Youth in Action        mobilising      the potential          of young        EuropeansYouth Support:                    s...
ȩ2FCȩ@CLCȏ ȩRQȩ                             include a broadened understanding among                             the partic...
ͷȧ young people, as well as to stimulate research             the Youth in Action national agencies and the               ...
Y O U T H          S U P P O R T   32. Euro–African partnership for                          MPE?LGQ?RGMLQȩ˜ȩCBSA?RGML?Jȩ,...
’3. New impetus for structured                            QRP?RCEWȩDCCBGLEȩAMLRGLSMSQȩHMGLRȩPCȐȩCARGMLȩMLȩ                ...
ȩRȩGLTMJTCQȩ                                                         consultations with young people and youth            ...
4    Y O U T H         I N    A C T I O N    The aim was to            4. Practice meets research                         ...
Y O U T H        S U P P O R T           56. Overcoming stereotypes in                               social implications a...
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Youth support-nc3211909enc

  1. 1. Youth in Action mobilising the potential of young EuropeansYouth Support: stronger backing for youth projects T he Youth in Action programme provides the opportunity for those involved in youth work to come together and compare experiences, and helps improve the quality of their work — and get better results out of the programme. It funds training for youth workers and people working in youth organisations. It also promotes research into youth work, forming a much-needed bridge between RFCMPWȩ?LBȩNP?ARGACȩGLȩRFGQȩ?PC?
  2. 2. ȩ2FCȩ@CLCȏ ȩRQȩ include a broadened understanding among the participants of the challenges facing WMSLEȩNCMNJCȩ˜ȩLMR?@JWȩDMPȩRFMQCȩQSȎ ȩCPGLEȩ disadvantages or from minorities. Projects have boosted the expertise of youth workers in areas ranging from structured dialogue, RFPMSEFȩCȎ ȩCARGTCȩAMKKSLGA?RGMLȩQIGJJQȩRMȩ teamwork. They have also helped young people to achieve a better transition between school education and professional lives, to tackle the problems of unemployment among Youth in Action ͷ Programme
  3. 3. ͷȧ young people, as well as to stimulate research the Youth in Action national agencies and the on the impact of non-formal learning on key SALTO resource centres have increasingly ‘As a consequence of delivered high quality training events and competencies for lifelong learning.training trainers, I am built competence among youth workers, youth now on the trainers These actions range from job shadowing to leaders and youth researchers. This has provedpanel for the national feasibility visits, from evaluation meetings to a valuable method of securing quality levels agency and continue study visits, and to supporting partnership- across the Youth in Action programme and to deliver many building and networking activities in areas such of assuring better recognition of non-formal training sessions for as intercultural learning. Project promoters, education. it. I have learnt somuch about the Youth in Action programme that I integrate it into my professional life and share myknowledge with many organisations.’ Some of the many Youth Support projects completed so far 1. Making information available to reviewed, including how it supports and interacts young people with youth information work. The experience gained by the representative of the youth non- This 12-day job-shadowing project hosted in 2010 governmental organisation was shared with other by ‘In Petto’, a youth information service in Antwerp, QR?Ȏ ȩȩKCK@CPQȩQMȩRF?RȩRFCWȩAMSJBȩJC?PLȩDPMKȩRFCȩ DMASQCBȩMLȩBGȎ ȩCPCLRȩ?QNCARQȩMDȩWMSRFȩGLDMPK?RGMLȩ Belgian/Flemish experience and create strategies work: management, information development for the further development of a planned youth and distribution (printed and online), dealing information centre in Novi Sad (Serbia). with questions from young people, detecting information needs, selecting topics, involving young Project funded by people, networking, and use of media and online the Youth in Action national agency in the Flemish-speaking communication channels. Attention was given to community of Belgium cooperation between the national, regional and Hosting organisation: local levels, peer-to-peer work and the use of ͬ In Petto, Youth Service Information and Prevention, Belgium. social games as methods for disseminating youth Partner organisation: ͬ Omladinska nevladina organizacija (youth non-governmental information. Youth policy in Flanders was also organisation), Serbia.
