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Classroom Management: Are we seeking Obedience or Responsibility? Are we getting it?
 

Classroom Management: Are we seeking Obedience or Responsibility? Are we getting it?

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Ramon Lewis ...

Ramon Lewis
Without effective behaviour management, a positive and productive classroom environment is impossible to achieve. Finding the most effective techniques for producing behaviour change and preventing the development of classroom discipline problems is a moderately stressful part of the professional lives of many teachers, and a major reason for job dissatisfaction. The need for confidence regarding the impact of particular strategies is important to teachers given that the ability to manage students effectively is a critical component of their sense of professional identity.

This presentation focuses on the results of attempts to introduce the Developmental Management approach into all schools in the Northern Metropolitan Region of Victoria, Australia, as part of the 'train the trainer', AiZ project. The rationale underlying the 15 recommendations for teacher behaviour implicit in the DMA are highlighted and examples of schools' attempts to introduce elements of the DMA into primary and secondary classrooms are discussed.

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    Classroom Management: Are we seeking Obedience or Responsibility? Are we getting it? Classroom Management: Are we seeking Obedience or Responsibility? Are we getting it? Presentation Transcript

    • ETAI Conference. July 2010 Developmental Classroom Management. Obedience or Responsibility? Keeping students adult and rational Ramon(Rom) Lewis r.lewis@latrobe.edu.au
    • Recent research shows that, on average, regardless of a student’s home background and the school’s resources, Approximately 50% of the variation in an individual student’s learning outcomes relates to what goes on in individual classrooms. Review of Research in Education.Vol.32.2008:328-369. Assumption 1.What teachers say and do in class strongly affects students’ learning and values.
    • Achievement Northern Metropolitan Improvement Zones Region
    • Reasons for behaving well • “If you don’t you get into trouble” • “You get points” • “They tell your parents” • “The teachers like you” • “You’ll have more friends” • “I’ll learn more, get a good job and have a good life” • “It’s not right, I’m a good girl” • “It’s not fair, others have to be able to learn” Assumption 2. Most children are at best obedient. Few are responsible.
    • Main Research Studies Australia: Victoria 22 Primary & 22 Secondary schools (1998) 15 Secondary schools (2002) 8 Secondary schools (2007-8) 46 Primary & 150 Secondary schools (2008-13) Israel: Tel Aviv 98 teachers & 836 students from 4 high schools and 8 junior high schools. China: Chengdu region (Sichuan province) 159 teachers & 502 students from 8 schools (2 lower secondary) in
    • What proportion of students who misbehave “only a little” or “never” encourage their classmates to act responsibly? China 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Exactly Like Very Much Mostly Like Me A Little Like Mostly Not Not At All Like Me Like Me Me Like Me Me
    • What proportion of students who misbehave “only a little” or “never” encourage their classmates to act responsibly? China Israel 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Exactly Like Very Much Mostly Like Me A Little Like Mostly Not Not At All Like Me Like Me Me Like Me Me
    • What proportion of students who misbehave “only a little” or “never” encourage their classmates to act responsibly? China Israel Australia 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Exactly Like Very Much Mostly Like Me A Little Like Mostly Not Not At All Like Me Like Me Me Like Me Me
    • Assumption 3. Very few children feel responsible for the behaviour of their classmates. It’s unAustralian!!!
    • Developmental Classroom Management (DMA). Keeping students adult and rational Main assumptions All students want to be accepted by their peer group. Most students, when in their rational ‘adult’ state, have goodwill towards others and make rational decisions. What teachers say and do will make a difference to whether or not the student stay in their ‘adult’. If teachers don’t “explain themselves”, challenging children generally assume the worst.
    • Broadmeadows Primary School Number of times students exited from Learning Spaces by term Exit 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Term 3 '08 Term 4 '08 Most of the 218 students at the school are from poor families. The school is in the most extreme category for disadvantage.
    • Broadmeadows Primary School (N=218) Number of times students exited from Learning Spaces by term
    • Broadmeadows Primary School Number of times students exited from Learning Spaces by term The school now performs well above the average of all Australian schools in numeracy and above the national average in reading and spelling.
    • Lakeside S.C. Principal -David Reynolds • “Staff , parent and student opinion data has become much stronger in the area of classroom behaviour. As this is a precondition for improved student learning outcomes, subsequent improvements we are seeing in literacy learning must be attributable at least partially to the adoption of the DMA strategies.”
    • Developmental Classroom Management (DMA). Keeping students adult and rational Real Criteria for success • Reports from emergency replacement teachers • Student behaviour on days when rewards and punishments are minimised
