NEAR – TERM CLIMATE PROTECTION AND CLEAN AIR FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN -Transport Sector- Sergio Sanchez Bogota, Colombia October 31st – November 2nd 2012
Contents• Latin American Context• Policies and instruments – Brazil – Colombia – Chile – Mexico• Conclusions• Recommendations
Greening Global Transport• Greening transport systems requires to affect both activity and emission factors:• It should be based on an Integrated Avoid-Shift-Improved Approach • Prevent or Shift • Deploy clean and eliminate efficient unnecessary trips technologies and • Change to clean fuels and efficient modes of transport Avoid Improve
Enabling regional sustainable transport and air quality interventions Methodologies, and tools for policy & project assessment Fuels & Public technologies Transport Project Monitoring Land use & Knowledge Freight Transport transport plataformsand Evaluation planning Travel Non- demand motorized management transport Mainstreaming activities
Latin American Context• 582 million inhabitants in 2011 – 677 million in 2050• GDP per capita (PPP): 10,271 USD• Most urbanized region of developing world – urban population: around 70% (2010), 90% (2030)• Expected GDP growth: 3% (through 2030)• More than 100 million inhabitants exposed to air pollution levels exceeding WHO standards• Air pollution related health effects cost around 2% of GDP annually• Transport sector is the major source of urban air pollution• It is also one of the largest and fastest growing sources of GHG emissions
An Overwhelming Increase in the Number of Motorcycles in Latin America Source: Montezuma (2011)
Sulfur Content in Vehicle Fuels Diesel and Gasoline sulfur content standards Country Diesel Gasoline Argentina Gas Oil G3 (10ppm) is 50ppm in cities available Bolivia 50ppm Brazil 50ppm for public transport Chile 50ppm nationwide / 15ppm 30ppm / 15ppm in in metropolitan areas metropolitan areas Colombia 50ppm in Bogota and for public transport nationwide Costa Rica 50ppm Mexico 15ppm available in Mexico 30ppm available in City, Guadalajara, Mexico City, Guadalajara Monterrey and US border and Monterrey Peru 50ppm in Lima and Callao Puerto 15ppm 15ppm Rico Virgin 15ppm 15ppm Islands
Used LDVs Flows Around the WorldMassive entrance of in-usevehicles at the Chilean-Bolivian border (Source:Lacy 2011) Source: OECD 2009
Brazil - Highlights• National 2009 legislation – 36% reduction of GHG in 2020 based on 2005• State of Sao Paulo 2009 legislation – 20% reduction of GHG in 2020 based on 2005• State of Sao Paulo is discussing a sustainable transport plan.• City of Sao Paulo 2009 legislation – requirement for urban buses: gradual substitution of entire bus fleet for vehicles fueled with renewable non- fossil fuels until 2018 – 10% each year
Colombia - Highlights• Middle class growth• Increased income• Reduction of retail car prices as a result of growing competition• Growing automobile imports (60% of total sales in 2009)• Duty tax exemption policy favoring SUV’s• New transport systems (e.g. SITP)
IES Approach in Bogota Scope definition and team buiding Baseline and emission scenarios Air Quality Modeling Health effects assessment Economic valuation Measures prioritization and results sharing Formulación de recomendaciones para implementar medidas Apoyo a laDesarrollo de Fortalecimiento construcción depericia técnica de capacidades consensos
Chile - Highlights• Broad diversity of emissions and vehicle standards• Lower requirements to larger vehicles including a discount incentive on VAT taxes when bought through companies• 244% increase on SUV and light duty sales during the last six years reaching beyond 30% of total country sales.
Mexico - Highlights• On June 6th 2012, Mexico adopted a General Law of Climate Change. – Implements treaties and protocols signed by Mexico and harmonize Mexican regulations with international negotiations and agreements. – The country commits to reduce GHG emissions nationwide (compared to base year 2000): • 30 per cent by 2020; and • 50 percent by 2050,
Portal of Emissionsand Fuel Efficiency Indicators
Conclusions• More stringent emission standards have resulted in cleaner fleets in countries/cities where they are applied• Further vehicle emission reductions require: – Speed up phase-in of ultra low sulfur automobile fuels and alternatives. – Effective I&M programs – Scrapping schemes• Standards, taxes, labeling and other instruments to improve fuel efficiency, and reduce GHG and short life climate pollutants, are needed to ensure a climate friendly fleet.• Measures to deal with negative impacts of high motorization and VKT growth rates are essential for avoiding offset benefits of greener fleets.• Transboundary flow of used cars is a substantial carbon leak issue that demands both national international life cycle approach.
Recommendations• Foster a policy dialogue among decision makers and technical leaders to share knowledge on: – Emission and fuel efficiency standards – Economic instruments (taxes, feebates, rebates, etc.) – Develop guidelines to implement labeling system – Technology options – Policy assessment – Other• Implement a consumer oriented online database with LAC region-wide information on: – automobile technologies, – emissions and fuel efficiency of brands/models – Environmental, social and economic benefits of greener fleets.
Contact Information Sergio Sanchez Executive Director The Clean Air Institute 1100 H Street NW, Suite 800 Washington DC, 20005Ph. No. +1 (202) 785 4222 ext. 13 Fax +1 (202) 785 4313 http://www.cleanairinstitute.org http://www.cleanairnet.org/lac