  4. 4. Y O U T H S U P P O R T 32. Euro–African partnership for MPE?LGQ?RGMLQȩ˜ȩCBSA?RGML?Jȩ,%-QȩMȎ ȩCPGLEȩ youth work intercultural learning opportunities for young people around the world.Empowering youth organisations and structures Project funded byin Ghanaian, Kenyan and South African civil the the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agencysociety was the aim of this project. A group of in Brussels24 experienced youth workers from 11 Europeancountries travelled to these countries to work Coordinating organisation: ͬ The European Federation for Intercultural Learning, Belgium.with 96 local youth workers and multipliers.Subsequently, a seminar in Europe in August 2010 Partner organisations: Intercultura — AFS Portugal, Portugal; Organisation forbrought together European youth workers and Intercultural Education, Kenya; AFS Intercultura Espana, Spain;six African participants to share experiences and $1ȩSQQR?SQAFNPMEP?KKCȩDɊPȩLRCPISJRSPCJJCQȩ*CPLCLȩSQRPG?ȩBCȏ ȩLCȩNMQQG@JCȩN?RFQȩ?FC?BȩDMPȩDSRSPCȩ#SPMzDPGA?Lȩ AFS Programmes interculturels asbl, Belgium; AFS Intercultur,relations, which were compiled in a guide on Denmark; AFS Magyarország, Hungary; Intercultura, Italy; AFS Intercultural Programs Finland ry, Finland; AFS Iceland, Iceland;~$?AGJGR?RGLEȩ?ȩQSQR?GL?@JCȩ#SPMzDPGA?LȩN?PRLCPQFGNȩ AFS Interkulturelle Begegnungen, Germany; AFS Interculterelefor change’. Programma’s v.z.w., Belgium; AFS Starptautiskas Apmainas Programmas Latvija, Latvia; Intercultural Exchange Programmes,The European Federation for Intercultural Learning Ghana; AFS Interculture South Africa, Zambia.that coordinated the project is a European umbrellaorganisation of 27 American Field Service (AFS) 2 T E ST I MO N I A L S‘ Ichallenge able to use mywork with youngsters in am now stereotypes. I personal experience to ‘ Projects like this not only help individual AFS MPE?LGQ?RGMLQ–RM–EPMU–@SR–MĶ –CP–DSPRFCP–GLRCPASJRSP?J– Latvia with the AFS goal in mind — to educate learning opportunities for AFS volunteers. Such NCMNJC–RM–@C–KMPC–RMJCP?LR–RMU?PBQ–BGĶ –CPCLACQ–GL projects spread the idea of AFS and foster a better the hope of building a peaceful world. ’ world through the people involved in the project and RFMQC–RMSAFCB–@W–GR–BSPGLE–?LB–?Ĺ –CP–RFC–CVNCPGCLAC
  5. 5. ’3. New impetus for structured QRP?RCEWȩDCCBGLEȩAMLRGLSMSQȩHMGLRȩPCȐȩCARGMLȩMLȩ Participants were dialogue #SPMNC?LȩAMMNCP?RGMLȩGLȩRFCȩWMSRFȩȏ ȩCJB
  6. 6. ȩRȩGLTMJTCQȩ consultations with young people and youth able to shareThe francophone youth council in Belgium (Conseil organisations at all levels in Member States, and at good practice, EU youth conferences organised by the presidencyde Jeunesse de la Communauté française de and discuss toolsBelgique) brought together 33 representatives of countries, and has focused on themes such asthe national working groups for structured dialogue. youth employment. that should beThis involved European youth councils and youth Project funded by developed andorganisations from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Youth in Action national agency in the Flemish-speaking strategies thatCyprus, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, community of Belgiumthe Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, could promote Hosting organisation:Sweden and the UK. The aim was to improve the ͬ Conseil de la jeunesse de la Communauté française, Belgium. structuredstructured dialogue instituted by the EU trio of Partner organisations:presidencies of Belgium, Hungary and Spain. Portuguese National Youth Council, Portugal; Cyprus Youth dialogue in Council, Cyprus; Dutch National Youth Council, the Netherlands;Participants met in December 2010 in Belgium and the National Council of Swedish Youth Organisations, Sweden; countries wherewere able to share good practice, and to discuss Youth Society for Peace and Development of the Balkans, Bulgaria; this is not yettools that should be developed and strategies that Mladinski svet Slovenije, Slovenia; Gyermek és Ifjúsági Konferencia,could promote structured dialogue in countries Hungary; Csoport-éka Association, Hungary; Consejo de la Juventud established de Castilla y León, Spain; CNAJEP, France; Austrian Youth Councilwhere this is not yet established. Structured (OJV), Austria; Deutscher Bundesjugendring / German Federaldialogue with youth is integral to the EU youth Youth Council, Germany.