    • The Developmental Management Approach Strategy 1. Rights & Responsibilities – Not Rules Classroom Rights Students and the teacher have the right to do as much work as possible Students and the teacher have the right to feel comfortable and safe in the classroom Two kinds of Responsibility Personal Responsibility (I do the right thing) Communal Responsibility (I encourage others to do the right thing)
    • Punishment: Punishes students who misbehave, increasing the level of punishment if necessary. Discussion: Discusses with students the impact their behavior has on others, and negotiates with students on a one-to-one basis Involvement: Involves students in classroom discipline decision making. Hinting: Hints and gives non-directional descriptions of unacceptable behavior. Recognition: Recognizes and rewards the appropriate behavior of individual students or the class. Aggression: Uses aggressive techniques.
    • Most Recent Relevant Research Publications • Romi. S., Lewis, R., Roache. J., & Riley. P. The Impact of Teachers' Aggressive Management Techniques on Students' Attitudes to Schoolwork (in Press). The Journal of Educational Research. • Romi. S., & Lewis, R., & Katz. Y. A. (2009). Student responsibility and classroom discipline in Australia, China and Israel. Compare, 39(4):439-452. • Lewis, R. (2008). The developmental management approach to classroom behaviour: Responding to individual needs. Melbourne: ACER Press. (Republished by Routledge. USA as Understanding Pupil Behaviour, 2009) • Lewis, R., Romi. S., Xing. Q, & Katz, Y. A. (2008) Student reactions to teachers' classroom discipline in Australia, China and Israel. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(3): 715-724. • Lewis, R., Romi. S., R., Xing, Q., & Katz, Y. (2005). A comparison of teachers' classroom discipline in Australia, China and Israel. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21: 729-741.
    • Summary of Research In Israeli and Australian samples • When teachers use ‘coercive’ management techniques (Punishment [without a working relationship] & Aggression) students do not act more responsibly. • When teachers use more ‘inclusive’ techniques (Recognition, Punishment [within a working relationship], Discussion, Involvement & Hinting) students act more responsibly
    • Summary of Research • When stressed by misbehaviour, many teachers increase their use of ‘coercive’ management techniques and reduce their use of the ‘inclusive’ techniques. • Teachers who become more coercive make students less adult/rational and more irrational/irresponsible.
    • Developmental Management Approach (DMA) Based on - Four Patterns of Student Behaviour A. Managed by normal curriculum These students manage themselves in order to learn what is contained in the curriculum B. Managed within the class These students are occasionally distracted or disruptive, but do not have to be isolated or referred to others C. Managed out of class These students cannot be managed as part of a group and need to be isolated, sent out or referred to others D. Not managed These students generally seem unmanageable no matter what is tried
    • DMA Techniques • A behaviour students – Visual and verbal hints • B behaviour students– Calm assertive control via systematic use of Rewards for effort, and logical consequences for lack of effort - to act responsibly • C behaviour students– One on one, adult discussions to reorient values • D behaviour students– Rebuilding student’s self concept via a focus on their feelings of Competence, Usefulness and Belonging Lewis, R. (2008). The developmental management approach to classroom behaviour: Responding to individual needs. Melbourne: ACER Press. (Republished by Routledge. USA as Understanding Pupil Behaviour, 2009)
    • Implementation of the DMA • 141 Primary and 53 Secondary schools in the Northern Metropolitan Region of Victoria, Australia (as part of the AiZ project – Headed by Prof David Hopkins) <www.aiz.vic.edu.au> • 20 Primary and 20 Secondary schools in the Western Region of Victoria, Australia
    • Achievement Northern Metropolitan Improvement Zones Region
    • We have 2 Rights & 2 Responsibilities
    • Our Values
    • 1 /2 Level
    • Community Kids at 5 /6
    • Hints [A behaviour children] • Let students know that rights are being ignored without telling student(s) what to do. • Allow students ‘room’ to remain adult and act responsibly, rather than be controlled like children, or to resist or rebel like children.
    • Visual hints Everyone A few children Some students Can work Can’t work well are being well distracted
    • Verbal hints Personal Responsibility • I’m disappointed there’s so much talking. • The talking seems to be preventing some children from concentrating. • I thought we agreed not to distract people. • It’s a pity some students aren’t encouraging others to keep the noise down. • What are you doing? Are you distracting anyone?
    • Verbal hints Communal Responsibility • I’m disappointed. There’s so much talking, and no- one is encouraging others to keep the noise down. • I thought we agreed not to let others distract people. • The talking seems to be preventing some children from concentrating and no-one seems to care. • Why aren’t you trying to stop others who are distracting your friends ?
    • Achievement Northern Metropolitan Improvement Zones Region
    • The impact of the DMA
    • Achievement Northern Metropolitan Improvement Zones Region
    • Achievement Northern Metropolitan Improvement Zones Region
    • Achievement Northern Metropolitan Improvement Zones Region
    • Thomastown Meadows Primary School Interviews with 5 students per teacher for 22 teachers 2008: Q 1. If someone was doing the wrong thing/behaving inappropriately, what does your teacher do? She tells them off, yells at them , gives warning, sends them to another room, you get into trouble, raises her voice, they have to go and sit by themselves, miss out on the fun, screamed at them, made to sit on floor, made to go to another room, yells at them and growls at them and says don’t be naughty, stop that, gives us lollies.
