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EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
EPA Superfund
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EPA Superfund

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  • 1. Overview of SuperfundComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act Shahid Mahmud, Environmental Engineer United States Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 2. Overview  Origin of CERCLA (Superfund Law)  Key provisions of CERCLA  Key provisions of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)  Overview of the cleanup process under Superfund10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2
  • 3. The Origin of CERCLA  Public awareness of abandoned dump sites  Two sites drew significant media attention:  Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York  “Valley of the Drums” in Brooks, Kentucky10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3
  • 4. Key Provisions of CERCLA Approved as law in 1980 Provides legal authority to respond to a release of: A hazardous substance Any pollutant or contaminant that may present an imminent and substantial endangerment Excludes oil releases 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 4
  • 5. Key Provisions of CERCLA Creates Hazardous Substance Trust Fund Holds those Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) liable Cleanup costs Natural resource damages Inventories and prioritizes sites Establishes a National Priorities List (NPL) 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 5
  • 6. Key Provisions of CERCLA Authorizes three types of response actions: Removal Action Remedial Action Enforcement Action Encourages participation of states and tribal governments Provides opportunities for community involvement 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 6
  • 7. Plan National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) Blueprint for responding to oil spills and hazardous substances releases. All Superfund response actions must be consistent with the NCP. The NCP is found at 40 Code of Federal regulations (CFR) Part 300  http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text- idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40cfr300_main_02.tpl NCP provides step-by-step process for conducting Superfund response actions. 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 7
  • 8. Removal Actions under Superfund Three types of removal response actions: 1. Emergency Response (Action within hours) 2. Time-Critical (Action within 6 months) 3. Non-time Critical (Planning period more than 6 months) On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) investigates site to determine extent of damage and the appropriate actions to take during the response effort. 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 8
  • 9. Emergency Response Coordination and implementation of a wide range of activities to ensure timely response measures for hazardous substance and oil releases.  Includes large-scale national emergencies such as homeland security incidents. Emergencies range from small-scale spills to large events requiring prompt action and/or evacuation of nearby populations. 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 9
  • 10. Removal Responses Common at Superfund Sites when contamination poses an imminent threat to human health and the environment. Removal actions can supplement long-term cleanup actions at NPL sites Classified as either time-critical or non-time-critical depending on the extent and type of contamination. Decision to conduct removal documented in an Action Memorandum. 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 10
  • 11. Overview of Superfund Response Process Short-Term Cleanup Removal SiteSite Discovery Site Listing Long-Term Assessment Clean/ Cleanup Closure Remedial Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Enforcement/Cost Recovery Community Relations 11 Site Reuse
  • 12. Site Listing Process - Hazard Ranking System (HRS) Used to identify sites for the National Priorities List (NPL) Numerically based scoring system that uses information from initial investigations HRS assesses relative potential of sites to pose a threat to human health and the environment Ranks sites based on their relative risk among sites evaluated Cut-off score of 28.5 was established for placing sites on the NPL An HRS evaluation is performed following procedures defined in the HRS regulation (40 CFR Part 300 Appendix A, part of the NCP) 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 12
  • 13. Major Phases of Remedial Process NCP defines five major phases:  Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study  Selection of Remedy  Remedial Design  Remedial Action (Site Cleanup)  Operation and Maintenance Overall goal of remedy selection:  Protective of human health and the environment  Maintain protection over time  Minimize untreated waste 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 13
  • 14. Overview of Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Process RI/FS supports remedy selection Remedial Investigation (RI) provides:  Site characterization  Baseline risk assessment FS develops and analyzes remedial action alternatives  Develop and screen alternatives  Detailed analysis of alternatives • Nine Evaluation criteria are basis of remedy selection 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 14
  • 15. Remedy Selection Proposed plan informs the public on the preferred cleanup option Public reviews and provides comments on the proposed plan All relevant documents are maintained in the site information repository10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 15
  • 16. Record of Decision, Remedial Design and Remedial ActionRecord of Decision Official decision document on remedy selection Technical, legal and public documentRemedial Design Develop final plans and specifications for selected remedyRemedial Action Contract selection Remedy Construction 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 16
  • 17. Enforcement and Liability Enforcement principle: those responsible for hazardous waste sites pay for or perform cleanup. CERCLA provides criteria under which a party is liable for cleanup costs. EPA identifies those responsible for contamination at a site and negotiates with them to do the cleanup. EPA can do the cleanup itself and recover its costs from the responsible party. 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 17
  • 18. Post Construction Completion  Ensure that Superfund cleanup actions provide for the long-term protection of human health and the environment.  Activities include: operations and maintenance (O&M), Five- year reviews, remedy optimization, institutional controls, and deleting sites from the NPL.10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 18
  • 19. Operation & Maintenance (O&M) Ensure that equipment is installed and that the remedy performs as intended. Site responsibility transfers to the States for Fund lead sites. EPA is responsible for monitoring and ensuring that the work is adequately performed. 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 19
  • 20. Five-Year Reviews/Site DeletionFive-Year Reviews Evaluate the implementation and performance of a remedy to determine whether it remains protective Required by CERCLA / NCP when hazardous substances remain on site above levels which permit unrestricted use and unlimited exposure.Site Deletion When cleanup levels are met and Operation and Maintenance is complete – Site is deleted from NPL 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 20
  • 21. Superfund Site Reuse and Redevelopment Over 600 Superfund sites have been returned to productive use under the Superfund Redevelopment Initiative Some mine site examples include: - Anaconda Smelter Company, Montana - Midvale Slag, Utah10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21
  • 22. Summary CERCLA provides legal authority to respond to a release of hazardous substances NCP provides the blueprint for responding to oil spills and hazardous substances releases Program designed to address both short and long-term actions10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 22
  • 23. Thank You!!Contact Information:Shahid MahmudTeam Leader, EPA Abandoned Mine Lands TeamOffice of Site Remediation and Technology Innovation703-603-8789Mahmud.shahid@epa.gov10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 23

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