf Best Occupied Power Density W/SF 0.75 + 0.75 0.40 0.25 Peak Demand Density W/SF 1.5 + 1.5 1 0.75 nbi Sensitivity Analysis and PIER monitoring“It is now possible to realistically conceive of an office space that could have a peak plug load as low as 0.25 W/SF” Wilkins, Hosni, “Plug Load Factors” ASHRAE Journal May 2011*also called load factor 10
  11. 11. KPI: 24 hour SchedulePlug Load Power Density (W/SF) 11
  12. 12. Schedule of Use as a KPI – Plugs & Lights 12
  13. 13. Plug Loads – Field ExamplesAmy Cortese Renbarger - amy@newbuildings.org 13
  14. 14. Plug Loads at Tenant Spaces 14
  15. 15. Plug Load Power Density Measured Performance (W/SF) Office Location: Size Average Average Measured % of total (SF) Weekday Weekday Peak at night Daytime Night Irvine, CA 1 8,328 0.8 0.4 1.6 47% Irvine, CA 2 1,500 0.8 0.6 1.8 70% Rosemead, CA 16,500 0.5 0.3 0.7 63% Los Angeles, CA 8,024 1.5 1.46 2.1 97% Vancouver, BC 9,000 0.6 0.3 0.8 49%Source: nbi Office of the Future Pilot Project Monitoring 15
  16. 16. Plug Load Power Density versus Lighting Power Density (W/SF) Average Plug Load Average Weekday Power vs. Office Location: Size (SF) Weekday Daytime Efficient Daytime Plugs Lighting Lighting Irvine, CA 1 8,328 0.8 0.2 4x Irvine, CA 2 1,500 0.8 0.4 2x Rosemead, CA 16,500 0.5 0.5 equal Los Angeles, CA 8,024 1.5 0.3 5x Vancouver, BC 9,000 0.6 0.5 1.2 xSource: nbi Office of the Future PilotProject Monitoring 16
  17. 17. Plug Load Points• Plug loads in offices are now many times larger than efficient lighting loads – program focus needed• Even in the “best” offices, plug load use in the Unoccupied periods is at least 50% of the Occupied periods• Watts per SF and ratio of night-to-day energy use are KPIs• Differentiate servers from other plug loads and use consistent definitions and metrics 17
  18. 18. Q&A for nbi
  19. 19. total energy and sustainability managementMEASURED PLUG LOAD ENERGY SAVINGS INTWO CALIFORNIA COMMERCIAL BUILDINGSBy Chris Calwell and Catherine MercierJanuary 26, 2012 19
  20. 20. Value: Growing Results on Saving ResourcesTotal Energy & Sustainability Management See More Save More Sustain More Gain broad visibility Lower expenses & Build lasting and precise insight increase return on advantages for the into inefficiencies capital investments bottom line and the environment Data-driven + Fully managed + Technology-optimized 20
  21. 21. Credentials: An Extension of More Businesses •$18B in expenditures •450,000 sites 21
  22. 22. ACKNOWLEDGMENT• Our funding The report was prepared with the support of the California Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.• Our team • Catherine Mercier, Ecova • Laura Moorefield, Ecova • Chris Calwell, Ecova • Craig Billingsley, Ecova • Cathy Turner, New Buildings Institute • Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute • Dan Harris, New Buildings Institute • Lia Webster, Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. • Erin Rowe, Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. • Eric Greensfelder, Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. • Mark Effinger, Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. 22
  23. 23. SUMMARY• Plug loads are becoming an increasingly large share of commercial building energy use• New LEED-certified buildings point the way to extraordinary energy savings potential, yet even buildings that are otherwise very efficient can fail to meet energy use projections if the plug loads installed in them are inefficient and occupant behaviors remain unchanged• Even LEED-certified buildings can significantly reduce their plug load energy use through a variety of strategies• Need more comprehensive and ambitious policy action 23
  24. 24. PRESENTATION OUTLINE• Study objectives and methodology (Cat Mercier)• Key study results (Cat Mercier) • Plug load electricity consumption in two California offices • Savings opportunities and measures • Summary of plug load energy savings at the two site• How can policy and utility program approaches best address these opportunities? (Chris Calwell) 24
  25. 25. STUDY OBJECTIVES• Characterize electricity consumption of plug load devices in two recently LEED-certified buildings in California• Explore opportunities for plug load energy savings in these two buildings• Test a variety of hardware, software and occupant behavior energy reduction strategies• If the above energy reduction strategies are successful, identify actions that utilities and policy makers could take to secure these savings throughout California’s commercial buildings 25
  26. 26. TWO NORTHERN CALIFORNIA SITES SELECTED• LEED Gold public library (95,000 ft2) • 48 employees, open 52 hours per week • Includes private offices and a public area; both areas were monitored• LEED Platinum small office building (14,000ft2) • 20 employees • Typically occupied 60 hours per week 26
  27. 27. STUDY METHODOLOGY AND SCOPE 27
  28. 28. OUR METERS RECORDED TIME SERIES DATAON INDIVIDUAL DEVICESAt intervals of one minute for one month 28
  29. 29. SAMPLE METER FILE FROM FIELD STUDY 29
  30. 30. PLUG LOAD ENERGY USE Device energy Avg. device Total # of devices = energy use from X use inventoried meteringTotal plug load energy use = Sum of the energy use of all devices 30
