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Beam Dynamics Codes:
Availability, Sophistication,
      Limitations …


  ESS Bilbao Initiative Workshop
       March 16-...
Outline

 Beam Dynamics Codes: History and Evolution

 General Comments: Codes Availability, Sophistication, Limitations

...
Beam Dynamics Codes: History
 (From R. Ryne’s Talk at HB-2008 Workshop)
         CODES, CAPABILITIES & METHODOLOGIES FOR B...
Beam Dynamics Codes: Evolution
 (From R. Ryne’s Talk at HB-2008 Workshop)
         CODES, CAPABILITIES & METHODOLOGIES FOR...
General Comments:
Codes Availability, Sophistication, Limitations

 Availability: Many useful beam dynamics codes exist fo...
Example of Code-Code and Code-Experiment Benchmarking:
(From L. Groening (GSI), Talk at HB-2008 Workshop)
 Schematic set-u...
Our Experience: TRACK versus few other Codes

                    IMPACT
   TRACK                                         ...
RIA Driver Linac Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs IMPACT
                                                                          ...
FNAL Proton Driver Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs ASTRA
FNAL-PD Linac: RFQ to Linac end

Beam: 0 mA H-
In: W ~ 2.5 MeV, Out: W ~ ...
SNS RFQ Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs PARMTEQ




                                                                   PARMTEQ
   ...
SNS Linac Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs PARMILA
                                               -3                               ...
SPIRAL-2 Linac Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs TRACEWIN
End-to-end beam
dynamics for a
0.5 mA A/q=6 ion
beam along the
SPIRAL-2 li...
Summary and Recommendations to the Users

 Summary:
 Many useful beam dynamics codes exist for the simulation of
 proton a...
The Beam Dynamics Code: TRACK




    ESS-Bilbao Workshop   Beam Dynamics Codes …   P. Ostroumov
The Beam Dynamics Code: TRACK

 TRACK Main Features
 A wide range of E-M elements with 3D fields
 End-to-end simulations f...
TRACK: Extensive List of Supported Elements

 Any type of RF resonator (3D fields)
 Static ion optics devices (3D fields)
...
TRACK Application: Design and Simulations of the FRIB Linac
                                                   Injector: T...
TRACK Application: Design and Simulations of the FNAL-PD
Error simulations: 100 seeds, 1M particles each                  ...
TRACK Application: End-to-end Simulation of the SNS Linac
                 RFQ Simulations                           Linac...
TRACK Application: Design and Simulations of an electron linac
Layout of a linac for a future X-Ray FEL Oscillator        ...
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations
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ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations

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Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations. P.N. Ostroumov and B. Mustapha Argonne National Laboratory, J.-P. Carneiro Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

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Transcript of "ESS-Bilbao Initiative Workshop. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations"

