Online Learning andLinked DataAn IntroductionJohn Domingue with Mathieu d‘Aquin,Stefan Dietze and Alexander MikroyannidisTutorial at WWW 2013
Overall Agenda• Introduction– John Domingue• Best Practices for Linked Data Education– Alexander Mikroyannidis• Using Linked Data in Education – Opportunities,Challenges, Examples– Stefan Dietze• Interactive Session2
Agenda• Linked Data• Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)• iBooks and SocialLearn• Summary3
TheWeb: Evolution6Web of Documents Web of Data"Documents"Hyperlinks Typed Links"Things"
Linked Data Principles1. Use URIs as names for things.2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look upthose names.3. When someone looks up a URI, provide usefulRDF information.4. Include RDF statements that link to other URIsso that they can discover related things.Tim Berners-Lee, http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html, 2006Slide curtesy of Chris BizerSet of best practices for publishing structureddata on the Web in accordance with the generalarchitecture of the Web.
Semantics on theWeb8Semantic Web StackBerners-Lee (2006)
Semantics on theWeb9Semantic Web StackBerners-Lee (2006)RDF – Resource Description Framework
Semantics on theWeb10RDF – Resource Description Framework• RDF is the basis layer of the Semantic Web stack‘layer cake’.• Basic building block: RDF triple.• Subject – a resource, which may be identified with a URI.• Predicate – a URI-identified reused specification of therelationship.• Object – a resource or literal to which the subject is related.
Semantics on theWeb11RDF Graphs• Every set of RDF assertions can then be drawn andmanipulated as a (labelled directed) graph:• Resources – the subjects and objects are nodes of thegraph.• Predicates – each predicate use becomes a label for an arc,connecting the subject to the object.Subject ObjectPredicate
Describing Data12Vocabularies• Collections of defined relationships and classes ofresources.• Classes group together similar resources.• Terms from well-known vocabularies should bereused wherever possible.• New terms should be define only if you can not findrequired terms in existing vocabularies.
Describing Data13VocabulariesA set of well-known vocabularies has evolved in theSemantic Web community. Some of them are:Vocabulary Description Classes and RelationshipsFriend-of-a-Friend (FOAF) Vocabulary for describingpeople.foaf:Person, foaf:Agent, foaf:name,foaf:knows, foaf:memberDublin Core (DC) Defines general metadataattributes.dc:FileFormat, dc:MediaType,dc:creator, dc:descriptionSemantically-InterlinkedOnline Communities (SIOC)Vocabulary for representingonline communities.sioc:Community, sioc:Forum,sioc:Post, sioc:follows, sioc:topicMusic Ontology (MO) Provides terms for describingartists, albums and tracks.mo:MusicArtist, mo:MusicGroup,mo:Signal, mo:member, mo:recordSimple KnowledgeOrganization System (SKOS)Vocabulary for representingtaxonomies and looselystructured knowledge.skos:Concept, skos:inScheme,skos:definition, skos:example
Coursera18• Started in Stanford in April 2012• Now has 69 partner universities• 3.2 Million Users• Courses in: engineering, humanities,medicine, biology, social sciences,mathematics, business, computer science• Assignments are peer-graded
edX19• Founded by MIT and Harvard in April 2012• Developing an open source learning platform• Offers 15 courses from MIT, Harvard and Berkely• Additional universities to be added in 2014
Udacity20• Started in 2011 as an offshoot of StanfordCourses– 160,000 enrolled in Introduction to ArtificialIntelligence course• Announced in 2012• Now has 24 Courses• Partnership with San Jose State Universityannounced in January 2013• Certificate at end for free• Exam from Pearson VUE for $89
FutureLearn• Started in January 2013 by The OpenUniversity• Developing a MOOC platform• Currently has British Library, British Council,British Museum and 17 UK Universities aspartners21
OU iTunes U Stats• Open University on iTunes U was launched on3rd June 2008• Now 79 iTunes U Courses• 61,974,200 downloads• Over 8,402,400 visitors downloaded files• Currently averaging 303,000 downloads a week• 434 collections containing 3,422 tracks (1,630audio, 1,792 video)• 423 OpenLearn study units as eBooks (ePub),representing over 5,000 hours of study• Currently delivering an average of 6 TB of dataa week
Summary• Linked Data– Web of Data– 5 principles– Subject, Relation, Object• Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)– Possible re-configuration of higher education• iBooks and SocialLearn– Use of new media and Web 2.0 to support learning29