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Plegable biologia

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plegable biología

plegable biología

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  • 1. SQUISHY SCIENCE:EXTRACT DNA FROM SMASHED STRAWBERRIESESTEFANIA JARAMILLO SALAZAR 3rd SEMESTER MEDICINE STUDENT U.P. B FEBRUARY 11/2013
  • 2. FOLDING MEDICAL UTILITY. SQUISHY SCIENCE: EXTRACT DNA FROMWhether you’re a human, rat, tomato or SMASHED bacterium, each of your cells will have STRAWBERRIES DNA inside of it (with some rare exceptions, such as mature red bloodcells in humans). Each cell has an entire MOLECULAR BIOLOGYcopy of the same set of instructions, andthis set is called the genome. Scientistsstudy DNA for many reasons: They can ESTEFANIA JARAMILLO figure out how the instructions stored in SALAZAR DNA help your body to function properly. They can use DNA to make TEACHER new medicines or genetically modify LINA MARÍA MARTINEZ crops to be resistant to insects. They SANCHEZ can solve who is a suspect of a crime, and can even use ancient DNA to reconstruct evolutionary histories! MEDICINE STUDENT To get the DNA from a cell, scientists BIBLIOGRAPH 3rd SEMESTER typically rely on one of many DNA Y extraction kits available from - Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.” Squishy Science: Extract DNA from biotechnology companies. During a Smashed Strawberries.” Scientific American, DNA extraction, a detergent will cause January 31, 2013. visited on the internet portal:the cell to pop open, or lyse, so that the http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id= DNA is released into solution. Then squishy-science-extract-dna-from-smashed- strawberriesalcohol added to the solution causes the - Agency for Science, Technology and Research DNA to precipitate out. In this activity, (A*STAR), Singapore. "Nucleus structure crucialstrawberries will be used because each to understanding diseases discovered.“ strawberry cell has eight copies of the ScienceDaily, 7 Feb. 2013. Web. visited on the internet portal: FEBRUARY 11/2013 genome, giving them a lot of DNA per http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/13 cell. (Most organisms only have one 0208110255.htm genome copy per cell.)
  • 3. FOLDING NUCLEUS STRUCTURE SQUISHY SCIENCE: CRUCIAL TO INTRODUCTION EXTRACT DNA FROM UNDERSTANDING DISEASES SMASHED DISCOVERED STRAWBERRIES Have you ever wondered how Materials : Rubbing alcohol, Measuring cup, scientists extract DNA from an Measuring spoons, Salt, water, Dishwashing liquid, Scientists from Singapore and Germany have identified that the proteins lamin A (Lmna) and organism? All living organisms Glass or small bowl, Cheesecloth, Funnel, Tall lamin B receptor (Lbr) are essential for holding drinking glass, Three strawberries, Resealable have DNA, which is short for plastic sandwich bag, Small glass, Bamboo silent genes in their correct position at the edge of the nucleus, in the form of heterochromatin. A deoxyribonucleic acid; it is skewer, available at most grocery stores. deviation from their normal position will cause the Procedure : Prepare the extraction liquid. - Put the basically the blueprint for strawberries into a resealable plastic bag - smash genes to malfunction, leading to heart failure, vascular disease and muscle wasting. everything that happens inside the strawberries. - Add three tablespoons of the For hundreds of years before this discovery, extraction liquid to the strawberries. - Squeeze thean organism’s cells. Overall, DNA strawberry mixture - Pour the strawberry mixture scientists were puzzled by why heterochromatin clustered at the edge of the nucleus and how ittells an organism how to develop from the bag into the funnel. Let it drip through the was relevant to normal cell function. This recent cheesecloth and into the tall glass until there is veryand function, and is so important little liquid left in the funnel - Pour the filtered discovery will enable scientists to gain a better understanding of the diseases of the heart and that this complex compound is strawberry liquid from the tall glass into the small muscles, and find cures for them in the future. glass. - Measure out one half cup of cold rubbing found in virtually every one of its alcohol. - Tilt the jar and very slowly pour the The findings by Audrey Wang and Colin Stewart of A*STARs Institute of Medical Biology and Irina cells. In this activity you’ll make alcohol down its side. Pour until the alcohol has Solovei, Boris Joffe and Heinrich Leonhardt of the formed approximately a one-inch-deep layer on topyour own DNA extraction kit from of the strawberry liquid. Do not let the strawberry Ludwig Maximillian University in Munich, Germany, were recently published in the household chemicals and use it liquid and alcohol mix. prestigious journalCell. The strawberry DNA will appear as gooey to separate DNA from STUDENT OBSERVATION. clear/white stringy stuff. STUDENT strawberries. OBSERVATION. I think that this is a very interesting story, curious This news is of vital importance, and funny, which is available to everyone. is a because it allow us to understand simple and effective method that provides a start to diseases and their relation with age, the DNA testing allowing a better understanding besides that it gives explanation of about the functioning of the same, opening the mind to its utility and who knows probably reaching various syndromes making possible to some discoveries that allow us to develop new to give better treatment and theories in order to apply them on life. prevention of disease.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTIONDNA is important Have you ever wondered how to all the things scientists extract DNA from an that happens in organism? All living organisms the bodys cells, have DNA, which is short for deoxyribonucleic acid; it isthis tells me how basically the blueprint forthey are develop everything that happens inside and how they an organism’s cells. Overall, DNA tells an organism how to develop work. and function, and is so important that this complex compound is found in virtually every one of its This discovery is cells. In this activity you’ll make your own DNA extraction kit from an experimental household chemicals and use it activity that to separate DNA from works closely strawberries.with DNA. It helpsits understanding, leaving the knowledge for everyone.