  1. 1. Beam Dynamics Codes: Availability, Sophistication, Limitations … ESS Bilbao Initiative Workshop March 16-18, 2009 Bilbao, Spain P.N. Ostroumov and B. Mustapha Argonne National Laboratory J.-P. Carneiro Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
  2. 2. Outline Beam Dynamics Codes: History and Evolution General Comments: Codes Availability, Sophistication, Limitations Comparing Codes to Measurements: An example Our Side of the Story: Comparing TRACK to few other Codes Summary & Recommendations to the Users Presentation of TRACK, If interested - General Presentation - Sample TRACK Applications - Recent & Future Developments ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 2
  3. 3. Beam Dynamics Codes: History (From R. Ryne’s Talk at HB-2008 Workshop) CODES, CAPABILITIES & METHODOLOGIES FOR BEAM DYNAMICS SIMULATION IN ACCELERATORS IMPACT-Z PARMELA WARP IMPACT-T PARMTEQ ML/I PARMILA SIMPSONS IMPACT Synergia 2D space charge OPAL rms eqns 3D space charge ORBIT GCPIC TRACK DA Freq maps Symp Integ Dynamion Normal Forms DESRFQ Integrated Maps BeamPath COSY-INF BeamBeam3D MXYZPTLK MAD-X/PTC MaryLie … Dragt-Finn MAD Transport Partial list only; Many codes not shown 1980 1990 2000 1970 ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 3
  4. 4. Beam Dynamics Codes: Evolution (From R. Ryne’s Talk at HB-2008 Workshop) CODES, CAPABILITIES & METHODOLOGIES FOR BEAM DYNAMICS SIMULATION IN ACCELERATORS IMPACT-Z PARMELA WARP IMPACT-T 3D COLLECTIVE PARMTEQ ML/I SELF-CONSISTENT PARMILA 1D, 2D COLLECTIVESIMPSONS IMPACT MULTI-PHYSICS Synergia Parallelization begins 2D space charge OPAL rms eqns 3D space charge ORBIT GCPIC TRACK DA Freq maps Symp Integ Dynamion Normal Forms DESRFQ Integrated Maps BeamPath COSY-INF BeamBeam3D SINGLEMXYZPTLK MAD-X/PTC PARTICLE MaryLie … Dragt-FinnOPTICS MAD Transport Partial list only; Many codes not shown 1980 1990 2000 1970 ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 4
  5. 5. General Comments: Codes Availability, Sophistication, Limitations Availability: Many useful beam dynamics codes exist for the simulation of proton and heavy ion linacs … - The variety is good but comes also with redundancy … - A lot of effort is put on benchmarking different codes … Sophistication: A lot of them are pretty sophisticated - 3D External and Space Charge Fields. - Parallel Codes: Simulation of the actual number of particles in a beam bunch 1E9, 1E12 particles. - Detailed machine error simulations and corrections Limitations: Still far from reproducing experimental data or to be used to support real-time machine operations. - Some effort is starting at SNS, J-PARC, GSI, … - At Argonne, TRACK is being developed in this direction ... ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 5
  6. 6. Example of Code-Code and Code-Experiment Benchmarking: (From L. Groening (GSI), Talk at HB-2008 Workshop) Schematic set-up of the experiments Comparison: 3 Codes vs experiments Initial Distribution: Measured in front of DTL Reconstructed and Input to Simulations Horizontal Vertical Horizontal phase space plots at the DTL exit. Left: σo =35◦; centre: σo =60◦; right: σo =90◦. The 6D Distribution is parameterized to The scale is ± 24 mm (horizontal axis) reproduce the measured 2D projections on ± 24 mrad (vertical axis) phase space planes ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 6
  7. 7. Our Experience: TRACK versus few other Codes IMPACT TRACK TRACEWIN PARMILA ASTRA Ions & Ions & Ions Ions Electrons & electrons electrons - - (H-) Multi-beam Multi-beam Single beam Single beam Single beam Support any Most elem. Most elem. Most elem. No Less elem. element No RFQ Calls toutatis RFQ No RFQ 1D,2D,3D 1D, 2D,3D 3D fields Hard-edge 1D, (3D) fields fields - 2D fields fields 3D Poisson 3D Poisson 2-3D Poisson 2D Poisson 3D Poisson Fast Fast Fast Fast 2-3x slower Serial/Parallel Serial/Parallel Serial/- Serial only Serial only Errors + Errors + Errors only Errors + Errors only Corrections corrections corrections ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 7
