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  1. 1. 441. Revolution of 1905 <ul><li>Led by Father Gapon, 150000 people march on the Winter Place </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to petition the Tsar about their problems </li></ul><ul><li>Police show up to try and prevent violence </li></ul><ul><li>Open fire without warning and massacre 130-5000 people </li></ul><ul><li>This event sparks even more protests throughout Russia </li></ul>
  2. 2. 442. October Manifesto <ul><li>Pressured into making reforms after the Revolution of 1905, Tsar Nicholas II signs the October Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>The October Manifesto: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the Duma, a kind of Russian legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants the freedoms of speech, press, and assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the tsar retains the right to veto </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 443. Duma <ul><li>Created by the October Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>A group of elected representatives with legislative powers </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the good concept the Duma was extremely weak and inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of the Duma appeased some revolutionaries and moderates and split the revolutionary movement </li></ul>
  4. 4. 444. Nicholas II <ul><li>Born 1868, Died 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Last of the Romanov rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Out of touch with the people of Russia which led to much discontent and the loss of the throne </li></ul><ul><li>A weak and inefficient leader who was more concerned with his family than politics </li></ul><ul><li>Removed from power and shot, along with his family, in 1918 </li></ul>
  5. 5. 445. P. A. Stolypin <ul><li>An advisor to Nicholas II </li></ul><ul><li>A conservative who believed in political reforms rather than all out revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Pushed for the creation of a wealthy farmer class and hoped to achieve this through agrarian reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Created policies which would break down collective land ownership and encourage personal initiative </li></ul>
  6. 6. 446. Rasputin <ul><li>Born 1872, Died 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>A prominent figure in the court of Tsar Nicholas II </li></ul><ul><li>Believed by some to have mystical powers and also to help cure the Alexii’s hemophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoned, stabbed, and drowned in 1916. Later exhumed and burned in 1917. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 447. August Comte/Positivism <ul><li>The father of sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Published System of Positive Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>This would establish Positivism the theory that all intellectual activities pass through the same stages </li></ul><ul><li>This could lead to the discovery of laws of human relations </li></ul>
  8. 8. 448. Charles Darwin/Origin of the Species <ul><li>Famous for his theory of evolution Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection in 1859 </li></ul><ul><li>All life existed in a perpetual “struggle for survival” </li></ul><ul><li>Only the best adapted were able to survive and then later pass down their traits, therefore evolving their species </li></ul><ul><li>Created controversy in the church because it did not correlate with the literal interpretation of the Bible </li></ul>
  9. 9. 449. Social Darwinism <ul><li>An adaptation of Darwin’s evolutionary theory </li></ul><ul><li>Applied the concept of survival of the fittest to human society </li></ul><ul><li>This was used as an explanation as to why upper and lower classes existed </li></ul><ul><li>Those who ruled had a biological disposition to do so </li></ul>
  10. 10. 450. T. H. Huxley <ul><li>Darwin’s most die hard supporter, also known as Darwin’s bulldog </li></ul><ul><li>Born 1825, Died 1895 </li></ul><ul><li>His famous 1860 debate with Samuel Wilberforce would bring the theory of evolution to the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Would coin the term “agnostic” </li></ul>
  11. 11. 451. David Strauss
  12. 12. 452. Education Act
  13. 13. 453. Kulturkampf <ul><li>Translates to “culture struggle” </li></ul><ul><li>Otto von Bismarck’s attempt to limit Catholic influence </li></ul><ul><li>A reaction to the 1970 declaration of papal infallibility by Pope Pius IX </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately a failed attempt </li></ul>
  14. 14. 454. Syllabus of Errors <ul><li>Pope Pius IX’s decree condemning liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Issued on December 8, 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Condemned the separation of church and state and supported the papal states </li></ul>
  15. 15. 455. Rerum Novarum <ul><li>Latin for “Of New Things” </li></ul><ul><li>Issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891 </li></ul><ul><li>Looked for ways to solve the suffering of the working class </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the formation of labor unions. Rejected communism and unrestricted capitalism. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 456. Einstein/Relativity <ul><li>A famous German-born physicist, best known for his theory of relativity </li></ul><ul><li>Born 1879, Died 1955- revolutionized the field of physics </li></ul><ul><li>The theory of relativity basically says that the perception of movement is relative to the viewer </li></ul>
  17. 17. 457. Heisenberg <ul><li>Werner Heisenberg laid the foundations for quantum mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Best known his uncertainty principal of quantum theory </li></ul><ul><li>This principal states that there are certain pairs of physical properties where both cannot be known accurately at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Heisenberg also contributed to nuclear physics, quantum field theory, and particle physics </li></ul>
  18. 18. 458. Realism/Naturalism <ul><li>A belief that literature and art should depict life realistically </li></ul><ul><li>A reaction to failed revolutions and loss of idealism </li></ul><ul><li>Began to depict ordinary people and everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Realism movement artists and authors include: Leo Tolstoy, George Eliot, Theodore Dreiser, and Edgar Degas </li></ul>
  19. 19. 459. Emile Zola <ul><li>A realist author that was part of the Romantic movement </li></ul><ul><li>Born 1840, Died 1902 </li></ul><ul><li>The most controversial of realist authors </li></ul><ul><li>Accused of writing pornography but saw himself as a scientific reporter </li></ul>
  20. 20. 460. George Bernard Shaw <ul><li>Born 1856, Died 1950- A famous Irish playwright </li></ul><ul><li>Angered by the exploitation of the working class he would produce many works on this travesty </li></ul><ul><li>Won an Nobel prize in literature for his play Pygmalion </li></ul><ul><li>Would later win an Oscar for a movie adaptation of the play </li></ul>
  21. 21. 461. Modernism
  22. 22. 462. Virginia Woolf
  23. 23. Image Credits http://freehorror.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/zombie_wallpaper3.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Bloody_Sunday_Russia_1905.png http://www.artknowledgenews.com/files2007a/IlyaRepinManifestoOfOctober.jpg http://www.white-history.com/hwr60_files/duma_1915.jpg http://eurorushomepage.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/nicolas-ii.jpg
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