    • Interviews with 5 students per teacher for 5 teachers 2009: Q 1. (5 teachers/5 students per teacher) If someone was doing the wrong thing/behaving inappropriately, what does your teacher do? Looks at them, gives then a warning, talks to them, sit them on the floor, sit them by themselves, gives them a reminder, hints, points to the rights and responsibilities (R & R), tells them nicely what they’re doing wrong, keep her temper, reminds them and reminds them to look at the R &R, talks about how they are infringing on their R&R.
    • 2008: Q5. How many times in a day does your teacher have to raise their voice? 3 – 4, 10, every day, 3 in the morning , 4 in the afternoon and 3 in the last hour, over 10 million times. 2009:Q5. How many times in a day does your teacher have to raise their voice? Never, none, always polite, never mean, she doesn’t really yell, she doesn’t like to , sometimes once or zero, little bit, depends...once or twice, most of the time she never does, she hasn’t raised her voice- ever, she doesn’t raise her voice, she hasn’t had to raise her voice, maybe never, not normally, about once a week, 2 or 3 times, 3 to 4 times a day, about 3 times, 5 times for the naughty people.
    • One year after the introduction of the DMA Craigieburn Secondary College – 22% reduction in teacher referral out of class Lakeside College – 46% reduction in teacher referral out of class
    • Reservoir West Primary School 2009 Government School Performance Summary
    • La Trobe S. C. Principal.- Glenn White • “The collaborative research project was invaluable to the college. It resulted in significant changes to the way in which staff interacted with students and this in turn resulted in less student misbehaviour in class, students being more engaged in their learning and a much more positive learning environment.”
    • New Project 2010-13 Approx $500.000 Funding (ARC and Ed Dep’t) How to support and sustain changes in teachers’ classroom management behaviour. Evaluating the impact of 3 types of Professional development • System • Classroom • Individual
    • Assertion [B behaviour children] Logical Recognitions Consequences for Effort Expectations The final Consequence is Isolation within or removal from the classroom
    • Recognise the EFFORT that goes into behaving responsibly. Provide recognition for the effort that goes into appropriate Social behaviour, not only Academic behaviour • Talk A and B behaviour students out of accepting rewards once they realise the importance of rights (and hence the need to act responsibly) • Provide more frequent recognition for challenging students when they make the effort to behave ‘normally’ (Come on time, bring equipment, sit in seat, listen when others are speaking. • Give them what they need not what they deserve!
    • Assertion [B behaviour children] Calm tone is ESSENTIAL! 1. Yakir, .............you’re talking. It’s disturbing others. They have a right to work. Please be quiet ! 2. I understand but please be quiet. 3. You have a choice. Either you sit quietly or …….. 4. I don’t intend to force you. However if you won’t sit quietly then ….. We’ll talk later.
    • Letter to parents positive
    • Letter to Parents Negative
    • Conversation with C behaviour children Six steps. 1. Welcome the student as an adult (not a child) 2. Validate the student but challenge the inappropriate behaviour 3. Challenge any irrational thinking behind the behaviour 4. Ensure that the students acknowledges that the behaviour is a ‘problem’ (in an adult voice) 5. Have student decide how (S)he intends to handle a similar situation ‘next’ time 6. Set a period for review
    • Reflection Form
    • • Reflection and Commitment Process (McCleod Secondary College) • Name: _________________ Date: ____________ Pd/Time: _________ Teacher: _______________ Subject:_____________________ • TO THE STUDENT: • You have been asked to take some time to reflect on your behaviour in the class. This process aims to achieve a WIN/WIN/ WIN scenario. A WIN for you, the teacher and the learning environment of the class. Please be as honest as you can in answering these questions that the teacher will then discuss with you • Inappropriate Behaviour YES/NO ( If Yes, WHY) • 1. I distracted others from their work • 2 .I ignored the instruction given by the teacher • 3. I was disrespectful to the teacher • 4. I made other people feel unsafe • 5. I wouldn’t do any work • 6. I did not obey the teachers instruction • 7. OTHER ( your own response) •
    • D behaviour children Competence Usefulness Student Self-Esteem Belonging
    • How to respond to “difficult” Students Pedagogically • Fight your first impulse (try to understand that the student is hurting inside). • Encourage the student at every opportunity. • Separate the deed from the doer. Express a liking for the student while still applying logical consequences. • Show an awareness of some skill the student believes he or she is good at. If possible, set up a situation where you can observe the child being competent. • Have the child help you in a meaningful way. • Show some interest in something that interests the child. • Modify the child’s curriculum (Usually more Kinesthetic – Visual - Rhythmic instruction)
    • How to respond to “difficult” students • Collect enough data to be confident of student’s mistaken goal • Make the student aware of his/her “mistaken” goals • Confront the student with the need to choose between his/her primary and mistaken goal • Inform the child (privately), during class, of the mistaken goal as he or she misbehaves