  8. 8. RIA Driver Linac Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs IMPACT Δφ-ΔW plane X-X’ plane Y-Y’ plane RIA driver linac, 0.2 0.2 0.5 Δφc (deg) Xc (mm) Yc (mm) Medium-β section 0 0 0 -0.2 -0.2 0.1 Δφrms (deg) X’c (mrad) Y’c (mrad) 0.1 2 0 Beam: U-238 0 -0.1 1 5Q: 72, 73, 74, 75, 76 7.5 Δφmax (deg) Xrms (mm) Yrms (mm) 1 1 5 0.5 0.5 2.5 In W ~ 12 MeV/u εzrms (deg*keV/u) ΔWrms (keV/u) 100 6 6 Xmax (mm) Ymax (mm) 4 4 Out W ~ 90 MeV/u 50 2 2 εxrms (mm*mrad) εyrms (mm*mrad) In f = 115 MHz 60 0.1 0.1 40 0.095 Out f = 345 MHz 0.095 20 0.09 0.09 2 10 2 αx αy αz 0 0 IMPACT: Black 0 -2 0 50 100 0 50 100 0 50 100 TRACK : Blue Z-distance (m) Z-distance (m) Z-distance (m) IMPACT TRACK IMPACT TRACK IMPACT TRACK 3 3 3 3 150 150 2 2 2 2 100 100 ΔW (keV/u) ΔW (keV/u) X’ (mrad) X’ (mrad) Y’ (mrad) Y’ (mrad) Excellent agreement 1 1 1 1 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -50 -50 is obtained. -2 -2 -2 -2 -100 -100 -3 -3 -3 -3 -150 -150 -2 2 -2 2 -2 2 -2 2 -3 3 -3 3 References: Δφ (deg) Δφ (deg) X (mm) X (mm) Y (mm) Y (mm) “RIA Beam Dynamics: Comparing TRACK to IMPACT”, B. Mustapha et al, PAC-05 “The RIAPMTQ/IMPACT Beam Dynamics Simulation Package”, T. Wangler et al, PAC-07 ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 8
  9. 9. FNAL Proton Driver Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs ASTRA FNAL-PD Linac: RFQ to Linac end Beam: 0 mA H- In: W ~ 2.5 MeV, Out: W ~ 8 GeV ASTRA: Solid curves TRACK: Dotted curves Good agreement overall. FNAL-PD Linac: RFQ to Linac end Beam: 45 mA H- In: W ~ 2.5 MeV, Out: W ~ 8 GeV ASTRA: Solid curves TRACK: Dotted curves Good agreement overall. Reference: “Benchmarking of Simulation Codes TRACK and ASTRA for the FNAL High- Intensity Proton Source”, J.-P. Carneiro, LINAC-06. ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 9
  10. 10. SNS RFQ Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs PARMTEQ PARMTEQ TRACK SNS-RFQ: 32 mA H-, 1M particles simulated Emittance: N-RMS Parmteq TRACK ε-x (mm-mrad) 0.213 0.204 ε-y (mm-mrad) 0.211 0.203 ε-z (deg-keV) 99.63 105.86 References: “End-to-end Simulation of the SNS Linac using TRACK”, B. Mustapha et al, LINAC-08. ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 10
  11. 11. SNS Linac Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs PARMILA -3 -3 Δφ-ΔW plane x 10 x 10 X-X’ plane Y-Y’ plane SNS linac: 0.2 0.2 ΔWrms (keV/u) Δφrms (deg) Wc (MeV/u) Xc (cm) Yc (cm) DTL section 50 0 0 -0.2 -0.2 0 30 Xrms (cm) Yrms (cm) 20 0.2 0.2 Beam: 38 mA H- 10 0 0 0 1 1 Xmax (cm) Ymax (cm) In W ~ 2.5 MeV 50 0.5 0.5 0 Out W ~ 87 MeV 5 0.125 0.125 4*εx,rms 4*εy,rms 4*εz,rms 4 0.1 0.1 In f = 402.5 MHz 0.075 0.075 3 Out f = 402.5 MHz 2 2 40 εx,100% εy,100% εz,100% 1 1 20 0 0 0 PARMILA: Black 5 10 10 αx αy TRACK : Blue αz 0 0 0 -10 -10 -5 0.4 0.4 100 βx βy βz Some differences: 0.2 0.2 0 0 0 - Fringe field in PMQ 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 Z-distance (m) Z-distance (m) Z-distance (m) - SC calculations PARMILA TRACK References: “First TRACK Simulations of the SNS Linac”, B. Mustapha et al, LINAC-06. ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 11
  12. 12. SPIRAL-2 Linac Beam Dynamics: TRACK vs TRACEWIN End-to-end beam dynamics for a 0.5 mA A/q=6 ion beam along the SPIRAL-2 linac from the ion source to end of the linac. The results were not superposed. But a good agreement between TRACK and TRACEWIN was observed. References: “Preliminary Conceptual Design of a Heavy-Ion Injector for SPIRAL-2 Linac at GANIL”, Argonne Report to GANIL, unpublished. ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 12
