Keeling

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Keeling

  1. 1. Outcome-based welfareindicatorsLinda KeelingSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  2. 2. Traditionally vets, farmers andscientists have focussed on theanimal
  3. 3. Traditionally legislators havefocussed mainly on resources• Legislation is a minimum level• Systems with a too high risk of poor welfare are banned
  4. 4. Traditionally legislators havefocussed mainly on resources• Legislation is a minimum level• Systems with a too high risk of poor welfare are banned• More difficult to legislate for good welfare, as there are many possible variations
  5. 5. Welfare is a characteristic of theindividual animal The input-based approach to welfare assessment We need a sensible combination of bothThe outcome-based approachto welfare assessment types of measures
  6. 6. INPUT Resources available(resource- based measures)Management practices (management -based measures)
  7. 7. INPUT OUTCOME Resources available(resource- based Response of measures) animal (Animal-based measures)Management practices Indicate the (management - animal’s welfarebased measures) (welfare indicator) (welfare indicator)Hazards Consequences
  8. 8. We are familiar with resource andmanagement-based measures, but which outcome-based measureshould be chosen? And how do we choose them?
  9. 9. It depends on the reason for theassessment• Farm management and advice • The ones that are useful and/or save money
  10. 10. It depends on the reason for theassessment• Farm management and advice • The ones that are useful and/or save money• Breeding company • To reduce a problem
  11. 11. It depends on the reason for theassessment• Farm management and advice • The ones that are useful and/or save money• Breeding company • To reduce a problem• Certification scheme • A balanced selection of different measures
  12. 12. An example of a welfareoutcome indicator• Pododermatitis / foot-pad dermatitis / “ammonia burns”.• A type of contact dermatitis: • Discoloration of the skin, • Hyperkeratosis, • Erosions, and later ulcers, develop.• Found in broiler chickens and turkeys• Collaboration between Swedish authority and broiler industry• Linked to legislation and affects stocking density (ie economy)
  13. 13. INPUT OUTCOMEWater Air Food padFeed dermatitis
  14. 14. INPUT OUTCOME Water Air Food pad Feed dermatitis 3-point scale0 Prevalence of severe foot-pad dermatitis in Swedish broilers 1994-2005 12 101 Percentage (%) benchmarking 8 6 4 22 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Year after start of programme
  15. 15. Automatic recording at slaughter
  16. 16. Welfare Quality project
  17. 17. Welfare Quality project
  18. 18. Welfare Quality project Body condition score
  19. 19. Welfare Quality project Comfort around • Number stopping resting • Number turning back ho Goo us d Ease of in movement g No painful management o od h procedures G al t he Photos: A. Velarde, T. Grandin No disease No injuries
  20. 20. European Food Safety Authorityworking on use of animal-basedmeasures A ‘toolbox’Welfare outcome indicators should be selected toaddress the specific objectives of the assessment
  21. 21. The ’tool box’
  22. 22. Science-based measures• According to their ‘essential characteristics’ • Validity • Known specificity • Known reliability • Robustness• There may be several measures giving information on the same welfare outcome that vary in cost, feasibility, skill needed to take them etc
  23. 23. • EFSA (2012) The use of animal-based measures to assess the welfare of dairy cattle.• EFSA (2012) The use of animal-based measures to assess the welfare of pigs
  24. 24. Benchmarking and setting thresholds Core measures (always recorded – standardised) Desirable measures (depending on purpose of assessment) Interesting measures (to be developed further)Development of outcome-based measures should be an ongoing process
  25. 25. Outcome-based welfareindicators• Science-based, common-sense approach to assessing welfare• Measures placed in the ‘tool box’ according to well established principles (valid, reliable, etc)• Measures are selected from it according to the purpose of the assessment.

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