  31. 31. PRESENTATION OUTLINE• Study objectives and methodology• Study results • Plug load electricity consumption in two California offices • Savings opportunities and measures • Summary of plug load energy savings at the two site• How can policy approaches best address these opportunities? 31
  32. 32. PLUG LOAD ELECTRICITY USE AT TWO CALIFORNIA OFFICES Which plug loads use the most energy? 1% Misc. 11% 5% Imaging Misc. Equip. 17% Imaging Equip. and Computer 20% Peripherals Monitors 9% Monitors 69% Computers 68% ComputersLibrary Small OfficePlug load Electricity Use Breakdown Plug load Electricity Use BreakdownTotal= 66,300 kWh/yr (0.7 kWh/ft2) Total=13,100 kWh/yr (0.94 kWh /ft2) 32
  33. 33. KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVINGS1) 62% of desktop computers at the small office and 40% of staff (non-public) computers at the library were often left operating in active or idle mode overnight and on weekends.2) Printers and multifunction devices were used rarely, but drew 6 to 51 W when not in use.3) Most computer peripherals metered, such as computer speakers, used power continuously when not in use.4) Most LCD computer monitors, desktop computers and imaging equipment metered drew high active power compared with high- efficiency models available today.5) Some imaging equipment and miscellaneous plug loads such as projectors and the solid ink printer were not very numerous, but each device consumed a significant amount of energy and did not appear to scale power consumption effectively to usage. 33
  34. 34. MOST OF TIME WHEN IDLE, COULD BE ASLEEPPower meter data of a desktop computer at the small office § Small amount of time in active mode § Lots of time in idle mode at night and on weekends 34
  35. 35. KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVINGS1) 62% of desktop computers at the small office and 40% of staff (non-public) computers at the library were often left operating in active or idle mode overnight and on weekends.2) Printers and multifunction devices were used rarely, but drew 6 to 51 W when not in use.3) Most computer peripherals metered, such as computer speakers, used power continuously when not in use.4) Most LCD computer monitors, desktop computers and imaging equipment metered drew high active power compared with high- efficiency models available today.5) Some imaging equipment and miscellaneous plug loads such as projectors and the solid ink printer were not very numerous, but each device consumed a significant amount of energy and did not appear to scale power consumption effectively to usage. 35
  36. 36. DRAWING POWER WHEN INACTIVEPower meter data of a printer, calculator and computer speakersat the small office 36
  37. 37. KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY SAVINGS1) 62% of desktop computers at the small office and 40% of staff (non-public) computers at the library were often left operating in active or idle mode overnight and on weekends.2) Printers and multifunction devices were used rarely, but drew 6 to 51 W when not in use.3) Most computer peripherals metered, such as computer speakers, used power continuously when not in use.4) Most LCD computer monitors, desktop computers and imaging equipment metered drew high active power compared with high- efficiency models available today.5) Some imaging equipment and miscellaneous plug loads such as projectors and the solid ink printer were not very numerous, but each device consumed a significant amount of energy and did not appear to scale power consumption effectively to usage. 37
  38. 38. POWER USE SHOULD BE PROPORTIONAL TOUTILIZATION Actual Power Best 0% Workload, functionality, or useful output 100% 38
  39. 39. KEY SAVINGS STRATEGIES• Enable aggressive power management settings • PCs and imaging equipment • Largest opportunity• Use load-sensor plug strips and timers to minimize off-hours energy use• Adjust brightness settings of computer monitors• Occupant behavior measures • Energy monitoring feedback devices • Outlook reminders to encourage office occupants to turn off devices when not in use• Highly efficient equipment • Shift from desktop computers to micro-sized desktops with basic functionality and ultra-low power use when possible • Replace inefficient equipment with comparable, high-efficiency TopTen models (http://www.toptenusa.org/) • Cost-effective at procurement cycle 39
  40. 40. Low- and no-cost strategies could save 40% ofAT THE SMALL OFFICEstudied plug load energy use 40
  41. 41. Low- and no-cost strategies could save 19% ofAT THE LIBRARYstudied plug load energy use 41
  42. 42. POWER MANAGEMENT: DESKTOP COMPUTER Base case: 356 kWh/year Improved case: 153 kWh/year 400 Energy reduction = 202 kWh/year (57%) 350Annual Energy Consumption (kWh) 300 -57% 250 No 200 Power Mgmt. 150 With 100 Power Mgmt. 50 0 42
  43. 43. MINI COMPUTER + POWER MANAGEMENT= 95% SAVINGSOther benefits: less desk or floor space, quieter, and create lesswaste heat Office desktop computer: rarely used but always on Replaced with mini computer with power management enabled 43
  44. 44. MINI COMPUTER + POWER MANAGEMENT =95% SAVINGS No Power Mgmt. 44
  45. 45. MINI COMPUTERS WITH BASIC FUNCTIONALITY ANDULTRA-LOW POWER USE Idle: 7.7 W Idle: 8.0 W 45