  13. 13. Summary and Recommendations to the Users Summary: Many useful beam dynamics codes exist for the simulation of proton and heavy ion linacs … With different levels of sophistication … But they are still far from reproducing experimental data or to be used to operate an accelerator … Recommendations to the Users: For consistency: Use 2-3 codes at least Start with TRACE-3D or a similar envelope code PARMILA & PARMTEQ are good to use because it comes with very good documentation Final design with error simulations should be done with more advanced codes such as TRACK, IMPACT, TraceWin ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 13
  14. 14. The Beam Dynamics Code: TRACK ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov
  15. 15. The Beam Dynamics Code: TRACK TRACK Main Features A wide range of E-M elements with 3D fields End-to-end simulations from source to target Simultaneous tracking of Multiple charge states ion beams Interaction of heavy ion beams with strippers Automatic transverse and longitudinal beam tuning Error simulations for all elements: Static and dynamic errors Realistic correction procedure: Transverse and Longitudinal Simulations with large number of particles for large number of seeds Beam loss analysis with exact location of particle loss Recent Updates Possibility of fitting experimental data: beam profiles, … H- Stripping: Black body, Residual gas and Lorentz stripping The design and simulation of electron linacs – Genetic optimization Parallel version is fully developed with good scaling up to 32K processors Possibility of simulating the actual number of particles in a bunch ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 15
  16. 16. TRACK: Extensive List of Supported Elements Any type of RF resonator (3D fields) Static ion optics devices (3D fields) Radio-Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQ) Drift Tube Linacs (DTL) Coupled Cavity Linacs (CCL) Solenoids with fringe fields (model and 3D fields) Bending magnets with fringe fields (model and 3D fields) Electrostatic and magnetic multipoles Multi- Harmonic Bunchers (MHB) Axial Symmetric electrostatic lenses Entrance and exit of HV decks Accelerating tubes with DC voltage Transverse beam steering elements Stripping foils or films for heavy-ion beams Horizontal and vertical jaw slits TRACK was heavily used in the design and simulations of the RIA/FRIB and FNAL-PD linacs and recently in the simulation of the SNS linac. ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 16
  17. 17. TRACK Application: Design and Simulations of the FRIB Linac Injector: Two options w/wo MHB Error simulations: Before and after Corrections ECR−IS LEBT RFQ MEBT SC LINAC ECR−IS LEBT MHB RFQ MEBT SC LINAC 2.5 2.5 0.5 2 2 0.4 1.5 1.5 0.3 ΔW/W (%) 1 1 0.2 x’ (mrad) y’ (mrad) No corrections 0.5 0.5 0.1 0 0 0 -0.5 -0.5 -0.1 -1 -1 -0.2 -1.5 -1.5 -0.3 -2 -2 -0.4 -2.5 -2.5 -0.5 -2 0 2 -2 0 2 -10 0 10 φ (deg) x (cm) y (cm) 2.5 2.5 0.5 2 2 0.4 1.5 1.5 0.3 ΔW/W (%) 1 1 0.2 x’ (mrad) y’ (mrad) 0.5 0.5 0.1 Corrections 0 0 0 -0.5 -0.5 -0.1 -1 -1 -0.2 -1.5 -1.5 -0.3 -2 -2 -0.4 -2.5 -2.5 -0.5 -2 0 2 -2 0 2 -10 0 10 φ (deg) x (cm) y (cm) 100 % Transmission 80% Transmission Different RF jitter errors: 0.5, 1 and 2 (deg, %) Large long. emittance ~ 8 times smaller emittance Chicane: Collimation and Matching 3 3 1.5 2 2 1 ΔW/W (%) x’ (mrad) y’ (mrad) 1 1 0.5 0.5 deg, 0.5 % 0 0 0 -0.5 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1.5 -3 -3 -2 0 2 -2 0 2 -50 0 50 φ (deg) x (cm) y (cm) 3 3 1.5 2 2 1 ΔW/W (%) x’ (mrad) y’ (mrad) 1 1 0.5 1.0 deg, 1.0 % 0 0 0 -0.5 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1.5 -3 -3 -2 0 2 -2 0 2 -50 0 50 φ (deg) Collim x (cm) y (cm) 3 3 Bunch Quad Quad Quad Quad Quad Quad Quad Quad Quad Bend Bend Bend Multi Multi Multi Quad Quad Quad Bend Bend Multi Bend Bend Bend 1.5 2 2 1 ΔW/W (%) x’ (mrad) y’ (mrad) 1 1 10 0.5 9 2.0 deg, 2.0 % Xrms, Yrms (mm) 0 0 0 8 7 -0.5 -1 -1 6 -1 5 -2 -2 4 -1.5 3 -3 -3 2 -2 0 2 -2 0 2 -50 0 50 1 φ (deg) x (cm) y (cm) 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Z-distance (m) ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 17