  7. 7. 4 Y O U T H I N A C T I O N The aim was to 4. Practice meets research representatives of the Youth in Action national agencies, youth departments, and the Lithuanianstimulate research Ministry of Social Security and Labour. The project This three-day seminar, which took place in on the impact Lithuania in December 2010, marked a milestone was organised by the Lithuanian Association of in the recognition of non-formal education through Non-formal Education and organisations involved in of non-formal the UNIQUE network, which focuses its work on the evidenced-based research. It strengthened learning on key cooperation among researchers and practitioners recognition of non-formal learning, learning to learn and support measures for trainers. competences for providing non-formal learning in the context of youth work. The aim was to stimulate research Project funded by lifelong learning on the impact of non-formal learning on key the Youth in Action national agency in Lithuania competences for lifelong learning. Hosting organisation: ͬ Lietuvos neformaliojo ugdymo asociacija, Lithuania. Twenty-two youth work practitioners and Partner organisations: educational researchers from European countries Unique — Verein fuer Innovation und Qualitaet in der Bildung, Austria; Ushangary, Finland; Pame Ambro, Italy; NGO Support took part, and gained a better understanding of Centre, Cyprus; Rede Inducar, CRL, Portugal; IKAB — Bildungswerg each other’s contexts. Existing practices and trends e.V, Germany; Generation and Educational Science Institute — in research methodologies, youth work and non- GENESIS, Austria; COS-Cooperativa de Educacao, Cooperacao formal learning were reviewed. The programme was e Desenvolvimento, CRL, Portugal; Citizens in Action, Greece; Assocation Cazalla Intercultural, Spain; TiPovej Institute for creative designed to develop follow-up actions combining society, Slovenia; Dutch National Youth Council, the Netherlands; youth work, non-formal learning and research. Generation and Educational Science Institute — GENESIS, Discussions also took place with decision-makers, Germany.4 T E ST I MO N I A L S ‘ The seminar was a T?JS?@JC–ĺ –PQR–QRCN ‘ Finding aeducation between good match generating ideas for research and non-formal introductory seminars on education will always research methodologies take time, creativity and and creating a com- munity of research and the will to learn. ’ education practitioners. ’ ‘ The seminar opened up avenues that are now being explored. ’ 5. Dialogue to deter youth training course took place in Bansko (Bulgaria) in extremism 2010. Project funded by This project brought together 24 young activists the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency DPMKȩBGȎ ȩCPCLRȩASJRSP?Jȩ?LBȩPCJGEGMSQȩ@?AIEPMSLBQȩ in Brussels from Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Israel, and Coordinating organisation: the Palestinian Authority of the West Bank and ͬ Euro Mediterranean Centre for Cross-cultural Dialogue, Bulgaria. Gaza Strip. It explored what role youth and youth Partner organisations: organisations can play in intercultural and inter- Development no Borders, Egypt; Centro Studi ed Iniziative Europeo, religious dialogue in preventing violent extremism Italy; Abu-Assukar Centre for Peace and Dialogue, Palestine; among young people, particularly through using Youth Division of Tel. Aviv Municipality, Israel; Youth Human Rights Initiative, Greece. interactive non-formal methods. The six-day
  8. 8. Y O U T H S U P P O R T 56. Overcoming stereotypes in social implications and related media responsibility. Kigali The participants were helped to develop skills so they could multiply their experience and learningKigali served as a living classroom in this project, back home.in which participants heard from survivors of Project funded bymutilations, amputations and massacres in Rwanda the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agencyin 1994, and saw the memorials and the recovery in Brusselsunderway in society. It aimed to help form a new Coordinating organisation:generation of young journalists that could promote ͬ European Peer Training Organisation, Belgium. Partner organisations:a culture of peace and diversity. In 2011 the project Pistes Solidaires, France; Instants Productions asbl, Belgium; Ligabrought together a network of 12 journalists from Pentru Educatie Culture si Sport, Romania; Urungano Youth Media,Europe and 12 from Africa, to raise their awareness Rwanda; Bolu Valiligi — Bolu Governorship, Turkey; 33-Europe enof their own stereotypes and prejudices, and the Espana, Spain; Iriba Afrique asbl, Burundi; BE International O.S., Czech Republic; Tartu Rotaract Klubi, Estonia. 