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  • 1. 441. Revolution of 1905
    • Led by Father Gapon, 150000 people march on the Winter Place
    • Attempt to petition the Tsar about their problems
    • Police show up to try and prevent violence
    • Open fire without warning and massacre 130-5000 people
    • This event sparks even more protests throughout Russia
  • 2. 442. October Manifesto
    • Pressured into making reforms after the Revolution of 1905, Tsar Nicholas II signs the October Manifesto
    • The October Manifesto:
      • Creates the Duma, a kind of Russian legislature
      • Grants the freedoms of speech, press, and assembly
      • However, the tsar retains the right to veto
  • 3. 443. Duma
    • Created by the October Manifesto
    • A group of elected representatives with legislative powers
    • Despite the good concept the Duma was extremely weak and inefficient
    • The creation of the Duma appeased some revolutionaries and moderates and split the revolutionary movement
  • 4. 444. Nicholas II
    • Born 1868, Died 1918
    • Last of the Romanov rulers
    • Out of touch with the people of Russia which led to much discontent and the loss of the throne
    • A weak and inefficient leader who was more concerned with his family than politics
    • Removed from power and shot, along with his family, in 1918
  • 5. 445. P. A. Stolypin
    • An advisor to Nicholas II
    • A conservative who believed in political reforms rather than all out revolution
    • Pushed for the creation of a wealthy farmer class and hoped to achieve this through agrarian reforms
    • Created policies which would break down collective land ownership and encourage personal initiative
  • 6. 446. Rasputin
    • Born 1872, Died 1916
    • A prominent figure in the court of Tsar Nicholas II
    • Believed by some to have mystical powers and also to help cure the Alexii’s hemophilia
    • Poisoned, stabbed, and drowned in 1916. Later exhumed and burned in 1917.
  • 7. 447. August Comte/Positivism
    • The father of sociology
    • Published System of Positive Philosophy
    • This would establish Positivism the theory that all intellectual activities pass through the same stages
    • This could lead to the discovery of laws of human relations
  • 8. 448. Charles Darwin/Origin of the Species
    • Famous for his theory of evolution Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection in 1859
    • All life existed in a perpetual “struggle for survival”
    • Only the best adapted were able to survive and then later pass down their traits, therefore evolving their species
    • Created controversy in the church because it did not correlate with the literal interpretation of the Bible
  • 9. 449. Social Darwinism
    • An adaptation of Darwin’s evolutionary theory
    • Applied the concept of survival of the fittest to human society
    • This was used as an explanation as to why upper and lower classes existed
    • Those who ruled had a biological disposition to do so
  • 10. 450. T. H. Huxley
    • Darwin’s most die hard supporter, also known as Darwin’s bulldog
    • Born 1825, Died 1895
    • His famous 1860 debate with Samuel Wilberforce would bring the theory of evolution to the general public
    • Would coin the term “agnostic”
  • 11. 451. David Strauss
  • 12. 452. Education Act
  • 13. 453. Kulturkampf
    • Translates to “culture struggle”
    • Otto von Bismarck’s attempt to limit Catholic influence
    • A reaction to the 1970 declaration of papal infallibility by Pope Pius IX
    • Ultimately a failed attempt
  • 14. 454. Syllabus of Errors
    • Pope Pius IX’s decree condemning liberalism
    • Issued on December 8, 1864
    • Condemned the separation of church and state and supported the papal states
  • 15. 455. Rerum Novarum
    • Latin for “Of New Things”
    • Issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891
    • Looked for ways to solve the suffering of the working class
    • Supported the formation of labor unions. Rejected communism and unrestricted capitalism.
  • 16. 456. Einstein/Relativity
    • A famous German-born physicist, best known for his theory of relativity
    • Born 1879, Died 1955- revolutionized the field of physics
    • The theory of relativity basically says that the perception of movement is relative to the viewer
  • 17. 457. Heisenberg
    • Werner Heisenberg laid the foundations for quantum mechanics
    • Best known his uncertainty principal of quantum theory
    • This principal states that there are certain pairs of physical properties where both cannot be known accurately at the same time
    • Heisenberg also contributed to nuclear physics, quantum field theory, and particle physics
  • 18. 458. Realism/Naturalism
    • A belief that literature and art should depict life realistically
    • A reaction to failed revolutions and loss of idealism
    • Began to depict ordinary people and everyday life
    • Realism movement artists and authors include: Leo Tolstoy, George Eliot, Theodore Dreiser, and Edgar Degas
  • 19. 459. Emile Zola
    • A realist author that was part of the Romantic movement
    • Born 1840, Died 1902
    • The most controversial of realist authors
    • Accused of writing pornography but saw himself as a scientific reporter
  • 20. 460. George Bernard Shaw
    • Born 1856, Died 1950- A famous Irish playwright
    • Angered by the exploitation of the working class he would produce many works on this travesty
    • Won an Nobel prize in literature for his play Pygmalion
    • Would later win an Oscar for a movie adaptation of the play
  • 21. 461. Modernism
  • 22. 462. Virginia Woolf
  • 23. Image Credits http://freehorror.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/zombie_wallpaper3.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Bloody_Sunday_Russia_1905.png http://www.artknowledgenews.com/files2007a/IlyaRepinManifestoOfOctober.jpg http://www.white-history.com/hwr60_files/duma_1915.jpg http://eurorushomepage.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/nicolas-ii.jpg