  • 5. SQUISHY SCIENCE:EXTRACT DNA FROM SMASHED STRAWBERRIES SQUISHY SCIENCE: EXTRACT DNA FROM SMASHED STRAWBERRIES Materials : Rubbing alcohol, Measuring cup, Measuring spoons, Salt, water, Dishwashing liquid, Glass or small bowl, Cheesecloth, Funnel, Tall drinking glass, Three strawberries, Resealable plastic sandwich bag, Small glass, Bamboo skewer, available at most grocery stores. Procedure : Prepare the extraction liquid. - Put the strawberries into a resealable plastic bag - smash the strawberries. - Add three tablespoons of the extraction liquid to the strawberries. - Squeeze the strawberry mixture - Pour the strawberry mixture from the bag into the funnel. Let it drip through the cheesecloth and into the tall glass until there is very little liquid left in the funnel - Pour the filtered strawberry liquid from the tall glass into the small glass. - Measure out one half cup of cold rubbing alcohol. - Tilt the jar and very slowly pour the alcohol down its side. Pour until the alcohol has formed approximately a one-inch-deep layer on top of the strawberry liquid. Do not let the strawberry liquid and alcohol mix. The strawberry DNA will appear as gooey STUDENT OBSERVATION. clear/white stringy stuff. I think that this is a very interesting story, curious and funny, which is available to everyone. is a simple and effective method that provides a start to the DNA testing allowing a better understanding about the functioning of the same, opening the mind to its utility and who knows probably reaching to some discoveries that allow us to develop new theories in order to apply them on life.
  • 6. SQUISHY SCIENCE: EXTRACT DNA FROM SMASHED STRAWBERRIESPreparation of the extractionliquid- Chill the rubbing alcohol in thefreezer. (You’ll need it later.)- Mix one half teaspoon of salt, onethird cup of water and one tablespoonof dishwashing liquid in a glass orsmall bowl. Set the mixture aside. Thisis your extraction liquid. Why do youthink there is detergent in theextraction liquid?- Completely line the funnel withcheesecloth. Insert the funnel tubeinto the tall drinking glass (not theglass with the extraction liquid in it).- Remove and discard the green topsfrom the strawberries.
  • 7. SQUISHY SCIENCE: EXTRACT DNA FROM SMASHED STRAWBERRIESExtra: the experiment can be make itin several ways:- Grab some oatmeal or kiwis from thekitchen and try it again! Which foodsgive you the most DNA?- Try to tweak different variables in thisactivity to see how you could changeyour strawberry DNA yield. For example,you could try starting with differentamounts of strawberries, using differentdetergents or different DNA sources(such as oatmeal or kiwis). Whichconditions give you the best DNA yield?
  • 8. SQUISHY SCIENCE: EXTRACT DNA FROM SMASHED STRAWBERRIESMaterialsRubbing alcohol, Measuring cup,Measuring, spoons, Salt, water,Dishwashing liquid (for hand-washing dishes), Glass or smallbowl, Cheesecloth, Funnel, Talldrinking glass, Threestrawberries, Resealable plasticsandwich bag, Small glass jar,(such as a spice or baby foodjar), Bamboo skewer, available atmost grocery stores. (If you use ababy food or short spice jar, youcould substitute a toothpick forthe skewer.)
