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Urs Muntwyler  - International Energy Agency - The Future for Electric Vehilces and Renewables
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Urs Muntwyler - International Energy Agency - The Future for Electric Vehilces and Renewables


The future will be “renewable and electric” and needs worldwide efforts: an invitation to Ireland!!

The future will be “renewable and electric” and needs worldwide efforts: an invitation to Ireland!!

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  • 1. The future will be “renewable and electric” and needs worldwide efforts: an invitation to Ireland!! Urs Muntwyler Chair Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Implementing Agreement (IA) - of the International Energy Agency (IEA) 1
  • 2. Contents of this presentation • Current status of vehicle technology in the world and the energy challenge • Needs and benefits of international collaboration • The International Energy Agency (IEA) • What is the IEA Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Implementing Agreement (IA-HEV)? • Actual work in phase 3 (2005-2009) • How countries can participate in the IA HEV network • Invitation to Ireland as regular member in the 4 th phase of the Implementing Agreement “Hybrid- and electric vehicles” 2
  • 3. Current status figures 1998 population private vehicles/ [Mio] cars 1000 inh. [Mio] IEA countries 852 516,4 606 tiger states 1‘767 159 90 develop. 3‘235 31,6 10 countries With 300 vehicles/ 1‘000 inhabitants:  ca. 2 Mia. vehicles (x 3)  3-liter-car! 3
  • 4. Current Status of Vehicle Technology Workshop IEA Transportation IA Paris 2008 4
  • 5. Current Status of Vehicle Technology 5 © Muntwyler Energietechnik AG
  • 6. New Annex “Lessons learned” 6
  • 7. a winning combination for the future: PV+EV/PHEV! source: PHOTON Range achieved by the energy produced on 1 ha land (the bar of the plug-in-hybrid vehicle is 7 times longer than shown here)  The PHEV (consumption 16 kWh/100 km) using solar energy produced by a PV installation on 1 ha drives 150 times further than a car (consumption 6,5 l/ 100 km fuel equivalent) using bio-ethanol extracted from grain produced on 1 ha. 7
  • 8. Strategy = international collaboration automotive industry Governments act within the boundaries of their acts globally country Workshop IEA Transportation IA Paris 2008 8
  • 9. The IEA Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Implementing Agreement (IA HEV) • The IEA (International Energy Agency) is a Paris based organisation of 28 Governments interested in energy issues • The IEA has 42 different technical collaboration-programmes all kind of energy fields, one of them the IA HEV. • The IA HEV is a working group of actual 12 governments (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, USA) interested in advanced vehicle technologies. • An Executive Committee directs the work of the task forces, plans new initiatives, and disseminates the information produced • The IA HEV works by setting up task forces (called “Anne- xes”) on particular hybrid-, fuel cell- and electric vehicle subjects 9
  • 10. Some activities in phase 3: 2004 - 2009 Work continued on: • Information Exchange (Annex I) • Electrochemical Systems (Annex X) New Task forces (Annexes and other activities): • IA HEV Award (not as Annex) • Electric Cycles (Annex XI) • Renewable Energy for Transportation (not yet started) • Hybrid Heavy Duty Vehicles (Annex XII) • Fuel Cells for Vehicles (Annex XIII) • Lessons Learned (follow-up; Annex XIV) • HEVs outlook-report (not as Annex) • Plug-In-Hybrid Vehicles (Annex XV started march 2008) 10
  • 11. Hybrid Vehicles working group (Annex VII) • Passenger cars tend to cost a constant share of disposable income - features are added to increase price • Drive trains only represent 8% - 12% of the costs of a car - dealer/warranty costs are largest share • A “fuel pay-back” period of 3-5 years would make hybrid vehicles cost-competitive. • Consumers can afford hybrid cars, but should be motivated to want them. 11
  • 12. Elektrochemical Systems (Annex X) Batteries made a remarkable progress since 1994 (compare with the forecast by our experts of Annex V in 1996): 12
  • 13. Lithium Ion Technology versus Goals Power-Assist HEV Goals (Low Power) Discharge Pulse Power (25 kW) Operating Temperature 140% Regenerative Pulse Power Range (-30 to +52 °C) 120% (20 kW) 100% 80% Self Discharge (50 Wh/day) 60% Available Energy (300 Wh) 40% 20% Selling Price ($500/system 0% @100k/yr) Efficiency (90%) System Volume (32 L) Cycle Life (300k on 25Wh profile) System Weight (40 kg) Calendar Life (15 Years) FreedomCAR Goals Lithium Ion 13
  • 14. Lithium Ion Technology versus Goals EV Goals Specific Power-Discharge (300 W/kg) Operating Temperature 140% Range (-40 to +50 °C) 120% Specific Energy-C/3 (150 100% Wh/kg) 80% 60% 40% 20% Production Price @10k/yr 0% Power Density (460 ($150/kWh) W/liter) Calendar Life (10 years) Energy Density-C/3 (230 Wh/liter) Cycle Life-80% DOD (1,000 cycles) USABC EV Goals Lithium Ion Workshop IEA Transportation IA Paris 2008 14
