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The National Anti-Corruption Unit (NACU)
 

The National Anti-Corruption Unit (NACU)

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    The National Anti-Corruption Unit (NACU) The National Anti-Corruption Unit (NACU) Presentation Transcript

    • TheThe National AntiNational Anti--Corruption Unit (NACU)Corruption Unit (NACU)ÅKLAGARMYNDIGHETE N1TheThe National AntiNational Anti--Corruption Unit (NACU)Corruption Unit (NACU)
    • TopicsTopics•• AboutAbout thethe unitunit•• The Swedish legislation on corruptionThe Swedish legislation on corruption•• MyMy thoughtsthoughts onon howhow corruptioncorruption cancan bebecounteredcounteredcounteredcountered2
    • TheThe SwedishSwedish ProsecutionProsecutionAuthorityAuthorityProsecutor GeneralOffice of the Prosecutor General-Legal Division-Division for Prosecutorial MattersNational EconomicCrimes Bureau4 Development Centres3-Division for Prosecutorial Matters-Division of Administration-Division of Communication43 Local Public Prosecution Offices-35 General Prosecution Offices- 3 International Prosecution Offices- 4 National Prosecution Offices
    • A prosecutors dutiesA prosecutors duties1.1. leads the investigation, initiates and decides the use ofleads the investigation, initiates and decides the use ofcoercive measurescoercive measures2.2. Can decide on arrests for max 4 daysCan decide on arrests for max 4 days3.3. Decides on prosecution, i.e. whether to indict or notDecides on prosecution, i.e. whether to indict or not4.4. Appears in courtAppears in court44.4. Appears in courtAppears in court5.5. Entitled to appeal to and handle cases in the court ofEntitled to appeal to and handle cases in the court ofappealappeal
    • National AntiNational Anti--CorruptionCorruption UnitUnit•• A unit within the Swedish ProsecutionA unit within the Swedish ProsecutionAuthorityAuthority•• EtablishedEtablished in 2003in 2003•• The unitThe unit5•• The unitThe unit–– is headed by a Directoris headed by a Director–– seven Public Prosecutorsseven Public Prosecutors–– three specialised forensic accountantsthree specialised forensic accountants
    • National AntiNational Anti--CorruptionCorruption UnitUnitA staff well experienced in criminalA staff well experienced in criminalinvestigations concerninginvestigations concerning•• Financial crimesFinancial crimes•• Serious organized crimesSerious organized crimes6•• Serious organized crimesSerious organized crimes•• International coInternational co--operationoperation
    • TheThe unitsunits mainmain tasktask•• CriminalizedCriminalized corruptioncorruption•• ComplexComplex or extensiveor extensive crimecrime ofof seniorseniorexecutivesexecutives withinwithin private or publicprivate or public sectorsectorwhowho havehave abusedabused oror exploitedexploited thethe powerpowerwhowho havehave abusedabused oror exploitedexploited thethe powerpowerthatthat comescomes withwith hishis positionposition•• OffencesOffences relatedrelated toto suchsuch crimecrime ((egeg breachbreachofof trusttrust againstagainst a principal,a principal, bookbook--keepingkeepingcrimecrime and so on)and so on)7
    • National AntiNational Anti--Corruption UnitCorruption Unit•• A specialist investigative unit, intelligenceA specialist investigative unit, intelligenceand ITand IT--forensic resources at the Nationalforensic resources at the NationalPolice is attached to NACUPolice is attached to NACU•• coco--operates with otheroperates with other authoritysauthoritys such assuch as8•• coco--operates with otheroperates with other authoritysauthoritys such assuch asthethe National TaxNational Tax AuthorityAuthority•• Supervising authorities, such as the StateSupervising authorities, such as the StateAudit Institution and the NationalAudit Institution and the NationalCompetition Authority are also vitalCompetition Authority are also vitalpartners to copartners to co--operate withoperate with
    • National AntiNational Anti--Corruption UnitCorruption Unit•• Deals with 80Deals with 80 -- 120 cases pro annum120 cases pro annum•• The cases concerns both public andThe cases concerns both public andprivate sectorprivate sector•• There are no visible signs of corruption inThere are no visible signs of corruption in9•• There are no visible signs of corruption inThere are no visible signs of corruption inpublic administration linked to seriouspublic administration linked to seriousorganized crimeorganized crime