6 T ES T I M O N I AL S ‘ Duringand days of confronted theirjournalists from Africa 12 Europe training where own stereotypes ‘ Peopleand white people black may think that ‘ Discrimination andsociety separation within and prejudices, I learnt a lot and I understood one ?PC–BGĶ–CPCLR–RF?R–QMKC only generate negative thing above all: all human beings are equal. ’ are superior to others, thoughts and actions. It ‘ All kinds ofthey distort yourpreventand they create positively, discrimination focus you from thinking but in reality these are only barriers that people does not matter where you are from — neither unnecessary divisions. They stop you moving forward have created: people are your race nor your and making great achievements as a human being. ’ all the same. ’ ’ origin.7. Paths to working life education for young unemployed people. The The main main achievement was that participants obtained new ideas for reducing youth unemployment achievementThis training course, which took place in Finlandin 2010, developed youth workers’ skills to make among early school leavers, and gained additional was that the understanding of unemployment issues anduse of the Youth in Action programme, especially participantsthe European Voluntary Service (EVS). It provided practices to deal with them. They shared ideas forpractical learning opportunities for 25 participants improving the transition between school education obtainedfrom Finland, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and professional lives. The project also provided new ideas for1UCBCLȩ?LBȩ2SPICWȩMȎ ȩCPGLEȩRFCKȩRFCȩMAA?QGMLȩRMȩ RFCȩQN?ACȩ?LBȩRGKCȩDMPȩMȎ ȩCPGLEȩ#41ȩMNNMPRSLGRGCQȩPCȐȩCARȩMLȩRFCGPȩUMPIȩUGRFȩSLCKNJMWCBȩWMSLEȩNCMNJCȩ to young job seekers and for developing ideas for reducing youthand to learn about youth unemployment across future projects. The range of international and unemploymentEurope, as well as enhanced cooperation within the national contacts that the participants acquired provided a basis for long-term cooperation. The among earlyYouth in Action programme. course was prepared together with SALTO Inclusion, school leaversThe participants, from the youth work, social a Youth in Action resource centre.work and employment sectors, visited localyouth workshops that provide skills training and Project funded by the Youth in Action national agency in Finland 7 T ES T I M O N I AL S ‘ Duringcountries thatgained new contactswork other g the course I can help me do my in better And I now have a better understanding r. of the Youth in Action programme and can e FCJN–W WMSLEQRCPQ–ĺ–LB–RFC–@CQR–U?W–RM–FCJN themsselves. ’
  9. 9. 6 Y O U T H I N A C T I O NParticipants learnt !FȍBOBK@BP FK /LJ VLRQE TLOH NPMKMRCBȩRF?RȩMȎCPCBȩRFCȩAF?LACȩRMȩJC?PLȩ?@MSRȩRFCȩ possibilities of the Youth in Action programme. what could be The Youth in Action national agencies of Finland, This three-part project with links to Hungary and done within the Hungary and Slovakia organised practical short Finland explored the history and current situation Youth in Action study visits to Roma organisations and to of Roma living in Slovakia. Participants learnt what organisations working with Roma youth in each of could be done within the Youth in Action programme programme RFCȩRFPCCȩAMSLRPGCQȩGLȩz