  • 9. OBSERVATIO NI think that this is a very interesting story, curious and funny, which is available to everyone. is a simple and effective method that provides a start to the DNA testing allowing a better understanding about the functioning of the same, opening the mind to its utility and who knows probably reaching to somediscoveries that allow us to develop new theories in order to apply them on life.
  • 10. NUCLEUS STRUCTURE CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING DISEASES DISCOVERED NUCLEUS STRUCTURE CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING DISEASES DISCOVERED Scientists from Singapore and Germany have identified that the proteins lamin A (Lmna) and lamin B receptor (Lbr) are essential for holding silent genes in their correct position at the edge of the nucleus, in the form of heterochromatin. A deviation from their normal position will cause the genes to malfunction, leading to heart failure, vascular disease and muscle wasting. For hundreds of years before this discovery, scientists were puzzled by why heterochromatin clustered at the edge of the nucleus and how it was relevant to normal cell function. This recent discovery will enable scientists to gain a better understanding of the diseases of the heart and muscles, and find cures for them in the future. The findings by Audrey Wang and Colin Stewart of A*STARs Institute of Medical Biology and Irina Solovei, Boris Joffe and Heinrich Leonhardt of the Ludwig Maximillian University in Munich, Germany, were recently published in the prestigious journalCell. STUDENT OBSERVATION. This news is of vital importance, because it allow us to understand diseases and their relation with age, besides that it gives explanation of various syndromes making possible to give better treatment and prevention of disease.
  • 11. NUCLEUS STRUCTURE CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING DISEASES DISCOVERED The nucleus has the information as of chromatin necessary for the cell to grow, develop andreproduce. scientists showed that AYB like sheet proteins are important for the organization of chromatin inthe nucleus. if there is a lack of these will be a collapse inthe nuclear center causing adisruption of gene expressionand development of affected skeletal muscle, resulting in muscle failure.
  • 12. NUCLEUS STRUCTURE CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING DISEASES DISCOVERED the findings on changes in the position of chromatin cancontribute to the exploration of heart failure.
  • 13. NUCLEUS STRUCTURE CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING DISEASES DISCOVEREDThis news takes researchers a step closer to understanding the nucleusand the development of new treatments for common diseases. It could be particularly relevant for Mexico, since, like other developed countries, arefacing the population aging, heart failure, vasculardisease and muscle atrophy that increase with age.
  • 14. NUCLEUS STRUCTURE CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING DISEASES DISCOVERED Two major advances have been made in the last years, theexperimentation with thecloning and the discovery of the Human Genome Mapping considered the greatest history feat
  • 15. OBSERVATIO N This news is of vital importance,because it allow us to understand diseases and their relation with age, besides that it givesexplanation of various syndromes making possible to give better treatment and prevention of disease.
  • 16. MEDICAL UTILITY MEDICAL UTILITY. Whether you’re a human, rat, tomato or bacterium, each of your cells will have DNA inside of it (with some rare exceptions, such as mature red blood cells in humans). Each cell has an entire copy of the same set of instructions, and this set is called the genome. Scientists study DNA for many reasons: They can figure out how the instructions stored in DNA help your body to function properly. They can use DNA to make new medicines or genetically modify crops to be resistant to insects. They can solve who is a suspect of a crime, and can even use ancient DNA to reconstruct evolutionary histories! To get the DNA from a cell, scientists typically rely on one of many DNA extraction kits available from biotechnology companies. During a DNA extraction, a detergent will cause the cell to pop open, or lyse, so that the DNA is released into solution. Then alcohol added to the solution causes the DNA to precipitate out. In this activity, strawberries will be used because each strawberry cell has eight copies of the genome, giving them a lot of DNA per cell. (Most organisms only have one genome copy per cell.)
  • 17. MEDICAL UTILITYAllow us to have a more empirical knowledgeabout DNA and its importance
  • 18. MEDICAL UTILITY Allow us to have a more consciousunderstanding of the importance of thecorrect position of thegenes in the nucleusand which may cause abnormalities in the same, like a malfunction of thehearts blood vessels and muscles
  • 19. BIBLIOGRAP HY- Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.”Squishy Science: Extract DNA from Smashed Strawberries.”Scientific American, January 31, 2013. visited on the internetportal:http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=squishy-science-extract-dna-from-smashed-strawberries- Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR),Singapore. "Nucleus structure crucial to understandingdiseases discovered.“ ScienceDaily, 7 Feb. 2013.Web. visited on the internet portal:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130208110255.htm
  • 20. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ¡