  18. 18. TRACK Application: Design and Simulations of the FNAL-PD Error simulations: 100 seeds, 1M particles each Beam Emittances: before and after RF errors 0.5 0.5 4*εx-rms (cm-mrad) 4*εx-rms (cm-mrad) 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 Table: 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Z distance (m) Z distance (m) 0.5 0.5 Errors and 4*εy-rms (cm-mrad) 4*εy-rms (cm-mrad) 0 deg 0.4 1 deg 0.4 their typical 0.3 0.3 0% 1% values 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Z distance (m) Z distance (m) 4*εz-rms (keV/u-ns) 4*εz-rms (keV/u-ns) 40 40 20 20 Beam Loss: Different RF errors 0 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Z distance (m) 123 4 5 6 7 Z distance (m) Beam Envelopes Lost power (W/m) 1 0 deg Fraction: 2E-5 -1 10 3 3 0% Peak: 0.1 W/m Xmax (cm) Xmax (cm) -2 2 2 10 1 1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Distance (m) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Lost power (W/m) Z distance (m) Z distance (m) 1 Fraction: 1E-4 3 3 0 deg 1 deg 1 deg Ymax (cm) -1 Ymax (cm) 10 2 2 Peak: 0.4 W/m 0% 1% 1% -2 1 1 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Z distance (m) Z distance (m) Distance (m) 40 40 Lost power (W/m) 30 30 φmax (deg) φmax (deg) 20 20 Fraction: 3E-2 10 2 deg 10 10 Peak: 35 W/m 1 2% 0 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 -1 Z distance (m) Z distance (m) 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 See Paper in LINAC-06 Distance (m) ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 18
  19. 19. TRACK Application: End-to-end Simulation of the SNS Linac RFQ Simulations Linac simulations from MEBT to HEBT Envelopes: rms, max Emittances: 4*rms Envelopes: rms, max Emittances: 4*rms Phase space plots Phase space plots LINAC-08 Next steps Transmission is consistent within ±1% - Error and beam loss simulations - Compare with experimental data ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 19
  20. 20. TRACK Application: Design and Simulations of an electron linac Layout of a linac for a future X-Ray FEL Oscillator 10 Bunch compressor-II RMS energy spread (MeV) 1 Bunch compressor-I Energy spread 0.1 Velocity Buncher 12 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 12 13 0.01 Energy Filter 1- RF cavity with thermionic cathode, 100 MHz, 1 MV; 2- chicane and Monochromator slits; 3- as an energy filter; 4- quadrupole triplet; 5- focusing solenoid; 0.001 6- monochromator of the beam energy, f=600 MHz; 7- buncher, f=300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 MHz; 8- booster linac section, f=400 MHz; 9- RF cosine-chopper to form Distance (m) rep. rate 1 MHz to 100 MHz; 10- bunch compressor – I; 11- SC linac 1000 Energy Filter section, 460 MeV, f=1300 MHz; 12- bunch compressor – II; Bunch RMS width (psec) Velocity Buncher 13- initial section of the SC linac, f=1300 MHz. 100 Bunch compressor-I Beam Simulations Bunch width 10 Bunch compressor-II 1 0.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Distance (m) 0.16 0.14 0.12 Emittance ( m) Ex 0.1 Ey Emittance 0.08 0.06 0.04 2 deg 0.02 2% 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 See Paper in LINAC-08 Distance (m) ESS-Bilbao Workshop Beam Dynamics Codes … P. Ostroumov 20
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