  10. 10. ȩ2FCQCȩTGQGRQȩMNCLȩ and through international cooperation, and got to and through to 21 youth workers, social workers, youth leaders ILMUȩBGȎCPCLRȩ?NNPM?AFCQȩRMȩWMSRFȩUMPIȩUGRFȩ0MK?ȩ communities. The results included youth exchanges international and representativesyouth, made it possible to working with Roma of organisations actively between the three countries, such as ‘We came, cooperation, QCCȩRFCȩPC?JGRGCQȩMDȩ0MK?ȩWMSRFȩUMPIȩGLȩBGȎCPCLRȩ we saw ... What we can do together?’ in Slovakia in October 2011, and a cooperation with Roma and got to contexts. The main aim was to help develop an understanding of the situation of Roma minorities theatre, in which the predominant feature was the ILMU–BGĶCPCLR– by exploring existing Roma cultures in these high level of motivation among the participants and approaches countries. But, through sharing and exchanging the interest to cooperate in using the possibilities of experiences of working with young Roma people, the Youth in Action programme. to youth work the visits also revealed certain realities of youth Project funded by with Roma work and practical non-formal learning methods. the Youth in Action national agencies in Slovakia, European partnerships and networks were Hungary and Finland communities 8 T ES T I M O N I AL S ‘ Iaboutonly learnt more not the possibilities ‘ One of the striking things tofor Slovak was that while the realities emerge for international and Hungarian Roma are very similar, activities, but was also inspired to initiate local ’ RFC–$GLLGQF–PC?JGRW–GQ–TCPW–BGĶCPCLR. actions. ’
  11. 11. Youth Support Youth Youth Youth Youth Youth is part of the Exchanges Initiatives Democracy Volunteering Support Youth in Action programme of the European Union Youth in Action mobilising the potential of young EuropeansYouth in Action is the European Union programme ȧQGELGȏ ȧA?LRȧGKN?AR A survey in March 2011that has helped young people since 2007, through among a representative Youth in Action has had a demonstrable impact sample of participantsnon-formal learning and wider mobility, to boost on the hundreds of thousands of young people it revealed that:their skills as well as giving them new opportunities has involved. The programme has enabled manyto develop their personal capacities. It is open toall young people, regardless of their educational, MDȩRFCKȩRMȩCVNCPGCLACȩMRFCPȩAMSLRPGCQȩȏ ȩPQRȩF?LBȩ 91 % thus developing a greater sense of openness and of young peoplesocial and cultural backgrounds. It encourages considered participation understanding of other cultures. And it has providedintercultural dialogue and the inclusion of all young increased their the young people who have taken part with newpeople, particularly those with fewer opportunities. competences in foreign QIGJJQȩ?LBȩAMLȏȩBCLAC
  12. 12. ȩIt strengthens European values everywhere it languages;operates — in the EU and in 140 countries beyond. This is all the more important since for manyIt funds a wide variety of youth activities, including of the projects, the participants are deliberately 75 %exchanges, initiatives, democracy projects, and a said they improved selected from communities and social groups withvoluntary service. It also supports youth workers their abilities to identify fewer opportunities. The whole programme has aand civil society organisations through training and opportunities for their QRPMLEȩQMAG?JȩBGKCLQGML
  13. 13. ȩRȩK?ICQȩQNCAGȏ ȩAȩNPMTGQGMLȩnetworking, and promotes European cooperation in personal or professional for involving young people from disadvantaged future;RFCȩWMSRFȩȏ ȩCJB
  14. 14. groups (with disabilities, health problems, or social,Noticeable results economic or geographic obstacles, unemployed, UGRFȩCBSA?RGML?JȩBGȑ ȩȩASJRGCQȩQSAFȩ?QȩC?PJWȩQAFMMJȩ 73 % declared they felt moreYouth in Action has a global budget of EUR 885 JC?TCPQȩMPȩDPMKȩBGȎ ȩCPCLRȩASJRSP?Jȩ@?AIEPMSLBQ
  15. 15. ȩ European;KGJJGMLȩDMPȩRFCȩzȩNCPGMBȩ?LBȩ@WȩRFCȩCLBȩ 2FCȩCLE?ECKCLRȩMDȩK?LWȩBGȎ ȩCPCLRȩQMAG?JȩEPMSNQȩGQȩof 2010 it had fully used the EUR 549 millionallocated so far. Its basic premise is that investment important in ensuring that the European integration project is not restricted only to elites in European 92 % of youth workersin young people is the best business case for the society. considered they gainedEuropean Union and it is also the way to make skills and knowledge theya success of the European integration project. Attractive learning would not have otherwise-TCPȩRFCȩDMSPȩWC?PQȩzȩKMPCȩRF?Lȩȩȩ acquired; Youth in Action makes extensive use of non-formalpersons took part (390 000 young people