EDF2013: Selected Talk John Sheridan: Good Law from Open Data

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Selected Talk by John Sheridan, The National Archives UK, at the European Data Forum 2013, 10 April 2013 in Dublin, Ireland: Good Law from Open Data

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  • Names are important, they provide the framework or the architecture around which
  • EDF2013: Selected Talk John Sheridan: Good Law from Open Data

    1. 1. John Sheridan10 April 2013Good Law from Open Data
    2. 2. Themes• Legislation as data• Open data as an operating model for government data• Using Linked Data to solve complex problems2
    3. 3. 1. LEGISLATION AS DATA3
    4. 4. 4The web has changed who is accessing legislation andwhy, just as much as it has changed access to healthcareinformation
    5. 5. Legislation as data• Three considerations for legislation as datao Typographic layouto Versioning / changes over timeo Semantics5
    6. 6. Foundations - naming things• If you visit legislation.gov.uk you will see we have takengreat care with naming things6Returns an html document for United Kingdom Public General Act(ukpga), 2005, Chapter 14, Section 1Returns an html document with a list from all legislation types where thetitle contains “wildlife”
    7. 7. Some of the names are quitesophisticated…• UK Public General Act (ukpga)• 1981• Chapter 69• Section 5• As it extends to England• As it stood on 30th January 2001• Displayed as an HTML document with the timeline on• Although URIs are opaque having this type of designchanges how people use the service7
    8. 8. European Legislation Identifier8
    9. 9. Data• All the information on legislation.gov.uk is available as opendata under the terms of the Open Government Licence• To access the data, visit any page and add:o /data.xmlo /data.rdfo /data.xht• For listso /data.feed9
    10. 10. The trouble with legislation10
    11. 11. Amending legislation11Section 12 (4) amends the Charities Act 1993,inserting some words into this Act.
    12. 12. Bringing into force the Act12But what about Section 12???Sections 15 to 20 come into forceimmediately when the Act is passed
    13. 13. So, “A” changes “B” when “C” says so13So the timing for the rest of the Act coming into forceis left open for the Secretary of State to decide…
    14. 14. Section 12 (4) came into force 1/1/201114Coming into force on 1st January 2011Section 12 (4)
    15. 15. “A” changes “B” when “C” says so15AcademiesAct 2010Section 19 (2)AcademiesAct 2010Section 12 (4)SI 2010/1937Schedule 3Charities Act1993 Schedule2 (ca)Secretary ofStateConfers powerMakesCommencesInserts text into
    16. 16. 16
    17. 17. 2. OPEN DATA AS OPERATINGMODEL17
    18. 18. Why does Open Source Software work?18
    19. 19. “The impossible public good”?• Large and complex systems• Enabled by the internet• Two elements,o a system of sustainable value creationo a system of governanceholds together a community of producers• Distributed property rights, eg the GNU PublicLicence (GPL)19
    20. 20. Can we do the same with data?20
    21. 21. 21PublisherIntermediaryConsumer* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    22. 22. 22PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdata* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    23. 23. 23PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservice* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    24. 24. 24PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepayment* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    25. 25. 25PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepayment- links- snippets- dumps- searches- updates* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    26. 26. 26PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepayment- links- snippets- dumps- searches- updates- provision- integration- analysis- visualisation- interpretation* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    27. 27. 27PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepayment* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    28. 28. 28PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepayment* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    29. 29. 29PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepayment* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    30. 30. 30PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepaymentguarantees* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    31. 31. 31PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepaymentguarantees - accurate- reliable- timely* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    32. 32. 32PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepaymentguaranteesmaintenance* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    33. 33. 33PublisherIntermediaryConsumerdataservicepaymentguaranteesmaintenance- collection- correction- expertise* Thanks to Jeni Tennison, the creator of the original version of these diagrams
    34. 34. Expert Participation• Governance• Process• Quality• Technology• Culture• Guarantees
    35. 35. 3. LINKED DATA TO SOLVECOMPLEX PROBLEMS35
    36. 36. Unstructured textHTML web pages,PDF documentsStructured dataCSV files, RDFLinked Data36Ever since the start of the Semantic Webdevelopments, one of the issues was how to makevarious types of data available on the Semantic Webfor, eg, further integration. Technically, this meansmaking the data available in RDF. One approach is toencode the RDF data in one of its serializationformats, ie, RDF/XML or Turtle, but that approach doesnot really scale. Interfaces to databases are beingdeveloped that can, for example, provide on-the-flyconversion of data into RDF, often via SPARQLendpoints. Automatic or semi-automatic conversionsexist for a number of other formats. In general it hasbeen recognized that one should not look for onespecific approach; rather, different types of data on theWeb require their own, data-specific way of expressingDocuments Data
    37. 37. Unstructured textHTML webpages, PDFdocumentsStructured dataCSV files, RDFLinked Data37Ever since the start of the Semantic Webdevelopments, one of the issues was how to makevarious types of data available on the Semantic Webfor, eg, further integration. Technically, this meansmaking the data available in RDF. One approach is toencode the RDF data in one of its serialization formats,ie, RDF/XML or Turtle, but that approach does notreally scale. Interfaces to databases are beingdeveloped that can, for example, provide on-the-flyconversion of data into RDF, often via SPARQLendpoints. Automatic or semi-automatic conversionsexist for a number of other formats. In general it hasbeen recognized that one should not look for onespecific approach; rather, different types of data on theWeb require their own, data-specific way of expressingDocuments DataFacts in legislation asstructured data
    38. 38. Linked Data• URIs to name things• Graph based data model38
    39. 39. 39
    40. 40. So how does Linked Data help?40
    41. 41. 41
    42. 42. 42LocationTime
    43. 43. 43LocationTimeConcepts
    44. 44. 44LocationTimeConceptsMany of these aredefined in legislation
    45. 45. Data, data, everywhere• Data in legislationo Definitionso Changeso Dutieso Powerso Offenceso Transpositionso Designations• Data about legislationo Economic - Impact Assessmentso Social – opinions on twitter45
    46. 46. Concepts are defined in legislation• What does it mean to be a company• What does it mean to be a school• and so on…46
    47. 47. 47
    48. 48. Designation48
    49. 49. Transposition49
    50. 50. 50What changes to the law improved theconviction rates?
    51. 51. 51What changes to the law improve theconviction rates?Changestolegislation
    52. 52. 52What changes to the law improve theconviction rates?ChangestolegislationConvictionratesstatistics
    53. 53. 53What changes to the law improve theconviction rates?ChangestolegislationConvictionratesstatisticsLinked Data Standards
    54. 54. Final thoughts“We shape our tools and they in turn shape us”– Marshall McLuhan54

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