  46. 46. LOAD-SENSOR PLUG STRIP ENERGY SAVINGS:OFFICE WORKSTATION Base case: 114 kWh/year Improved case: 61 kWh/year 120 Energy reduction: 52 kWh/year (46%) 100 Computer Speakers Annual Energy Consumption (kWh) -46% Laser Printer 80 Computer Monitor 60 -79% -77% 40 -7% 20 0 BASELINE CASE IMPROVED CASE - LOAD-SENSOR PLUG STRIP 46
  47. 47. TIMER PLUG STRIP: WORKSTATIONAT THE SMALL OFFICE Base case: 375 kWh/year Improved case: 214 kWh/year 400 Energy reduction = 161 kWh/year (43%) 375 350 Computer Speakers 325 Calculating MachineAnnual Energy Consumption (kWh) 300 -43% 275 Computer Monitor 250 Laser Printer 225 -65% 200 -65% 175 0% 150 125 100 -48% 75 50 25 0 BASELINE CASE IMPROVED CASE - TIMER PLUG STRIP Small Office 47
  48. 48. FEEDBACK MONITORING DEVICE ENERGYSAVINGS: OFFICE WORKSTATIONIn the timeframe of this study it was not possible to prove that thesesavings would persist over time 48
  49. 49. ENERGY SAVINGS OPPORTUNITIES:SMALL SERVER ROOMS• Excluded from previous plug load field metering studies• Can use more kWh than all other office plug loads combined• Ripe for more research• Large savings potential 49
  50. 50. PRESENTATION OUTLINE• Study objectives and methodology• Study results • Plug load electricity consumption in two California offices • Savings opportunities and measures • Summary of plug load energy savings at the two site• How can policy approaches best address these opportunities? 50
  51. 51. HOW CAN POLICY AND PROGRAM APPROACHESBEST ADDRESS THESE OPPORTUNITIES?• Power management of existing equipment • Network wide settings • Local settings under administrative control • Microsoft windows defaults not always maximizing savings• After market hardware retrofits • Advanced plug strips and timers to control legacy equipment• Procure more efficient office equipment • Network proxying for reducing energy consumption • Power scaling in energy efficiency specifications • Title 20 for office electronics • Plug load peak power density requirement in Title 24• Aggressive education and awareness campaigns for staff about efficient behaviors and usage patterns 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. ADVANCED PLUG STRIPS• Installing hardware control strategies to turn off devices when they are not in use • Can reduce energy consumption significantly • This benefit must be weighed against the cost of purchasing and installing these control strategies • Standby power : < 1 W • There is a need for a standardized test procedure • The Consumer Electronic/Plug Load Summit and the NEEP Working Groups• Timers and timer plug strips • Unnoticed by participants • Good options to control devices with regular schedules• Load-sensor plug strips, automatically turn off power to devices when the current draw drops below a certain threshold • Savings ranged widely and depended on user’s behavior • Low-cost measure to eliminate the energy use of often- forgotten computer peripherals at some workstations 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. PROXYING FOR REDUCING ENERGY• Network standby energy use has become a big concern internationally because so many devices that previously were able to sleep most of the time now remain awake and using energy 100% of the time because they are connected to networks.• Networked devices maintain a steady, low level of communication with each other to verify that they are still on the network.• Proxying involves a change to IT hardware design that allows a small, separate circuit to maintain the device’s connection to the network, without needing the primary CPU (and associated hardware) to operate.• The proxying card or circuit wakes up the main device as needed to act on particular requests from the network, but otherwise allows it to sleep most of the time.• The first IT products with this capability have been introduced over the last 18 months; more to follow with policy and program encouragement. 56
  57. 57. A SAMPLE OF A PROXY INSTALLED IN ACOMPUTER’S NETWORK INTERFACE CARD Source: B. Nordman, LBNL 57
  58. 58. POPULAR TASKS AND ASSOCIATED POWER USE 58
  59. 59. POWER USE DURING NON-ACTIVE MODES 59
  60. 60. Source : IOUs Title 20 Efficiency StandardsWorkshop, August 2008 60
  61. 61. Source : IOUs Title 20 Efficiency StandardsWorkshop, August 2008 61
  62. 62. TOPTENUSA.ORG 62
  63. 63. FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS• Energy use of and savings opportunities for servers and server closets• Savings potential from behavioral changes• Incremental cost of measures• Plug load demand impacts• Equipment and technology improvements• Continuous outreach and education efforts• Consistent plug load definitions for benchmarking• In order to provide adequate feedback to building occupants, the wiring of commercial buildings needs to be done differently to meter key sub-systems. 63
  64. 64. THANK YOU! Catherine Mercier Project lead, Research & Policy Ecova Durango, CO cmercier@ecova.com (970) 259-6801 ext. 311 Chris Calwell Senior fellow, Research & Policy Ecova Durango, CO ccalwell@ecova.com (970) 259-6801 ext. 301 64
  65. 65. New work… Office Plug Loads: Best Practice GuidelineOthers Others
  66. 66. Questions? Download theExecutive Summary and Full Report Learn more: www.ecova.comwww.newbuildings.org
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×