  • 15. Deployment Strategies working group (Annex VIII) • Evaluation of more than 100 government promotion measures for clean vehicles (electric, hybrid-, alternative fuel vehicles) • investigation of factors decisive for success and failures • set of recommendations for the market introduction first joint annex of two Implementing Agreements (HEV and Advanced Motor Fuels AMF) in IEA - history 15
  • 16. New Annex “Lessons learned” In the past 20 years, many electric and hybrid vehicle models have been introduced on the market. Some where successful, many disappeared again. The task force „Deployment Strategies“ (Annex VIII) investigates the reasons for „failures“ and „successes“. This investigation will improve the success-rate of new vehicles and technologies. operating agent: Tom Turrentine ITS UC Davis 16
  • 17. History: Tour de Sol 1985 Workshop IEA Transportation IA Paris 2008 17
  • 18. History: Tour de Sol 1985 - 93 • Prototyping 1991 EtterTron, ESORO, Horlacher Carbon Horlacher City (1991) Horlacher Consequento (1993) ESORO E301 (1993) Horlacher Coupé (1994) 18
  • 19. History: EVs for fleet tests VW „CityStromer“ 1995-2000;: ca 200 items sold Citroën AX/Saxo électrique 1993-2004 Opel „Impuls“ 1991: 10 test vehicles on Rügen Peugeot 106 electric 1993-2003 series production conversion EVs by car manufacturers: all production stopped around 2003/2004. PSA sold about 4‘000 vehicles (Citroën+Peugeot) 19
  • 20. History: reaction on mandates/legislation purpose design EVs by car manufacturers: all production stopped 20
  • 21. Presence: purpose design „Survivor“?: TH!NK Nordic former PIV since 1998 ca. 1000 items produced (under FORD) bought by TH!NK nordic, bancrupcy 2006, now new attempt with new models incl. FC motor 27 kW battery NiCd 19x6V Cleanova by Heuliez-Dassault motor permanent magnet battery Li-ion 16 - 30 kWh 21
  • 22. Presence: conversion design SMART ed motor permanent magnet 30 kW battery Na NiCl 78 Ah (ZEBRA) max. speed 100 km/h range 150 km TWINGO Quickshift elettra motor AC asynchronous 16 kW battery NaNiCl 60 Ah, 19,5 kWh max.speed 120 km/h range 130 km FIAT Panda elettrica motor AC asynchronous battery NaNiCl 78 Ah ZEBRA max.speed 110 km/h range 130 km 22
  • 23. New Annex “Lessons learned” hybrid vehicles great market success: Toyota Prius with nearly 1 million vehicles/ several Lexus models HONDA IMA more than 100‘000 vehicles sold 23
  • 24. The IA HEV “Clean Vehicle Award”  The “Clean Vehicle Award” is given to manufacturers with outstanding sales figures (surpassing thresholds of 25'000, 50'000, 100'000, or more than 250'000 clean vehicles sold).  The “Best Practice Award” is given to the organizers of an outstanding promotion project  The “Personal Award” is given to a person that has dedicated her/his work to the development or promotion of clean vehicles in an outstanding way. 24
  • 25. Energy ressources in the world Copyright Muntwylers SolarAkademie 25 © Copyright Muntwylers SolarAkademie
  • 26. Tour de Sol: EV+PV grid-connected 26 © Copyright Muntwylers SolarAkademie
  • 27. Future energy supply of Europe Grafik: ABB 100% production with hydro-/ solar- and windenergy
  • 28. New subtask “PHVs and smart grids” The winning combination of future mobility is: - electric drive trains - renewable energies - linked to a smart grid (see Internet...) The use of renewable energies as hydro-, wind-, solar-, biomass-, waste-, -wave eetc. -energies offers a broad range of efficient combinations. Subtask leader: Robert Horbaty (CH) 28
  • 29. Elements of “Smart Grids” …. including storage capacities in Plug-In Hybrid cars 19.02.2009 Source: Andrew Tang, Senior Director - Smart Energy Web, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Plugin 2008
  • 30. Possible Development of the V2G- Concept Grid regulating ancillary servecies Vehicle to Grid V2G Deployment V2G Smart Charging bi-directional Vehicle to home V2H Smart Charging Grid to vehicle G2V Charging A everywhere Charging at Home 2008 19.02.2009 2010 2012 2014 Quelle: ENCO Energie-Consulting AG
  • 31. EBL* Solar Power Station since 1992 A 19.02.2009 EBL = Swiss Utility
  • 32. EU Future Network Vision: „Smart Grids“ ... Prediction Small Hydro Off-Shore Wind Big Hydro Biomass Thermal Power Plant CHP Appartements Solar Photovoltaic Efficient Energy use PHEV 19.02.2009 CHP Offices and Industry Thermal Storage
  • 33. IEA IA Hybrid & Electric Vehicles 4th phase 2009-2014 The IEA Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Agreement looks forward to continuing to provide balanced, reliable information for member Governments and research organizations, and encourages new Governments and organizations to join. We invite Ireland to join our efforts and to participate as member country in the Implementing Agreement Hybrid- and Electric Vehicles (IA HEV). Contact: Mr. Martijn van Walwijk , Secretary <>
  • 34. Thank you for your attention 34