and137 000 youth workers); 61 000 project applications learning, through attractive methods (such as workshops, interviews or simulations), and based on 73 %were submitted and 30 100 projects were approved of youth organisations personal experience outside schools. This promotesfor grants, and Youth in Action involved around said they were doing individual-based teaching, with the emphasis on more international20 000 youth organisations, informal groups talents and strengths. Professional facilitators projects.of young people, or public bodies every year as ensure the learning process is conducted mainly bypromoters of projects. The intense involvement young people themselves, through participation and In additionof non-governmental organisations and social peer learning. The non-formal learning experienceenterprises is a stimulating example for young that Youth in Action provides is recognised through the 2010 survey showedpeople of what it means to be an active player that participants in ?ȩQNCAGȏȩAȩACPRGȏȩA?RCȩA?JJCBȩ?ȩ7MSRFN?QQ
  16. 16. in society, and many participants in projects later the programme havebecome involved themselves in social work. ?ȧQGELGȏȧA?LRJWȧFGEFCPȧ LȩRFCȩBGȎ ȩCPCLRȩCLTGPMLKCLRȩMȎȩCPCBȩ@WȩNPMHCARQȩ voting record in European young people discover their own potential andThe projects supported range widely across youth elections than their peers. abilities, and exercise new levels of independence For instance in 2009,?ARGTGRGCQȩ˜ȩCTCPWRFGLEȩDPMKȩP?GQGLEȩRFCȩNPMȏ ȩJCȩMDȩ and decision-making. The experience boosts their 60 % of participantsyoung people in the media and giving them more personal development and widens their horizons, voted, compared to anof a say, to organising environmental protection helping them make choices about their further average of 29 % forprojects at local level, creating documentaries on personal and professional life. And they acquire all young people acrosssocial issues such as young people with HIV or competencies that are increasingly valuable in an Europe.exclusion of minorities, or helping inmates in young evolving labour market ͬMȎȩCLBCPQȩGLQRGRSRGMLQȩRMȩ@MMQRȩRFCGPȩMULȩQCJD %CQRCCKȩ?LBȩRMȩK?ICȩCȎ ȩMPRQȩRFCKQCJTCQȩRMȩGLRCEP?RCȩinto their community and into wider society. 60 29 %
  17. 17. NC-32-11-909-EN-CWho can take part in Youth Support projects, and how do they work?There are no age limits, but participants must be AMSLRPWȩGLAJSBGLEȩLMLNPMȏ ȩRLMLEMTCPLKCLR?Jȩlegally resident in a programme country — i.e. organisations, local or regional public bodies,the 27 Member States of the European Union, as informal groups of young people, European bodieswell as Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, ?ARGTCȩGLȩRFCȩWMSRFȩȏȩCJBȩ?LBȩL?RGML?JȩWMSRFȩAMSLAGJQ
  18. 18. Switzerland and Turkey — or in a neighbouring Projects can receive grants from national agenciespartner country of the EU, eastern Europe and the in the 33 programme countries or from theCaucasus, the Mediterranean countries, south- Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agencyeastern Europe, or in 118 other countries in the in Brussels.world that have signed an agreement with the#SPMNC?Lȩ!MKKGQQGMLȩPCJCT?LRȩRMȩRFCȩWMSRFȩȏ ȩCJB
  19. 19. 7MSRFȧ1SNNMPRȧGLȧȏ ȧESPCQApplications may be made by bodies legally 2007 2008 2009 2010established or resident in a programme Submitted projects 1 496 1 520 2 001 2 307 Funded projects 749 669 637 688 Successful grant applications (%) 50 44 32 30 Committed funds (million EUR) 9.779 10.138 9.542 10.456 Number of participants 15 154 13 487 14 074 15 005 Youth in Action: http://ec.europa.eu/youth/index_en.htm #SPMNCȧGPCARȧGQȧ?ȧQCPTGACȧRMȧFCJNȧWMSȧȏ ȧLBȧ?LQUCPQȧ to your questions about the European Union. Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed.More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu).*SVCK@MSPEȩ.S@JGA?RGMLQȩ-ȑȩȩACȩMDȩRFCȩ#SPMNC?Lȩ3LGMLȩCover image: © Michèle Constantini/PhotoAlto; Page 1: © Patrick Shéandell O’Carroll/PhotoAlto© European Union, 2012Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.Printed in Belgium.ɡɘɝɣɔɓȩɞɝȩɔɛɔɜɔɝɣɐɛȩɒɗɛɞɡɘɝɔɕɡɔɔȩɑɛɔɐɒɗɔɓȩɟɐɟɔɡȩ #!$ doi:10.2766/18491

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