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  • Figure 19 – Global distribution of streamgauges: a) as a function of elevation; b) for each elevation as a function of WMO (World Meteorological Organization) regions. [Source: http://www.bafg.de/GRDC/EN]

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  • 1. El Nexo Agua-Energia-Desarollo:riesgos naturales y interacciones entreinfraestrutura, clima y paisaje enun marco de adaptacióna multiples escalas Ana P. Barros Duke University Lima, March 22, 2013
  • 2. Pilares de Adaptación  Observaciones - Rigorosas, Consistentes, Dense, Extensas  Analísis y Interpretación – Representación y modelos Descoberta Ciencia Integración de datos e física >>> Contexto de riesgo Evaluar Vulnerabilidades , “Breaking Points”
  • 3. Ciclos Climáticos…Dos series con Nilometer 622-1284 A.D.media y variancia H=0.91estadísticas igualesThe idea thatpersistent(0.5<H<1.0) H=0.5 “Ruído Blanco”movements in atime series tend tobe part of largertrends and cyclesmore often than theyare completelyrandom. From Koutsoyannis, 2004 (Mandelbrot and Wallis 1977, Hurst 1951, Barros and Evans 1996)
  • 4. RenaissanceY de un punto de vista regional,local que significa? Revolución Industrial
  • 5. Analísis de Riesgo – Infraestrutura Presa Construída ?Note la influencia de la duración del periodo de observación
  • 6. Green, Renewable Energy “Gran Muralla Andina” India: Plans to build 292 hydroelectric dams in the Himalayas Environmental Services Conectividad Hidrologica Conectividad Ecologica Material (Sedimentos, Nutrientes) Sustainability /Climate Finer and Jenkins, 2012
  • 7. Endicamientos Naturales : Formación y Falla Penna e al. 2012) HidroAgoyan Dam, Pastaza River, Ecuador
  • 8. Changing Mix of Stations: Raingauge Stations Over Time(NOAA GHCN Dataset) New et al. 2001 Courtesy David Easterling, NOAA- NCDC
  • 9. GHCN-Monthly Version 3.0• The dataset for global climate monitoring and assessment – 7280 mean temperature stations; >20,000 precipitation stations – Global coverage from 1880 to present – GHCN-M Version 3 released in 2010 (temperature only) Courtesy David Easterling, NOAA- NCDC
  • 10. Estaciones hydrométricasa) Barros 2012
  • 11. Estaciones hydrométricas b) 1 – Africa 2 – Asia 3 – South America 4 – North America, Central America, and the Caribbean 5 – EuropeElevation H [m] 6 – South-West Pacific WMO Region Barros 2012
  • 12. Hydrometeorology of Mountainous Regions Maritime vs Continental Tropical Monsoon Regimes Mid-Latitude Seasonal Regimes Global to Regional Scale Controls Summit to Sea and Sea To Summit
  • 13. From Clouds to River Networks 1st Principal Component of Cloudiness (IR Brightness) Giovannetone and Barros 2008 and 2009
  • 14. Warm Rain Daytime “Deep” TRMM Central Andes ConvectionGiovannettone and Barros, 2009
  • 15. Shallow Embedded Convection Nighttime TRMM Central AndesGiovannettone and Barros, 2009
  • 16. 1st order streamsTRMM PFs December 1998-2010 Wet season 3500m
  • 17. Ridge-Valley, ET feedback,andMountain-Valley Circulations Sunrise Forenoon Noon Later Afternoon Evening Early Night Late Night Middle of Night to Morning Rampanelli et al. (2004)
  • 18. Lowman and Barros, 2013
  • 19. Class Elevation Range (m) 1 6000-3600 2 3599-2500 3 2499-2200 4 2199-1500 5 1499-1300 6 1299-900 7 899-500 8 499-0AGU Poster EP32B-0737 Deitz et al. 2011
  • 20. AGU Poster EP32B-0737 Deitz et al. 2011
  • 21. First Observations Central Andes San Pedro, Andes 2012 Rio Kospiñata 2011Financiado por la NSF
  • 22. Precipitable waterPrecipitablewater fromERA-Interim2011 ACRGs installed in 2011
  • 23. Erlingis (2012)
  • 24. Moisture transport – Andes Vertically integrated moisture flux Verano Invierno Role of vegetation/ET in “harvesting” atmospheric moisture???
  • 25. Weak LLJ Daily Precipitation TRMM 3B42 ERA-Interim NCEP-FNL
  • 26. NCEP/NCAR ReanalysisWater Vapor Transport 1951-2010
  • 27. NecessidadesFundamentales deInvestigaciónMonitoreoOrganización the Processos y Flujos enel Paisaje en Multiples Escalas Recursos Sostenibilidad Riesgos