    • SourcesSources ofof newnew casescases•• MediaMedia•• WhistleWhistle blowersblowers•• PublicPublic•• Reports fromReports from compliancecompliance oror peoplepeople inin•• Reports fromReports from compliancecompliance oror peoplepeople ininsimilarsimilar positionspositions•• Information fromInformation from otherother authoritiesauthorities10
    • Some of the principles ofSome of the principles ofSwedish criminal lawSwedish criminal lawconcerning corruptionconcerning corruption11concerning corruptionconcerning corruption..
    • Bribery, two sides of one coinBribery, two sides of one coinTHE BRIBERTHE BRIBER•• PromisesPromises•• OffersOffersTHE BRIBEDTHE BRIBED•• Accepts promisesAccepts promises•• DemandsDemands12•• OffersOffers•• GivesGives•• DemandsDemands•• ReceivesReceivesImproperImproper reward forreward for exercisingexercisingone’s dutiesone’s dutiesCreate dependence – in order to violate a trustPrincipalThe public
    • The BribeThe Bribe•• Rewards, benefits, conditionsRewards, benefits, conditions•• Cash, gift vouchers, goods, services, bonuses,Cash, gift vouchers, goods, services, bonuses,rebates, loans, personal guaranteesrebates, loans, personal guarantees•• Travel, food, accommodation, restaurants, etc.Travel, food, accommodation, restaurants, etc.13•• Travel, food, accommodation, restaurants, etc.Travel, food, accommodation, restaurants, etc.•• WellWell--paid jobspaid jobs•• Discounts, attentionDiscounts, attentionThe reward does not need to have financial valueThe reward does not need to have financial valuefor the receiverfor the receiver –– other attractions sufficeother attractions suffice
    • BribesBribes == improperimproper rewardsrewards•• AA bribebribe–– an employee receiving a benefit foran employee receiving a benefit forperforming an unallowed act while exercisingperforming an unallowed act while exercisinghishis dutiesdutieshishis dutiesduties–– an employeean employee receivingreceiving an improper benefitan improper benefitwithout performing an unallowed act whilewithout performing an unallowed act whileexercising his duties.exercising his duties.
    • ImproperImproper•• Assessment of all the circumstances suchAssessment of all the circumstances suchasas–– OpennessOpenness–– PurposePurpose–– TermsTerms15–– TermsTerms–– Value of the rewardValue of the reward–– Status of the recipientStatus of the recipient–– Personal connectionPersonal connection–– Consent from the principalConsent from the principal–– Practice and public perceptionPractice and public perception–– Protected interestProtected interest
    • Trading inTrading in influenceinfluence•• Offer,Offer, promisepromise or grant benefitsor grant benefits toto anotheranotherperson in orderperson in order toto influenceinfluence thethe exerciseexerciseofof publicpublic authorityauthority or publicor public procurementprocurementin anin an improperimproper waywayin anin an improperimproper wayway•• TargetedTargeted onon peoplepeople surrondingsurronding aadescisiondescision--makermaker16
    • NegligentNegligent financingfinancing ofofbriberybribery•• aa commercialcommercial organisation providesorganisation providesfinancialfinancial oror otherother assetsassets toto anyoneanyonerepresentingrepresenting it in ait in a certaincertain mattermatter andandwhichwhich therebythereby throughthrough grossgross negligencenegligencewhichwhich therebythereby throughthrough grossgross negligencenegligencefurthersfurthers thethe offencesoffences ofof givinggiving aa bribebribe orortrading intrading in influenceinfluence inin thatthat mattermatter•• ImportantImportant for thefor the thethe businessbusiness sectorsector totoestablishestablish aa codecode on gifts andon gifts and otherotherbenefitsbenefits17
    • HowHow toto preventprevent corruptioncorruptionwithinwithin the publicthe public sectorsector??•• OpennessOpenness–– legislationlegislation aboutabout public accesspublic access to theto theauthorities’ activitiesauthorities’ activities and to official recordsand to official records–– Free and independent mediaFree and independent media•• Monitoring of those in powerMonitoring of those in power18•• Monitoring of those in powerMonitoring of those in power•• Independent judiciaryIndependent judiciary•• WellWell--paid officialspaid officials
    • WhyWhy relativelyrelatively lowlow levellevel ofofcorruptioncorruption in Sweden?in Sweden?•• TheThe principleprinciple of public access toof public access to officialofficialrecordsrecords•• Long timeLong time stablestable politicalpolitical situationsituation•• Long timeLong time stablestable politicalpolitical situationsituation•• LowLow corruptioncorruption tolerancetolerance levellevel amongamong thethegeneral populationgeneral population19